J Food Prot. 2018 Jan;81(1):68-78.
Bacteriostatic Effect of Quercetin as an Antibiotic Alternative In Vivo and Its Antibacterial Mechanism In Vitro.
Wang S, Yao J, Zhou B, Yang J, Chaudry MT, Wang M, Xiao F, Li Y, Yin W.
Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavonoid, is known to have antibacterial effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on cecal microbiota of Arbor Acre (AA) broiler chickens in vivo and the bacteriostatic effect and antibacterial mechanism of quercetin in vitro. In vivo, 480 AA broilers (1 day old) were randomly allotted to four treatments (negative control and 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g of quercetin per kg of diet) for 42 days. Cecal microbial population and distribution were measured at the end of the experiment. The cecal microflora in these broilers included Proteobacteria, Fimicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Deferribacteres. Compared with the negative control, quercetin significantly decreased the copies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (P < 0.01), Staphylococcus aureus (P < 0.01), and Escherichia coli (P < 0.01) but significantly increased the copies of Lactobacillus (P < 0.01), Bifidobacterium (P < 0.01), and total bacteria (P < 0.01). In vitro, we investigated the bacteriostatic effect of quercetin on four kinds of bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. enterica Typhimurium, and S. aureus) and the antibacterial mechanism of quercetin in E. coli and S. aureus. The bacteriostatic effect of quercetin was stronger on gram-positive bacteria than on gram-negative bacteria. Quercetin damaged the cell walls and membranes of E. coli (at 50 x MIC) and S. aureus (at 10 x MIC). Compared with the control, the activity of the extracellular alkaline phosphatase and ß-galactosidase and concentrations of soluble protein in E. coli and S. aureus were significantly increased (all P < 0.01), and the activity of ATP in S. aureus was significantly increased (P < 0.01); however, no significant change in ATP activity in E. coli was observed (P > 0.05). These results suggest that quercetin has potential as an alternative antibiotic feed additive in animal production.

Viruses. 2016 Jan; 8(1): 6. Published online 2015 Dec 25.
Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal pandemics and epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a crucial role in the initial stage of virus infection, making it a potential target for anti-influenza therapeutics development. Here we found that quercetin inhibited influenza infection with a wide spectrum of strains, including A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), A/FM-1/47/1 (H1N1), and A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.756 ± 1.097, 6.225 ± 0.467, and 2.738 ± 1.931 µg/mL, respectively. Mechanism studies identified that quercetin showed interaction with the HA2 subunit. Moreover, quercetin could inhibit the entry of the H5N1 virus using the pseudovirus-based drug screening system. This study indicates that quercetin showing inhibitory activity in the early stage of influenza infection provides a future therapeutic option to develop effective, safe and affordable natural products for the treatment and prophylaxis of IAV infections.

Antifungal, Antibacterial, and Antioxidant Activities of Acacia Saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl. Flower Extract: HPLC Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds
Asma A. Al-Huqail, Said I. Behiry, Mohamed Z. M. Salem, Hayssam M. Ali, Manzer H. Siddiqui and Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
In this study, for the environmental development, the antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities of a water extract of flowers from Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L. Wendl. were evaluated. The extract concentrations were prepared by dissolving them in 10% DMSO. Wood samples of Melia azedarach were treated with water extract, and the antifungal activity was examined at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% against three mold fungi; Fusarium culmorum MH352452, Rhizoctonia solani MH352450, and Penicillium chrysogenum MH352451 that cause root rot, cankers, and green fruit rot, respectively, isolated from infected Citrus sinensis L. Antibacterial evaluation of the extract was assayed against four phytopathogenic bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Erwinia amylovora, and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using the micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Further, the antioxidant capacity of the water extract was measured via 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the water extract were analyzed using HPLC: benzoic acid, caffeine, and o-coumaric acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds; while the flavonoid compounds naringenin, quercetin, and kaempferol were identified compared with the standard flavonoid compounds. The antioxidant activity of the water extract in terms of IC50 was considered weak (463.71 µg/mL) compared to the standard used, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (6.26 µg/mL). The MIC values were 200, 300, 300, and 100 µg/mL against the growth of A. tumefaciens, E. cloacae, E. amylovora, and P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, respectively, which were lower than the positive control used (Tobramycin 10 µg/disc). By increasing the extract concentration, the percentage inhibition of fungal mycelial was significantly increased compared to the control treatment, especially against P. chrysogenum, suggesting that the use of A. saligna flower extract as an environmentally friendly wood bio-preservative inhibited the growth of molds that cause discoloration of wood and wood products.

