American Journal of Physical Anthropology 45(3):695-700 (Nov 1976)
An early Indian cranium from the Medicine Crow site, (39BF2), Buffalo County, South Dakota
William M. Bass
Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

Artifacts of Paleoindians have been found in most if not all of the Plains states; however, documented human skeletal remains from this early period are rare. The Medicine Crow cranium dates by stratigraphy and by the amount of absorbed alpha and beta radiation at between 5,000 and 2,000 B.C. This places this young adult male in the Archaic period and represents the earliest documented human skeletal material from South Dakota. It compares favorably in age with other well documented human skeletons from the Plains area, such as Lansing Man (Kansas) (3579 B.C.). Metrically, (with a cranial index of 76.7) and morphologically the Medicine Crow cranium falls well within the range of other early or middle Archaic skeletons.