The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; (1816) pp. 480-485
Thomas Green


Rosa; a genus of the class Icosandria, order Polyandria. — GENERIC CHARACTER. Calix: perianth one-leafed; tube ventricose, contracted at the neck; with the border spreading, five-parted, globular; segments long, lanceolate, narrow, (in some of them two, alternate, appendicled on both sides; two others also, alternate, naked on both sides; the fifth appendicled on one side only.) Corolla: petals five, obcordate, the length of the calix, inserted into the neck of the calix. Stamina: filamenta capillary, very short, inserted into the neck of the calix; antherae three-cornered. Pistil: germina numerous, in the bottom of the calix; styles as many, villose, very short, compressed close by the neck of the calix, inserted into the side of the germen; stigmas blunt. Pericarp: none; berry fleshy, turbinate, coloured, soft, one-celled, crowned with the rude segments, contracted at the neck, formed from the tube of the calix. Seeds: numerous, oblong, hispid, fastened to the inner side of the calix. Observe. The calix of the pericarp resembles a berry. ESSENTIAL CHARACTER. Calix: pitcher-shaped, five-cleft, fleshy, contracted at the neck. Petals: five. Seeds: very many, hispid, fastened to the inner side of the calix. The species are,

* With subglobular Fruits.

1. Rosa Berberifolia; Single-leaved Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles prickly; stem with prickles, usually in pairs, hooked; leaves simple, subsessile. Native of northern Persia. This is the only species that has single leaves. It is in fact very difficult to determine which is a species, and which a variety, of the various Roses. Most of them are of foreign growth, and have been at various times introduced into English gardens, but they are generally natives of northern countries, or grow upon the cold mountains in the warmer parts of Europe; so they are very hardy in respect to cold, but love an open free air, especially the Yellow Rose, the Austrian Rose, and the Monthly Rose. — All the sorts may be propagated either from suckers, layers, or by budding them upon stocks of other sorts of Roses, which latter method is only practised for some peculiar sorts, which do not grow very vigorous upon their own stocks, and send forth suckers very sparingly, or where a person is willing to have more sorts than one upon the same plant: but, where this is designed, it must be observed to bud only such sorts upon the same stock as are nearly equal in manner of growth; for if there be a bud of a vigorous sort, and others of weak growth, budded in the same stock, the strong one will draw all the nourishment from the weaker, and entirely starve them. If these are propagated by suckers, they should be taken off annually in October, and transplanted out, either into a nursery in rows, (as has been directed for several other sorts of flowering shrubs,) or into the places where they are to remain; for if they are permitted to stand upon the roots of the old plants more than one year, they grow woody, and do not form to as good roots as if planted out the first year, so there is more danger of their not succeeding. But the best method to obtain good-rooted plants is, to lay down the young branches in autumn, which will take good root by the autumn following, (especially if they are watered in very dry weather,) when they may be taken from the old plants, and transplanted where they are to remain. The plants which are propagated by layers are not so apt to send out suckers from their roots, as those which are raised from suckers; and should be preferred before them, because they may be much easier kept within compass, and these will also flower much stronger. These plants may be transplanted any time from October to April; but when they are designed to flower strong the first year after planting, they should be planted early. Most of the species delight in a rich moist soil and an open situation, in which they will produce a greater quantity of flowers, and those much fairer, than when they are upon a dry soil or in a shady situation. The pruning which they require is only to cut out their dead wood, and take off all the suckers, which should be done every autumn; and if there are any very luxuriant branches, which draw the nourishment from the other parts of the plant, they should be taken out or shortened, to cause them to produce more branches, if there be occasion for them to supply a vacancy: but you must avoid crowding them with branches, which is as injurious to these plants as to fruit-trees; for if the branches have not equal benefit from the sun and air, they will not produce the flowers so strong nor in so great plenty, as when they are more open, and better exposed to the sun, that the air may freely circulate between them. See the nineteenth species.

2. Rosa Lutea; Single Yellow Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles smooth; calices and petioles spinulose; prickles of the branches straight; stalks closely armed with short crooked brown prickles. The Austrian Rose, which is a variety of this species, has the stalk, branches, and leaves, like those of the Single Yellow Rose, but the leaves are rounder and the flowers larger, and are either scentless or disagreeable; though some say they smell like honey, and others like that detestable product of domestic uncleanness, the bug. — These two sorts of Rose seldom shoot so strong as most other sorts, especially in the light land near London, where they seldom produce their flowers. They are esteemed for their colour only, being very different from all other Roses; but as their flowers are scentless and of short duration, they do not merit the price asked for them.

