The Farmer’s Magazine 488-489 (1868)


1. The use of non-dried wheat and barley-malt as food for herbivorous animals, extend over a period of 15 years, ending 1865. 2. Until 1860, horses alone had been the subjects of my experiments. 3. 1861, a flock of 200 lambing-ewes and their lambs were fed with non-dried wheat malt. The flock continued healthy during the whole season; the lambs fatted fast, and at the age of 12 weeks were sold at from 40s. to 44s. each. 4. At the end of the next two years, non-dried wheat and barley malt, as food for cattle and sheep, had come into general use in this neighbourhood, increasing and increasing until autumn, 1865, when the number of sheep within on area of 10 miles of this borough feeding upon the food, had increased to upwards of 12,000 producing upwards of 30,000 lbs. of mutton weekly. 5. During the winter, 1864-5 and following spring and summer, the weekly consumption of non-dried wheat and barley malt on the farms of one proprietor amounted to 25 sacks weekly, and upon the farms of another to 16 sacks weekly, as food for sheep, lambs, horses, and oxen. Failure of the roots and grass-crops during the four years ending 1865, the increasing rise in the price of all kinds of cakes, and the low price of wheat and barley being the stockmaster’s main inducement for substituting this new kind of cattle-food. 6. December discontinued in consequence of Excise interference.

EWES AND LAMBING EWES   Is harmless and nutritious, and the produce of one quart of wheat or three pints of barley daily with turnips and straw chaff, will in twelve weeks fat two early lambs worth £2 each, and add 15 lbs. to the weight of the ewe. Prejudicial to life, and totally unfit for ewes and lambs.
TOOTHLESS EWES (CRONES) Summer Is harmless and nutritious, and the produce of one pint of raw barley daily, with a small quantity of grass and straw chaff will produce 30 to 35 lbs. of mutton in twelve weeks,—healthy skin and rapid growth of wool. Prejudicial to life (except half-a-pint daily given in moieties), and unfit for food in the hot summer months.
DITTO Winter Is harmless and nutritious, and the produce of one pint of raw barley daily, with 12 lbs. of turnips and straw chaff, will produce 36 lbs. of mutton in sixteen weeks. One pint of raw grain daily will kill every sheep.— Double the number of sheep is required to produce the same quantity of mutton in the same time. Unhealthy skin with falling wool.
TWENTY SHEARLING SHEEP   Consuming the produce of one ton of raw barley with grass in Summer and turnips in Winter will produce 600 lbs. of mutton in twelve weeks, worth at 9d. per lb. £22 10s.  
FORTY SHEARLING SHEEP     Consuming one ton of raw grain with grass in Summer and turnips in Winter, will produce only the same quantity of mutton as the 20 sheep, provided no death occurs: whereas the probability is that no death will occur from the use non-dried malt, but that 10 per cent. Will be the result from the use of raw grain.
FEVERED FLOCKS (Diarrhoea)   90 per cent. will recover. Totally unfit.

Ten oxen, each consuming non-dried malt the produce of one stone of raw barley, straw chaff, and 1 1/2 bushel of turnips daily, will produce 100 stone of beef in 10 weeks; whereas 15 weeks are required to produce the same quantity of beef upon the same number of oxen, with any weight of other mixed food; or 6 lbs. of linseed-cake, in addition to the stone of raw grain, will produce only the same quantity of beef in the same time as the non-dried malted grain. A horse daily consuming non-dried malt, the produce of one stone of raw grain, with 10 lbs. of hay, will increase 15 stone in weight in 10 weeks; whereas, with raw grain, it becomes diseased, hair falls from the skin, loses eye-sight, is attacked with grease, and becomes an useless animal. A horse debilitated by disease is quickly restored to health by the use of non-dried mall; but raw barley or wheat will destroy life. Sows and sucking pigs may be fattened with non-dried malt; while raw barley will vitiate the milk, and poison the young pig. For producing pork upon old pigs raw barley-meal only is superior to non-dried malt.

A horse at rest and required to be made fat for market, non-dried wheat and barley malt is the only single food consistent with the health of the animal that can be used: no experienced grazier would think of using raw barley for the purpose; an aggravated skin disease, depilation, or eye disease, would be the attending consequences. Whereas non-dried malt will restore a debilitated horse to health: raw barley will aggravate the disease. Non-dried malt is most wholesome and nutritious food for lambing ewes and their lambs; but raw barley is deleterious. Non-dried malt will restore a diseased flock to health; while raw barley will have prejudicial effects. Non-dried malt alone will fatten the leanest sheep in 12 weeks. The only exception to the use of non-dried malt in preference to raw grain is in the case of fattening pigs. The first week of using non-dried malt, the produce of 1 lb. of raw grain daily will be found to have produced 2 lbs. of mutton upon each sheep: this cannot be said of any other single or mixed food. Every experienced grazier knows that sheep or oxen add but little weight to the carcase during the first month up of fattening when fed upon the ordinary food, but from the easy digestibility of non-dried malt an immediate and rapid increase of flesh is the result. The evidence of farmers shows that oxen are frequently not so good at the end as at the beginning of the first month. Sheep are fed in companies or flocks in open fields from mangers common to the whole; and for the safety of the lives of the sheep it is important that, whilst nutritious, their food should be of a harmless nature: hence the superiority of malted over raw grain; the former is harmless if eaten to excess; the latter poisons in the small quantity of a pint taken at one meal.