Sylva Sylvarum: or A Naturall Historie. century 5. 110-111 (1635)
Sir Francis Bacon

Delaying Roses

in Consort,
touching the
Putting backe
or Retardation
of Germination.
To make Roses, or other Flowers come late, it is an Experiment of Pleasure. For the Ancients esteemed much of Rosa Sera. And indeed the November-Rose is the sweetest, having beene lesse exhaled by the Sunne. The Meanes are these. First, the Cutting off their Tops, immediately after they have done Bearing; And they will come againe the same year about November. But they will not come just on the Tops, where they were cut, but out of those Shoots, which were, (as it were,) Water-Boughes. The Cause is, for that the Sap, which otherwise would have fed the Top, (though after Bearing,) will, by the discharge of that, divert unto the Side-Sprouts; And they will come to beare, but later.
414 The Second is the Pulling off the Buds of the Rose, when they are Newly knotted; For then the Side-Branches will beare. The Cause is the same with the former: For Cutting off the Tops, and Pulling off the Buds, worke the same Effect, in Retention of the Sap for a time, and Divertion of it to the Sprouts, that were not so forward.
415 The Third is the Cutting off some few of the Top-Boughes in the Spring-time, but suffering the lower Boughes to grow on. The Cause is, for that the Boughes doe helpe to draw up the Sap more strongly; And we see that in Powling of Trees, many doe use to leave a bough or two on the Top, to helpe to draw up the Sap. And it is reported also, that if you graft upon the Bough of a Tree, and cut off some of the old Boughes, the new Cions will perish.
416 The Fourth is by Laying the Roots bare about Christmas, some dayes. The Cause is plaine, for that it doth arrest the Sap, from going upwards, for a time; Which Arrest is afterwards released by the Covering of the Root againe with Earth; And then the Sap getteth up, but later.
417 The Fifth is the Removing of the Tree, some Moneth before it Buddeth. The Cause is, for that some time will be required after the Remove, for the Resetling, before it can draw the Juyce: And that time being lost, the Blossome must needs come later.
418 The Sixth is the Grafting of Roses in May, which commonly Gardiners doe not till July; And then they beare not till the Next Yeare; But if you graft them in May, they will beare the same yeare, but late.
419 The Seventh is, the Girding of the Body of the Tree about with some Pack-threed; For that also, in a degree, restraineth the Sap, and maketh it come up, more late, and more slowly.*
420 The Eighth is, the Planting of them in a Shade, or in a Hedge; The Cause is, partly the Keeping out of the Sunne, which hasteneth the Sap to rise; And partly the Robbing of them of Nourishment, by the Stuffe in the Hedge. These Meanes may be practiced upon other, both Trees, and Flowers, Mutatis Mutandis.
421 Men have entertained a Conceit that sheweth prettily; Namely, that if you graft a Late-Comming Fruit, upon a Stocke of a Fruit-tree that commeth early, the Graft will beare Fruit Early; As a Peach upon a Cherry; And contrariwise, if an Early-Comming-Fruit upon a Stocke of a Fruit-Tree that commeth late, the Graft will beare Fruit late; As a Cherry upon a Peach. But these are but Imaginations, and untrue. The Cause is, for that the Cions overruleth the Stocke quite; And the Stocke is Passive onely, and giveth Aliment, but no Motion to the Graft.

*American Farmer, June, 1876
A correspondent of the American Agriculturist says: "To obtain fruit from barren trees, take coarse, strong twine, and wind it several times about the lower limbs of a tree and tie it as tight as possible. The next spring all the top above the cord will be as white as a sheet, and there will not be one blossom below. A neighbor seeing his trees loaded with pears, used the same method with the same success.”

Rose lists