The Situation in Biological Science, pp. 416-417 (July 31-Aug 7, 1948)
Rust resistant Wheat
P. P. Lukyanenko

Proceeding from Academician Lysenko's theory of phasic development, we proposed that rust-resistant varieties be produced by means of intraspecific hybridization. This principle consists in crossing varieties which develop rust-resistant properties at different phases and ages. By this method we produced the valuable economic varieties Kubanskaya 131, 133 and others, distinguished for their high yield and high rust-resistant properties.

The alteration of the nature of existing varieties by training, by changing the conditions for passing through the vernalization stage, can serve as a new method of plant breeding, as our work in particular has shown. It is not only that this method enables us to transform winter varieties into spring varieties and vice versa, although this too is of great practical significance, for it helps us to obtain more winter-hardy varieties on the one hand, and, on the other, winter varieties of crops whose economic value would be enhanced if they became winter varieties; for example, in my opinion it would be of great practical advantage to have winter varieties of rice. In changing winter-hardiness, a number of other morphological and biological characters are changed, and as a result of this a diversity of forms appears which enables us to select in other directions.

In particular, in our experiments in converting the winter wheat Voroshilovka into spring wheat and spring wheat 027 into winter wheat, segregation was observed in respect to a character that is very important for us, namely, rust resistance. In converting the winter wheat Voroshilovka into a spring variety, the formation of a considerable number (over 20%) of highly rust-resistant varieties was observed, whereas Varoshilovka wheat itself is very susceptible to rust. On the other hand, in converting variety 027, which is highly rust-resistant, into a winter variety, we observed that some of the plants showed a higher infection with rust.

This vividly reveals the dependence of the development of a biological character, in this case rust resistance, upon the conditions under which the plant passes through the first phase of development. For practical purposes, it is important that there is a possibility to obtain new, highly rust-resistant varieties from varieties that are susceptible to rust without crossing; but for this purpose it is necessary to study thoroughly the conditions that facilitate the development of the rust-resistant property.

At the present time the altered varieties of rust-resistant Voroshilovka wheat are undergoing the variety tests. Among these varieties there are interesting spring winter-hardy varieties which, when planted in the spring, show a higher yield than the best spring varieties, and when sown in the autumn, exceed the yield of the initial Voroshilovka variety. The best varieties of the altered Voroshilovka wheat, thus universally utilized, will, next year, be sent in for the state variety tests.