ScienceDaily (Jan 8, 2018)
Agricultural fungicide attracts honey bees
When given the choice, honey bee foragers prefer to collect sugar syrup laced with the fungicide chlorothalonil over sugar syrup alone, researchers report.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 7;114(10):2538-2543. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera).
Mao W, Schuler MA, Berenbaum MR.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Thus, a consequence of inefficient metabolism of this phytochemical may be compromised energy production. Several P450s metabolize quercetin in adult workers. Docking in silico of 121 pesticide contaminants of American hives into the active pocket of CYP9Q1, a broadly substrate-specific P450 with high quercetin-metabolizing activity, identified six triazole fungicides, all fungal P450 inhibitors, that dock in the catalytic site. In adults fed combinations of quercetin and the triazole myclobutanil, the expression of five of six mitochondrion-related nuclear genes was down-regulated. Midgut metabolism assays verified that adult bees consuming quercetin with myclobutanil metabolized less quercetin and produced less thoracic ATP, the energy source for flight muscles. Although fungicides lack acute toxicity, they may influence bee health by interfering with quercetin detoxification, thereby compromising mitochondrial regeneration and ATP production. Thus, agricultural use of triazole fungicides may put bees at risk of being unable to extract sufficient energy from their natural food.

Braz. J. Biol. vol.76 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2016 Epub May 06, 2016
Quercetin and rutin as potential agents antifungal against Cryptococcus spp
V. M. Oliveira, E. Carraro, M. E. Auler, N. M. Khalil
Amphotericin B is a fungicidal substance that is treatment of choice for most systemic fungal infections affecting as cryptococcosis the immunocompromised patients. However, severe side effects have limited the utility of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of the combination of amphotericin B with quercetin or rutin and as a protective of citotoxic effect. The antifungal activity to amphotericin B, quercetin and rutin alone and in combination was determined in Candida sp and Cryptococcus neoformans strains. Cytotoxicity test on erythrocytes was performed by spectrophotometric absorbance of hemoglobin. The amphotericin B MIC was reduced when used in combination with quercetin or rutin to C. neoformans ATCC strain and reduced when combined with rutin to a clinical isolate of C. neoformans. In addition, the combination of quercetin with amphotericin B may reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B to red blood cells. Our results suggest that quercetin and rutin are potential agents to combine with amphotericin B in order to reduce the amphotericin dose to lessen side effects and improve antifungal efficacy.

Biofouling. 2019 Mar; 35(3):320-328. Epub 2019 May 8.
Antifungal effects of the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin: a possible alternative for the control of fungal biofilms.
Rocha, MFG et al.
This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of kaempferol and quercetin against planktonic and biofilm forms of the Candida parapsilosis complex. Initially, nine C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, nine C. orthopsilosis and nine C. metapsilosis strains were used. Planktonic susceptibility to kaempferol and quercetin was assessed. Growing and mature biofilms were then exposed to the flavonoids at MIC or 10xMIC, respectively, and theywere also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The MIC ranges were 32-128 µg ml-1 for kaempferol and 0.5-16 µg ml-1 for quercetin. Kaempferol and quercetin decreased (P<0.05) the metabolic activity and biomass of growing biofilms of the C. parapsilosis complex. As for mature biofilms, the metabolic effects of the flavonoids varied, according to the cryptic species, but kaempferol caused an overall reduction in biofilm biomass. Microscopic analyses showed restructuring of biofilms after flavonoid exposure. These results highlight the potential use of these compounds as sustainable resources for the control of fungal biofilms

Front. Microbiol., 24 April 2019
Effect of Quercetin Rich Onion Extracts on Bacterial Quorum Sensing
B. X. V. Quecan, J. T. C. Santos, M. L. C. Rivera, N. M. A. Hassimotto, F. A. Almeida and U. M. Pinto
Quorum sensing (QS) regulates bacterial gene expression and studies suggest quercetin, a flavonol found in onion, as a QS inhibitor. There are no studies showing the anti-QS activity of plants containing quercetin in its native glycosylated forms. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-QS potential of organic extracts of onion varieties and its representative phenolic compounds quercetin aglycone and quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside in the QS model bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens MG1. Three phenolic extracts were obtained: red onion extract in methanol acidified with 2.5% acetic acid (RO-1), white onion extract in methanol (WO-1) and white onion extract in methanol ammonium (WO-2). Quercetin 4-O-glucoside and quercetin 3,4-O-diglucoside were identified as the predominant compounds in both onion varieties using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS. However, quercetin aglycone, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin glycoside were identified only in RO-1. The three extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values equal to or above 125 μg/ml of dried extract. Violacein production was significantly reduced by RO-1 and quercetin aglycone, but not by quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside. Motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 was inhibited by RO-1, while WO-2 inhibited S. marcescens MG1 motility only in high concentration. Quercetin aglycone and quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside were effective at inhibiting motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. marcescens MG1. Surprisingly, biofilm formation was not affected by any extracts or the quercetins tested at sub-MIC concentrations. In silico studies suggested a better interaction and placement of quercetin aglycone in the structures of the CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 than the glycosylated compound which corroborates the better inhibitory effect of the former over violacein production. On the other hand, the two quercetins were well placed in the AHLs binding pockets of the LasR protein of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Overall onion extracts and quercetin presented antimicrobial activity, and interference on QS regulated production of violacein and swarming motility.

Groot: Tomato pollen and quercetin (1993)
Stimulation of pollen germination by flavonoids has been reported for a mutant of maize that was deficient in flavonoid synthesis (Coe et al., 1981) and transgenic petunia plants blocked in the synthesis of flavonoids. Germination and tube growth of in vitro matured tobacco pollen could also be stimulated by quercetin (Ylstra et al. 1992), with an optimum at a concentration of 1 µM.