The Retir'd Gardener pp. 378-380 (1717)
Joseph Carpenter

Of All the Sorts of ROSES.

WE must own, that the Rose deserves as much of our Care as any Shrub that grows in a Garden; that it is one of its most beautiful Ornaments, and well worth the pains of Cultivating. There are several sorts of them: The sweet-smelling Rose, the Rose without Smell, the Dutch Rose with a Hundred Leaves, the Damask Rose, the Pale-red Rose, the Carnation Rose, the Province Rose, the Virginia Rose, the Streak'd Rose, the Single Rose of a deep Red Colour, the Monthly Rose, the Muscadine Rose, and the Yellow Rose.

Of the Dutch Hundred-leav'd Rose, with Smell.

The proper Season to plant Dutch Roses, is commonly in October, November, or February; a good Kitchen-Garden Soil agrees well with it, but you must take Care to put it in a Place very much expos'd to the Sun.

This Plant looks well in the Borders of a large Parterre; for being manag'd with Art, it will come up like a Bath, which, when 'tis adorn'd with Flowers, has the most charming effect in the World in such Places; by Pruning it you bring it to this Form. The time of Pruning it is in March, and that Month is also convenient to take off its dead Boughs, which you mug cut to the Quick, as also the old Branches, which by their too great Confusion, hinder the new ones from performing their Functions so regularly as they ought to do.

These Rose-trees are multiply'd by Slips and Roots, set a Span deep in the Ground. All the Care they require of us, is a little Digging, and the same Management I have before directed.

The Hundred-leav'd Rose, without Smell, must be cultivated after the same Manner, and grows very well in the same Situations.

Of the Monthly Rose.

The Monthly Rose is also call'd the Double Everlasting Italian Rose, and Rosa Omnium Calendarum; because being often cut it brings forth Buds in Clusters, which growing by little and little, bear Flowers which you gather as a second Crop, and so successively all the Year round.

That this Kind of Rose-tree may bear Flowers in every Month, or at least in most of them, they must be prun'd Twice or Thrice.

The first time in November, and then they should be cut almost down to the Ground that they may multiply a-new, for the new Shoots that sprout out will produce Flowers in more abundance.

Before you come to this, 'tis to be suppos'd you have done every thing to your Rose-trees that they require of you; that is, that you have planted them in a Place expos'd to the Sun; in Boxes fill'd with a sandy Earth, if you set them in Boxes; and if in open Ground, that you took care before you planted them, to dig Trenches and fill'd them with the same Earth with which you should fill your Boxes. All these things must be done, or your Monthly Rose-trees will blow but once a Year, no more than the others.

After the first Pruning which I have spoken of, you must give them a second on the new Branches that have sprouted out; pruning them to an Eye or Two of the Trunk, and do it at the latter end of March or the beginning of April,

Whether you plant this Shrub in a Box, or in open Ground, presently after the second pruning you must open its Root, and change the Earth, putting new in the place of the old, adding to it a Third Part art of Mould, half consum'd, and water it immediately.

The radical Moisture, which it stands in need of to render it fruitful in Flowers, demands to be supplied by frequent Waterings; without this Help, you'll sensibly perceive that the Order of Nature being chang'd, instead of Flowers, this Rose-tree will yield nothing but Wood and Leaves.

Experience has hitherto taught us, that the true Way of making it a produce greater Quantity of Flowers all the Summer round, is, as soon as it begins to bud, to discharge it of all its Buds before they are blown.

When the First Flowers are past, you must prune the Branches of this Rose-tree below the Knot where the Flowers grow, and do the same after every Bearing: By this Means you'll have the Satisfaction to see this Shrub in Blossom Eight Months in the Year. You must not water them for Fifteen Days together after every Pruning.

The monthly Rose-trees are afraid of the Cold; and to keep them from the hard Frosts, which may do them a Mischief, they should, if in open Ground, be cover'd with Straw-Mats, or else with long Straw; and if they are in Boxes they should be shut up in the Green-house, or some-other place free from Cold. Without this Caution taken they will not shoot forth new Branches.

Another Way of making them produce a great many Flowers every Month, is to bend the Branches, and tie them to a Pallisade, or Sticks stuck in the Ground, if they are planted in Cases.

They are multiply'd by Layers, as also by Slips cut off from the Branches in Autumn, and thrust into the Ground, leaving not above Two Inches out of it; and this Shrub being easily dispos'd to take Root in this, manner, one may see 'tis not difficult to perpetuate its Species. This sort of Work is done in October or November.

Of the Muscadine or Damask Rose.

This Rose-tree requires a good Kitchen-Garden Soil, much sun, and frequent Waterings. One of the best things in it is its not fearing the Cold. It also bears Flowers in several Months of the Year.

The Art of Gardening directs us to prune the old Branches of the Damask Rose-tree every year in Autumn so low, or within half a foot of the Ground, that from the Buds which remain, there may sprout out new Branches, which not being wasted, will produce the greater Quantity of Flowers.

The Species of this Shrub is perpetuated by Suckers, which grow out of it, and which being planted in new Earth, will easily take Root, and in a little time become pretty Shrubs.

