Manual of flax culture (1805)
How to Grow Hops Profitably (excerpts)
No. V.—By Albert W. Morse,
Eaton, Madison Co., N.Y.

p. 24
Take the prepared sets and bed them, or plant them in rows sufficiently wide to admit of the free use of the cultivator; a single set in a place from five to six inches apart. The bed should receive careful attention in the way of hoeing and weeding. A dressing of special manure is useful. The best that I have ever used consists of six or eight parts of charcoal dust, two of pulverized hen manure, and one of plaster. This is also a valuable manure to be used yearly, after the first hoeing. The sets should be taken up the next October, and planted with great care. One strong healthy set will make a hill. Immediately after planting, the hill should be covered with two or three shovels of manure. A yard planted in this manner will come into bearing the next season, the same as if planted out, as in the manner first described. It is customary to plant corn, potatoes, beans, tobacco, or any other hoed crop, with hops the first year. The crop that shades the least is best.

p. 26-27
Preservation Of The Yard.—The best mode of keeping a hop plantation in a healthy condition, is a matter of great importance. It is a well-known fact that some yards begin to fail in three or four years, and are thenceforth hardly worth the trouble of cultivation, and that others last ten, fifteen, and even twenty years. This is doubtless owing to a number of causes, the most prominent of which is the following, namely: The planting upon ground that is over-charged with water; neglect or want of proper cultivation; exhaustion of the soil, of some of the proper ingredients for the growth of the vine. All may guard against the first two causes of failure. The last will be found more difficult. It may be done by supplying the soil with the necessary ingredients in the form of wood ashes, which are exactly suited to the wants of the hop, and tend to promote a vigorous growth of vine. The refuse vines can also be used to advantage, if cut and mixed with the soil in proximity to the roots. Another important advantage is derived by using the vine in the manner above stated, namely, it tends to lighten the soil which, by the yearly application of barnyard manure, not unfrequently becomes heavy, and the root soon becomes unhealthy. The use of charcoal dust, which I have before recommended, together with a thorough loosening of the soil, will tend to keep the plant in a healthy condition. When charcoal dust can not be procured, decayed wood, leaves, and such other vegetable matter as can be collected from the forest, will be found valuable. Like most other plants that require high manuring, a dressing of lime will, upon most land, prove valuable, applied as often as every two or three years.