3. Rosa Sulphurea; Double Yellow Rose. Fruits globular; petioles and stem prickly; prickles of the stem of two sorts, larger, with numerous smaller ones; leaves oval. — This differs from the preceding, not only in the doubleness of the flowers, but in having the leaflets simply serrate, not glandular, pubescent and glaucous underneath, whereas in the second species they are doubly serrate, glandular, and glutinous, and of a shining green colour; the stipules lacerated; the fruits hemispherical and glandular, which in this are subglobular and smooth. For its propagation and culture, see the first species.

4. Rosa Blanda; Hudson's Bay Rose. Fruits globular, smooth; the stems, when adult, even and unarmed. It flowers from May to August. — Native of Newfoundland and Hudson’s Bay. See the first species.

5. Rosa Cinnamomea; Cinnamon Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles smooth; stem with stipular prickles; petioles mostly unarmed. This rises four feet high. The branches are covered with a purplish smooth bark, and have no spines; flower small, with a scent like Cinnamon, whence the name. It is a native of the south of Europe. — The shoots of the Double Cinnamon Rose are redder; the flowers small, short, thick, and double, of a pale red colour at the end of the leaves, somewhat redder and brighter towards the middle. It flowers in May, and is the earliest and smallest of the Double Garden Roses. The root creeps much. See the first and nineteenth species.

6. Rosa Arvensis; White Dog Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles unarmed; prickles of the stem and petioles hooked; flowers subcymed. This has round, glaucous, and often mahogany-coloured stems, with very long thong-like branches, bowing with scattered hooked prickles, which are smaller than those in the Dog Rose, and the flower is always white and scentless. — Native of England, Switzerland, and Germany, Dauphiny, Piedmont, and probably other parts of Europe. With us it is frequent in hedges and thicket's, flowering in June and July, and is said to be the most common wild Rose in the west of Yorkshire, and about Manchester.

7 . Rosa Pimpinellifolia; Small Burnet leaved Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles smooth; prickles on the stem scattered, straight; petioles rugged; leaflets blunt. This is a very elegant shrub, a foot and half or two feet high. It flowers here in May and June. — Native of the south of Europe and Asia.

8. Rosa Spinosissima; Scotch Rose. Fruits globular, smooth; peduncles smooth (or hispid;) prickles on the stem very numerous, straight, bristle-shaped; leaflets roundish, smooth; petals white or cream-coloured, yellow at the base, delicately fragrant, sometimes striped with red. The pericarp is full of a fine purple juice, which. Dr. Withering informs us, when diluted with water, dyes silk and muslin of a peach colour, and, with the addition of alum, a deep violet; but adds, that it has little effect on woollen or linen. He remarks, that the ripe fruit is eaten by children, and has a grateful subacid taste; and the singular elegance of its little leaves, resembling those of the Upland Burnet, entitle it to a place in the flower-garden. There are several varieties. — Native of most parts of Europe: in Great Britain it is found on the borders of fields, on heath and downs, in hedges, and on ditch-banks, on a gravelly or sandy soil; as, near Yarmouth; about Winchester, and Bewdley; on Perran downs in Cornwall; and by Dudiston Loch in Scotland. This is the lowest of all the species, and ought to be placed among other shrubs of the same growth, which should have a moist Soil and a shady situation. See the first species, for further directions.

9. Rosa Parviflora; Small flowered American Rose. Fruits globular, depressed, with the peduncles hispid; petioles subpubesceut, somewhat prickly; stem smooth; stipular prickles straight; leaflets elliptic; flowers mostly in pairs. This very much resembles the two following species, but differs in having the stem two feet high, the petioles hairy at top, and the flowers in pairs. There is a variety of it with a double flower. — Native of North America. See the first and nineteenth species.