Of White double Roses

The White Rose should be planted in a strong Soil, and in a very warm Exposition of Sun: It must also be frequently water'd.

'Tis of a different Nature from those I have before mention'd, which require to be prun'd, whereas this Rose-tree hates nothing more than the Pruning-Knife, unless it be to clear it from the old Wood that's of no use to it, or of that which is wither'd.

These Rose-trees are, generally made use of for Hedges; which, if well manag'd are very Ornamental in a Garaen. They are multiply'd by Slips split, with the Roots set Four Inches in the Ground, in those Places that are most suitable to their Nature.

Of the Yellow Rose.

The Rose-trees that bear Yellow Flowers demand, as well as the last sort, to be planted in a strong Soil, and not to have their Branches any ways incommoded. Wherefore they are commonly set in open Air, and joyn'd to nothing.

Pruning does not at all agree with them; they are mortal Enemies to it, because they bear their Flowers at the End of their Branches.

However, if you see any Boughs ill placed, or others that are worn out, and consequently useless, you must not then omit pruning them; the former to the Place that makes the Figure the best that you can, and the latter to the Quick.

That the Yellow Roses may grow the finer before they are blown, you must pull off part of the Buds; they are multiply'd by Shoots that sprout out at their Feet, and must be planted in the Spring.

The Leaves of these Flowers are so delicate, that the least Rain which falls upon them is enough to make them perish. To defend them from this Inconvenience, you must cover them with Straw Mats, or some such Covering when they are just ready to blow, by Pruning the Branches short. In March or February you force this sort of shrub every Year to bear Flowers.

Of Red Roses otherwise call'd Province Roses.

Tho' the Odour of this Flower is not so strong as that of the Hundred-leav'd Roe, however it is not less esteem'd. 'Tis cultivated after the same manner as the others, by planting in a proper Soil, and digging it now and then it will produce abundance of Branches, and Flowers that blow very well.

Of strip'd Roses.

The strip'd Rose is a Shrub that does not grow very high, and may be planted either in Boxes or in the open Ground. 'Tis likewise call'd Rosa Munda, and is a Species of the Dwarf Red Rose; it spawns much at the Roots, and the Colours are apt to run. We have two other sorts of strip'd Roses that are no less valuable; one of them is call'd the York and Lancaster Rose, the other the Apple-Rose. It requires a Kitchen-Garden Soil, strong and well sifted. When 'tis planted in a Case it delights in a moderate Exposition of the Sun, and demands to be water'd when 'tis not in open Ground.

'Tis multiply'd Scutcheon-wise, either by Inoculating or Budding. Those that are grafted in the first manner, never fail of blowing the next Year; and in the second, in Autumn the same Year. These two Methods of multiplying strip'd Rose-trees are preferr'd to that by Plants with Roots, because they don't that way bear Flowers in less than Two or Three Years.

Of the other Sorts of Roses.

All the other sorts of Roses, as the Carnation Rose, the Pale Rose, the Virginia Rose, and the single Rose of a deep Red Colour, require a great deal of Sun, and a good strong Soil; they should be planted in November, February, or the Beginning of March, about Four Inches depth in the Ground. They must be prun'd in the Spring, as Occasion calls for it; and Those that are in Boxes, water'd: The Roots of Those, as well as of such as are in open Ground, should be open'd, to take away the old Earth from them and put new in its place, which abounding in Salts, the Productions that these Shrubs yield by them, will be the more perfect, their Branches will be the finer, and their Flowers the more beautiful.

The Pale Red Rose-trees are very proper for Garden Hedges, and the Borders of great Allies, because they are better furnish'd than the others with Leaves; and if they are well order'd, there can hardly be a more agreeable sight than those Bushes when they are in Blossom.

A Description of the different sorts of Rose-trees, and their Flowers.

Generally speaking, Rose-trees are Shrubs that shoot forth from their Roots hard, woody, thorny Branches, with oblong Leaves, indented on the Brim, and that prick if touch'd. On these Branches grow the Flowers, consisting of several Leaves in a round Form; their Cups are leafy, and turn to round or oblong Fruits, pulpy, with one Capsula only, full of Angular Seeds cover'd with a little Hair. This Description serves for all Roses, the only Difference between the one and the other, consisting either in the Colour or Smell.

Of the Pale Rose.

The Pale Rose is fair, large, of a Carnation Colour, and a grateful Sight and Smell.

Of the Damask Rose.

The Damask Rose is a little, white, single, and sometimes, double Rose; its Smell having something in it very much like Musk, and has a purgative Quality, either infus'd or conserv'd.

Of the common White Rose.

The common White Rose is large, beautiful, but don't smell so sweetly as the former.

Of the Red Rose.

The Red Rose is large, beautiful, of a deep Red Colour, and has very little Smell.

Of the Yellow Rose.

The Yellow Rose has broad Leaves of a yellow Lemmon-Colour, and has no Smell.

Of the Monthly Rose.

The Monthly Rose is a sort of Damask, its Flowers are Red, and grow in Bunches.

The Strip'd Rose.

The Strip'd Rose don't grow so double as the Dutch; it has whitish Red Streaks on its Leaves, and from thence it takes its Name.