The Magazine of Horticulture 23: 67-68 (Feb. 1857)
THE ROSE.—No. 2.

* Continued from Vol. XXII., p. 516.

A FEW remarks* only can be added on the systematic classification of the varieties of the Rose, the subject being deferred until another season shall have afforded more ample opportunities for observation.

Hardiness is an important characteristic, not only distinguishing certain classes of roses, but different varieties of the same class. The Remontants are, as a class, considered perfectly hardy in the northern and eastern states; the Bourbons next in point of hardiness; and the Teas, Bengals, and Noisettes, generally too tender to stand out, without special protection, in those states. But the intense cold of the winter of 1855-6, made some striking and important discrimination among the Remontants and Bourbons in the vicinity of Washington. At least ninety in a hundred of Remontants were killed-in to some extent, and many down to the snow level, while a few were not injured. I regret that careful observations had not been made, for roses that could resist such protracted and intense cold would be the safest to recommend for the highest latitudes of rose traffic. A few only were specially noted. Baron Prevost, Reine des Fleurs, Pius Ninth, Earl Talbot, Mrs. Elliot, Lane, Yolande d'Aragon, Lion des Combats, and Madame Laffay, —all good roses,—were all observed as not injured in the least. The favorites, La Reine and Geant des Batailles, suffered considerably. One Madame Laffay, twelve feet high, on a trellis in a bleak exposure, came off sound to the highest terminal buds; while a Princess Marie and Felicite Perpetuelle, both "hardy," (?) annual-blooming climbers, in a similar exposure, were cut down nearly to the ground. The Prairies, Boursaults, and Summer roses, generally, were unharmed. The Bourbons, Bengals, Teas, and Noisettes, were all more or less injured, and but for the protection of snow during all of the severest cold, a vast many of these latter, as well as many of the Remontants, would have been killed outright. That severe wintry ordeal " made the reputation " of one rose, hitherto but little cultivated,—the rose, Enfant d'Ajaccio, or Souvenir d'Anselme, classed among the Bourbons for want of a better place. Shoots of this rose, twenty feet long, upon a trellis, were uninjured, even to the terminal buds. Buist commends this rose in high terms, and Paul has well said that "Gloire de Rosamene suffers from severe frost, but its progeny is hardy." This proof of its endurance of cold will add one to its good qualities, and entitle it to a still higher rank in collections of good roses.

The hardiness of Tea roses is quite circumstantial in this climate. They are winter or spring killed at times, when unprotected, chiefly because of their growing so late in the fall, and, in open weather, in the winter. It is generally advised not to transplant Tea roses in the fall, but I have seen it attended with salutary effects. A Solfaterre bush, transplanted in the fall, was uninjured by the winter; while another, of the same age and size, not removed, was killed to the ground. The effect of transplanting was to prevent winter growth. It will be seen from the above few observations, that the term " perfectly hardy," so often applied to some of our best roses, must be taken with allowance and caution, and that we need yet many observations, of a closely discriminating character, in respect to the relative endurance of the varieties and classes. Cloth of Gold, Solfaterre, Lamarque, and Ophire, and Tea La Sylphide, were almost exterminated from this region last winter; Fortune's Yellow was sadly mutilated; and White Microphyllas furnished cords of dead wood in the spring pruning. The new Tea rose, Gloire de Dijon, with its immense shoots of six and eight feet, proved as hardy as Chinese Daily; and, from all appearances, this variety will be found to excel all others of its class for wall growth in the greenhouse.

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