10. Rosa Lucida; Shining-leaved American Rose. Fruits globular, depressed, with the peduncles subhispid; petioles smooth, somewhat prickly; stem smooth; stipular prickles straight; leaflets oblong, elliptic, shining, smooth; flowers on short peduncles, solitary, a little smaller, and of a deeper red than those of the Common Wild Rose, and smelling sweet like the Damask Rose. — Native of North America. See the first and nineteenth species, for its propagation and treatment.

11. Rosa Carolina; Carolina Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles subhispid; petioles hairy, somewhat prickly; stem smooth; stipular prickles somewhat hooked; leaflets oblong, lanceolate; flowers corymbed. — It flowers late, and is a native of North America. See the first and nineteenth species.

12. Rosa Villosa; Apple Rose. Fruits globular, with the peduncles hispid; prickles on the stem straightish; leaflets elliptic, tomentose on both sides; corolla of a full rose colour, not very odoriferous. Retzius informs us, that a large variety of it brought from Holland, and planted in a fertile soil, produced fruit that was quite smooth; and then being transplanted into a worse soil, the fruit became very hispid. The experiment has, however, been made without success. This species is well known in gardens and plantations both in a single and double state, and occurs in many parts of Europe and Asia. It grows copiously in Westmoreland, Cumberland, and the north of Yorkshire, as well as in some parts of Scotland; as in the way from Edinburgh to Ravelston wood; about Killin in Breadalbane; and upon the coast of Fife. The large deep red fruit remains till eaten by birds, or destroyed by frost and wet. A pleasant acid pulp surrounds the seeds, which is sometimes made into a conserve or sweetmeat, and served up in desserts. See the first and nineteenth species.

13. Rosa Rugosa; Wrinkled-leaved Rose. Fruits globular, smooth; peduncles, stem, and pedicles, prickly; leaves tomentose underneath. — Native of Japan.

14. Rosa Provincialis; Provence Rose. Fruits roundish; peduncles and petioles hispid; prickles of the branches scattered, somewhat bent back; leaflets ovate, villose underneath; serratures glandular. This is one of the most beautiful sorts yet known. The flowers are sometimes very large, and the petals closely folded over each other like Cabbages; whence it is called the Cabbage Rose. It is the most fragrant species known. — There are several varieties: as, the Red Provence Rose, with smaller flowers, of a damask or blush colour turning to red, less productive than the Damask Rose. The Blush Provence Rose, the corolla of which has five or six rows of large petals, which spread open, and are of a pale blush colour, with a musky scent. The White Provence Rose, with colourless flowers; and the two Dwarf Provence Roses, the smallest of which is often called Pompone Rose. It throws out numerous stems, of a foot and half in height; and the flowers are very small, and distinguished by the brilliant colour of the central petals. They appear in June. — These elegant varieties may be increased, like most of the other species, by suckers, which however are not very plentifully produced, and do not extend to any great length. The roots should not be divided oftener than once in three years: if the old wood be cut down every year after the plants have done blowing, they will throw out more vigorous shoots, and flower more freely.

15. Rosa Lyonii. Germina subglobose, slightly glabrous; peduncles hispid; petioles subaculeate; stem glabrous; prickles scattered, straight; leaflets from three to five, ovate-oblong, acute, serrate, slightly glabrous on the upper side, tomentose underneath; upper leaves simple, small, with coloured veins; flowers subternate, pale red; stipules linear; segments of the calix tomentose, linear, very slightly laciniated. — Grows in Tennassee.

16. Rosa Setigera. Germina globose; petioles and nerves aculeate; boughs glabrous; prickles in pairs, scattered; leaflets from three to five, acuminate, glabrous; leaflets of the calix setigerous. — This plant is found in the swamps of Virginia and Lower Carolina, and grows to the height of from five to eight feet.

17. Rosa Rubifolia. Germina and fruit-stalks slightly hispid; calix beardless; leaves ternate, pubescent underneath; petioles glandulous, aculeate; stem glabrous; prickles stipular and scattered, subaduncous; flowers corymbose. — Grows in North America.

