Math Fun

Cantor and Me (2018)

Trinary Notation (2018)

Not Mine

Braess's Paradox
and traffic jams

Parrondo's Paradox
Winning at losing games

Demons, Ratchets and Parrondo's Paradox
An interview with Juan Parrondo

Other Fun
Combining the following two items with Parrondo's Paradox (alternating hot and cold).

Journal of Molecular Evolution, 61(2): 264-73. (Aug 2005)
The RNA world on ice: a new scenario for the emergence of RNA information.
Vlassov AV1, Kazakov SA, Johnston BH, Landweber LF
Abstract The RNA world hypothesis refers to a hypothetical era prior to coded peptide synthesis, where RNA was the major structural, genetic, and catalytic agent. Though it is a widely accepted scenario, a number of vexing difficulties remain. In this review we focus on a missing link of the RNA world hypothesis-primitive miniribozymes, in particular ligases, and discuss the role of these molecules in the evolution of RNA size and complexity. We argue that prebiotic conditions associated with freezing, rather than "warm and wet" conditions, could have been of key importance in the early RNA world.

Journal of Molecular Evolution, 61(1): 54-64 (Jul 2005)
Evolution of the Genetic Triplet Code via Two Types of Doublet Codons
Huan-Lin Wu, Stefan Bagby, Jean M.H. van den Elsen
Abstract  Explaining the apparent non-random codon distribution and the nature and number of amino acids in the ‘standard’ genetic code remains a challenge, despite the various hypotheses so far proposed. In this paper we propose a simple new hypothesis for code evolution involving a progression from singlet to doublet to triplet codons with a reading mechanism that moves three bases each step. We suggest that triplet codons gradually evolved from two types of ambiguous doublet codons, those in which the first two bases of each three-base window were read (‘prefix’ codons) and those in which the last two bases of each window were read (‘suffix’ codons). This hypothesis explains multiple features of the genetic code such as the origin of the pattern of four-fold degenerate and two-fold degenerate triplet codons, the origin of its error minimising properties, and why there are only 20 amino acids.
CybeRose note: Neither of the hypothetical doublet codes provided for glutamine and asparagine, the two amino acids that are least stable at high temperatures. This suggests that the "universal" DNA code is derived from two earlier systems that thrived on heat.