Mimulus Bibliography

Anderson-Henry: Hybridization of Plants (1867)
I further tried, and succeeded in crossing another Torenia—viz., T. intermedia—with the Mimulus, making the latter the seed-bearer. Of this cross the pod contained seventeen seeds, which I sowed on 17th September 1847, and at October 19th I had nine plants finely vegetated. But of these I have no further record. I perhaps lost them during the following winter; for in the few proper mules I have succeeded in raising I ever found them most difficult to rear. In this cross, as well as in the following, I had, I find, made sure against self-fertilisation by timeous removal of the male organs.

Beal: Changing Seeds (1876)

Henslow: The Fertilisation of Plants (1877)

Jones: Pollen Mixtures (1928)
The monkey-flower, Mimulus luteus, was found to be highly fertile when insects were excluded. Uncastrasted flowers of a constant whitish variety were artificially pollinated by a yellowish variety; and of the 28 resulting plants all had yellowish flowers, so that the "pollen of the yellow variety completely overwhelmed that from the mother plant."

Alard & Bradshaw: Genotype-Environmental Interactions (1964)
Further evidence comes from the recent work of Clausen and Hiesey and their associates. They compared the growth of individual races of a number of species at three altitudes in California, together with F1 and F2 hybrids between certain races. They found in Mimulus (12) and in Potentilla glandulosa (3) that the parental races themselves cannot survive at all three altitudes but that F1 hybrids can survive and are as vigorous as each parent in its optimal environment. In Mimulus neither parent can survive in anything other than its own environment, while the F1 hybrid is successful in all three environments. In the F2 generation some individuals can be found which equal or even surpass the F1 hybrids. In these cases the hybrids are remarkably well buffered because the three altitudinal stations have climates which range from Mediterranean to subalpine.

Breese: Somatic Selection in Perennial Ryegrass (1965)
Libby and Jund (1962) have demonstrated that variation in clones of Mimulus guttatus may arise as the result of local differences in the micro-environment or as a result of inequalities between propagules.

McClure: Flavonoids and Visible Color (1965)
Bloom and Vickery (1973) found that pattern-partitioning in yellow flowered Mimulus luteus was due to mixtures of carotenoids and flavonoids. The carotenoids were uniformly present, while cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin 3-glucoside were localized within the red spots. The yellow flavonol herbacitrin (8-hydroxykaempferol 7-glucoside) and the anthocyanin were mutually exclusive.

Hiesey: Cohesion of Traits (1965)
1) The inheritance of characters distinguishing ecological races is mostly governed by multiple genes. Simple Mendelian segregation being rare;
2) Systems of genetic coherence characterize ecologic races; when two races from different environments are crossed, the F2 tends to segregate with a higher frequency of parental types than would be predicted on the basis of free random recombination.
3) Such coherence systems do not preclude the production of striking recombinations which provide rich potentials of genetic variation for further natural selection; genetic coherence is probably the basis for the differentiation of ecologic races, subspecies and species in higher plants.

Schemske & Bradshaw: Pollinator preference, evolution of floral traits in monkey flowers (Mimulus) (1999)

Schemske & Bradshaw: Mimulus hybrids revert to ancestors (1999)

Willmer: Adaptive features of pollen (2011)
However, S. Cook et al. (2003) showed that Apis preferentially took higher protein pollens when given artificial choices, and Robertson et al. (1999) recorded Bombus as choosing between patches of Mimulus flowers on the basis of pollen protein quality.

Russell et al.: Speciation in Mimulus (2013)

Yeamans: Pollen quality in Mimulus guttatus (2014)

Oneal: Endosperm development in Mimulus (2016)