Moss Provence Rose York and Lancaster Rose

** With ovate Fruit.

18. Rosa Centifolia; Hundred-leaved Rose. Fruit ovate, with the pedicles hispid, prickly; petioles unarmed. The flowers are very double, and of a deep red colour, but have little scent. The petals are so closely wedged together, that the flower appears as if it came out of the hand of the turner. The varieties are very numerous; the most remarkable are: l. the Dutch Hundred-leaved Rose; 2. the Blush Hundred-leaved Rose; 3. Singleton’s Hundred-leaved Rose; 4. the Burgundy Rose; 5. the Single Velvet Rose; 6. the Double Velvet Rose; 7. the Sultan Rose; 9. the Stepney Rose; 10. the Garnet Rose; 11. the Bishop Rose; and, 12. the Lisbon Rose. They have all less scent than the ordinary Red Rose, and there are several of more modern date. The Burgundy rose is an elegant little plant, not more than a foot or eighteen inches in height. The Provence Rose is confounded with the Damask Rose, in the London Pharmacopoeia. The petals, which are of a pale red colour and of a very fragrant odour, are directed for medical use. The smell is very agreeable to most persons; but when too powerful, arising from large quantities of the flowers, is found to produce violent sneezing, inflammation of the eyes, fainting, and hysterical affections. Persons confined in a close room with a great heap of roses, have been in imminent danger of their lives. From experiments made by able chemists, this effect seems owing to the mephitic air which these and other odoriferous flowers exhale. Six pounds of fresh roses, by distillation, strongly impregnated a gallon of water with their fine flavour. On distilling large quantities, there separates from the watery fluid a small portion of a fragrant butyraceous oil, which liquifies by heat, and appears yellow, but concretes in the cold into a white mass: only half an ounce of oil could be extracted from a hundred pounds of the flowers. The smell of this oil exactly resembles that of the roses, and is therefore used as a perfume: it possesses very little pungency, and has been highly recommended for its cordial and analeptic qualities. The process for making otto, or essential oil of roses, is as follows. Forty pounds of roses, with their calices, are put into a still with sixty pounds of water. The mass being well mixed, a gentle fire is put under the still; and when fumes begin to rise, the cap and pipe are properly fixed and luted. When the impregnated water begins to come over, the fire is lessened by gentle degrees, and the distillation continued till thirty pounds of water are come over, which is generally in four or five hours. This water is to be poured upon forty pounds of fresh roses, and from fifteen to twenty pounds of liquor to be drawn from it as before. It is then poured into pans of earthenware or tinned metal, and left exposed to the fresh air for the night; and in the morning the otto or essence will be found swimming congealed on the surface of the water. These flowers also contain a bitterish substance, which is extracted by water along with the odorous principle, and remains entire in the decoction after the latter has been separated by distillation or evaporation. This fixed sapid matter of the petals manifests a purgative quality, and it is on account of it that the flowers are received into the materia medica. A syrup prepared from this Rose is found to be a pleasant and useful laxative for children, or to obviate costiveness in adults. The proper dose is a spoonful. See the first and the next species.

