J Phys Chem A. 113(52):15118-26 (Dec 2009)
Absorption and emission of the apigenin and luteolin flavonoids: a TDDFT investigation.
Amat A, Clementi C, De Angelis F, Sgamellotti A, Fantacci S.

The absorption and emission properties of the two components of the yellow color extracted from weld (Reseda luteola L.), apigenin and luteolin, have been extensively investigated by means of DFT and TDDFT calculations. Our calculations reproduce the absorption spectra of both flavonoids in good agreement with the experimental data and allow us to assign the transitions giving rise to the main spectral features. For apigenin, we have also computed the electronic spectrum of the monodeprotonated species, providing a rationale for the red-shift of the experimental spectrum with increasing pH. The fluorescence emission of both apigenin and luteolin has then been investigated. Excited-state TDDFT geometry optimizations have highlighted an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the 5-hydroxyl to the 4-carbonyl oxygen of the substituted benzopyrone moiety. By computing the potential energy curves at the ground and excited states as a function of an approximate proton transfer coordinate for apigenin, we have been able to trace an ESIPT pathway and thus explain the double emission observed experimentally.

SCHEME 1: Luteolin and Apigenin Structures and Atom Labels

Rose Pigments