19. Rosa Gallica; Red Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles hispid; stem and petioles hispid, prickly. The flowers are large but not very double; they decay soon, and have a deep red colour, with an agreeable scent. Linneus rests the specific difference between this and the preceding species, on the greater rouhness and prickliness of the leafstalks in this. The petals are large and spreading, but never half so numerous as in the other. This species has obtained the name of the English Rose, because this and the White are the most ancient roses known in our country, and have been assumed by our kings as cognizances of their dignity, and also because the Red Rose occurs oftener in England, and is more commonly used there than in other places. — The varieties are the Mundi Rose, which has the flowers very elegantly striped or variegated with red and white; in other circumstances it so perfectly resembles the Red Rose, that there can be no doubt of its being a variety of that; indeed it frequently happens that a Red Rose or two appears on the same plant with the variegated flowers. The varieties called Childing, Marble, and Double Virgin Roses, have, in Mr. Miller’s judgment, great affinity with each other. The flowers of this species possess neither the fragrance nor the opening quality of the preceding species; but are chiefly valued for their astringency, which is most considerable before the petals expand, and therefore in this state they are chosen for medical use, and ordered in different preparations, as a conserve, honey, infusion, and a syrup. These preparations, especially the first and second, have been highly esteemed in phthisical cases, particularly by the Arabian physicians. But in all the cases cited, it appears that the use of the conserve of roses was constantly joined with that of milk and farinacea, together with proper exercise in the open air; and hence it has very properly been doubted whether the recovery could be imputed to the roses, though their mild, astringent, and corroborant virtues, certainly contributed much. In some cases, twenty or thirty pounds of the conserve were taken in the space of a month. The infusion of Roses is a grateful cooling subastringent, taken for spitting of blood, in which its efficacy chiefly depends on its acidity. The syrup derives its use merely from its colour. Both the acidity and the colour of the petals are best preserved by hasty drying. — Propagation and Culture. The following directions of Mr. Miller relate to many of the other species, which are referred to this, as well as to the English Rose itself. The usual time of these shrubs producing their flowers, is from the middle or latter end of May till the middle of July. But in order to continue these beauties longer than they are naturally disposed to last, it is proper to plant some of the Monthly Roses near a warm wall, which will occasion their budding at least three weeks or a month before those in the open air; and if you afford them the help of a glass before them, it will bring their flowers much forwarder, especially where dung is placed to the hack side of the wall, as is practised in raising early fruits. You may also cut off the tops of such shoots as have been produced the same spring, early in May, from some of these sorts of Roses, which are planted in the open air and strong soil; this will cause them to make new shoots, which will flower late in autumn, as will also the late removing the plants in spring, provided they do not suffer by drought. The Monthly Rose is the best sort for this purpose, there being no other sort which will flower so well, both early and late. The next sort of Rose which flowers in the open air, is the Cinnamon, which is immediately followed by the Damask Rose; then come the Blush, York and Lancaster, after which the Provence, Dutch Hundred leaved, and White, and most other sorts, follow. The latest kinds are the Virginian and Musk Roses, which, if planted in a shady situation, seldom flower until September, and, if the autumn prove mild, will often continue till the middle of October. The plants of the two sorts of Musk Roses should be placed against a wall or pale, to support their slender and weak branches from trailing on the ground. Their tender branches should not be pruned until spring, for they often die after being cut in winter. They produce their flowers at the extremities of the same year’s shoots in large bunches; so that their branches must not be shortened in the summer, lest the flowers should be cut off. They will grow to ten or twelve feet high, and must not be checked in their growth; for if you intend they should flower well, they must not be checked or confined.

20. Rosa Damascena; Damask Rose. Calices semipinnate; fruits ovate, turgid, with the peduncles hispid; stem and petioles prickly; leaflets ovate, acuminate, villose under neath. The corolla is of a soft pale red, and not very double; the hips are long and smooth. There are many varieties of this elegant species; which has not been accurately distinguished from the fourteenth and fifteenth species. The Red and Blush varieties differ only in the shade of their colour. The York and Lancaster Rose differs only in the flower being variegated with white stripes. The Red and White Monthly Roses, are so called from their continuing to blow in succession during the greatest part of the summer; not that they blow in every month, as the name implies. The Blush Belgic Rose has very double flowers of a pale flesh-colour, with little scent, generally in great quantities. The Red Belgic Rose differs only in having the colour of the flower a deep red. — See the first and nineteenth species, for the proper treatment of these flowers.

21. Rosa Sempervirens; Evergreen Rose. Fruits ovate; calices and peduncles hispid; stem and petioles prickly; flowers subumbelled; bractes lanceolate, reflex. Parkinson remarks, this Rose-bush is very like the Wild Single Eglantine; and that, the lowest pair of leaflets are the smallest, the next bigger, the third bigger still, and the end leaf biggest of all. The flowers are small, single, and while, having a musky odour. In their natural place of growth they continue in succession a great part of the year, but they flower here in June. — Native of Germany.

22. Rosa Pumila; Dwarf Austrian Rose. Fruit ovate, with the peduncles hispid; petioles and stem prickly; leaves glaucous underneath, with the serratures glandular. — Native of Austria and Italy. See the first species.

23. Rosa Turbinata; Frankfort Rose. Fruits turbinate, with the peduncles hairy; petioles villose; prickles scattered, recurved. The flower is as thick and double as a Red Rose, but so strongly swelling in the bud, that many of them break down before they can be full blown; and then they are of a pale red rose colour, between a red and a damask, with a very thick broad hard umbone of short yellow threads in the middle. — Native place unknown. Its principal use is for a stock to bud the more tender sorts of Roses upon, for the flowers seldom open fair, and have no scent; but it being a vigorous shooter, renders it proper for stocks to bud the Yellow and Austrian Roses, which will render them stronger than upon their own stocks. It requires a northern exposure, and will not flower in too warm a situation. See the first species.

24. Rosa Rubiginosa; Sweet Briar Rose, or Eglantine. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles hispid; petioles and stem prickly; prickles recurved; leaves ovate, glandular, hairy underneath. The garden shrub certainly grows larger, and more erect, the leaves are bigger and much sweeter, than in the wild one, the rusty colour of them disappears, and the whole puts on a more vigorous appearance. The following varieties, the Mossy Double Sweet Briar, the Evergreen Double Sweet Briar, the Marbled Double Sweet Briar, the Red Double Sweet Briar, the Royal Sweet Briar, and the Yellow Sweet Briar, are all very elegant shrubs in ornamental plantations.

25. Rosa Muscosa; Moss Provence Rose. Fruits ovate; calices, peduncles, petioles, and branchlets hispid, glandular, viscid; spines of the branches scattered, straight. The flowers are of a beautiful crimson colour, and have a most agreeable odour. The peduncles and calix are covered with a long hair-like Moss; hence it is commonly called the Moss Rose. It is only known to us in its double state, its native place not having been discovered. It rarely sends up suckers, and when the branches are laid down, they are long before they put out roots; it is therefore frequently propagated by budding it upon stocks of the other sorts; but the plants so raised artless durable than those propagated by layers, which is the method generally adopted. — See the first and the nineteenth species.

20. Rosa Moschata; Musk Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles villose; stem and petioles prickly; leaflets oblong, acuminate, smooth; peduncles many-flowered. The flowers are white, and have a fine musky odour. They appear in July and August, and continue in succession till the frost stops them. It varies with double flowers. — Said to be indigenous in Spain. See the first and the nineteenth species.

27. Rosa Rubrifolia; Red-leaved Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles smooth and glaucescent; petioles prickly; stem witii scattered uncinate prickles; leaflets oblong, finely senate, smooth; flowers subcorymbed. The veins of the leaves underneath are red. The stem, peduncles, and fruits, are covered with a glaucous bloom. — Native of the mountains of Dauphiny, Switzerland, and Saltzburgh.

20. Rosa Lagenaria; Bottle-fruited Rose. Fruits obovate, smooth; peduncles and petioles glandular, hispid; stem unarmed; leaflets oval, smooth. This is allied to the following species, though distinguished from it by the obovate fruits and other marks. — Native of Dauphiny and Switzerland.

29. Rosa Alpina; Alpine Rose. Fruits ovate, smooth; peduncles and petioles hispid; stem unarmed; flowers single, bright, appearing at the beginning of May; and succeeded by long, smooth, spear-shaped lips. They produce a second crop of flowers about the end of August, which fall off, and are not succeeded by hips. — Native of the Alps, Germany, Piedmont, and Siberia.

30. Rosa Pyrenaica; Pyrenean Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles hispid, coloured; petioles hispid, prickly; calices altogether leafy. — Native of the Pyrenees, the Swiss Alps, and the mountains of Silesia.

31. Rosa Pendulina; Smooth Pendulous Rose. Unarmed: fruits oblong; peduncles and petioles hispid; stem and branches smooth; fruits pendulous. It flowers earlier than other Roses, namely, in May, and ripens its fruit in August. — Native of North America.

32. Rosa Montana; Mountain Rose. Fruits oblong, with the peduncles hispid; petioles prickly; stipular, hooked prickles on the stem; leaflets smooth, obovate, glandular, serrate. — Native of the mountains of Switzerland.

33. Rosa Multiflora; Many flowered Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles unarmed, villose; stem and petioles prickly. — Native of Japan.

34. Rosa Canina; Dog Rose, Wild Briar, or Hip Tree. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles smooth; prickles on the stem hooked; leaflets ovate acuminate, very smooth; branches elongated, from upright spreading; petals obcordate, a little remote, pale red, fainter towards the base, sometimes white, sweet-scented. Native of Europe, in hedges and woods, decorating them with its lively odorous flowers in the months of June and July. — From these a perfumed water may be distilled, which is said to be much more fragrant than that from garden Roses. The leaves are recommended as a substitute for Tea, giving out a fine colour, a subastringent taste, and a grateful smell, when dried and infused in boiling water. The fruit, commonly known by the name of Hips, is agreeable enough when ripe and mellowed by the frost: beaten up with sugar, it makes a pleasant conserve, more used as a vehicle for other medicines than for any virtue of its own. Care should be taken, in making this conserve, to remove all the chaffy or prickly fibres or bristles with the seeds, which will otherwise produce considerable irritation on the primae viae. A mossy protuberance is common on various parts of the Wild Rose, which is occasioned by an insect called Cynips Rosae. Birds seek after the fruit in winter, the pheasant especially being very fond of them. Its strong thorns make it valuable for strengthening hedges.

35. Rosa Tomentosa; Downy-leaved Dog Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles hispid; prickles on the stem hooked, leafless, ovate, tomentose on both sides. This agrees in habit with the preceding species, except that the leaves are pubescent all over, and have a subcinereous appearance; petals whitish at the base, but the rest of a beautiful rose colour. — Not uncommon in hedges and thickets; observed by Hudson near London; found also at St. Faith’s, Catton, and other places near Norwich; and common in Shropshire and Wales. It flowers in June and July.

36. Rosa Collina; Hill Rose. Fruits ovate, smoothish; peduncles and petioles glandular, hirsute; stem prickly. This very much resembles the thirty-first species in habit. — Native of the hills of Austria. See the first species.

37. Rosa Parviflora; Small-leaved Rose. Fruits ovate, smoothish; peduncles glandular; petioles and stem with very fine prickles; leaflets wrinkled, somewhat villose underneath, ovate, glandular, serrate. This is a very small shrub, with small flowers.— Native of Europe.

38. Rosa Semperflorens; Deep-red China Rose. Fruits oblong, with the peduncles hispid; stem and petioles prickly, hispid; leaves subternate, prickly; flowers large in proportion to the plants, semi double, with great richness of colour, (dark red) uniting a most delightful fragrance. They come out in succession during the winter months. — Native of China.

39. Rosa Chinensis; Pale China Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles smooth; petioles and stem prickly; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, subternate, serrulate, smooth. This is very nearly allied to the preceding, and perhaps may be only a variety. — Native of China. See the first species.

40. Rosa Indica; Indian Rose. Fruits ovate, with the peduncles smooth; stem almost unarmed; petioles prickly. — Native of China and Cochin-china.

41. Rosa Longifolia; Long leaved Rose. Fruits ovate, smooth; peduncles glandular-subaculeate; stem almost unarmed; petioles prickly; leaflets smooth, ovate-acumiuate. — Native of the East Indies.

42. Rosa Bracteata; Bracted Rose. Fruits obovate; peduncles bracted, with the branchlets villose; stem and petioles prickly; leaflets smooth, roundish, crenate, somewhat prickly; flowers fragrant, terminating, solitary. — Native of China.

43. Rosa Alba; White Rose. Fruits ovate, smooth; peduncles hispid; stem and petioles prickly. This in its wild state has an affinity to the sixth species, but differs from it in having wider ovate leaves, smooth and deep green above, paler and slightly hairy underneath, unequally serrate and blunt; flowers pale, scentless, many together. Parkinson describes two varieties of the White Garden Rose, one sometimes attaining the height of eight or ten feet, with a very large stock, the other seldom higher than a Damask Rose. Both have somewhat smaller and whiter green leaves than many other Roses, five most usually in a stalk, and paler underneath, as also a whiter green bark armed with short prickles. The flowers in the one are whitish with an eye of blush, especially towards the bottom, very double, and for the most part not opening so fully as the Red or Damask Roses. In the other, more whiteness, double, and opening more. Some have only two or three rows of petals, and all have little or no smell. — Native of Europe, China, and Cochin-china.

44. Rosa Laevigata. Germina ovate, very hispid; segments of the calix entire; prickles in pairs, recurved; petioles subaculeate; leaflets from three to five, lanceolate-oval; stipules narrow, subulate mucronate. — Grows in the shady woods of Georgia. This plant is an everlasting green, climbing to a great height.

45. Rosa Suavolens. Germina ovate; peduncles and petioles glandulous-hispid; petioles subaculeate; stem glabrous; priekles scattered, straight, fine; folioles from five to seven, ovate, serrate; branchlets uniflorous; segments of the calix entire. — An American species.

The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; (1824) pp. 480-486
Thomas Green

Rose lists