Passenger Pigrons, Dogwood Berries and Grapes

Parrott: Ancient (?) South African Mines (1909)

Ancient Chinese Porcelain Seals Found in 19th Century Ireland

The Power of Paradigm / digging below the "Clovis Barrier"

Paradigm Quake: The Solutreans were here first!

A Parade Of Early Visitors To America

Old World Cotton in the New World

Wikipedias: "The first clear sign of domestication of this cotton species [G. barbadense] comes from the Early Valdivia phase site of Real Alto on the coast of Ecuador (4400 BCE; calibrated radiocarbon dates) and from Ancon, on the Peruvian coast, where cotton bolls dating to 4200 BCE were found."

Johnson: Polyphyletic origin of New World Cottons (1975)

Vreeland: Revival of Colored Cotton (1999)

Nampa Doll of Idaho

Some of the earliest settlers of America may have come from Australia, southern Asia, or the Pacific, new research suggests.

Human Lymphocyte Antigens: Apparent Afro-Asiatic, Southern Asian, & European HLAs in Indigenous American Populations

Plains Indian Sign Language

Langdon: Manioc on Easter Island (1988)

Simonds: Iron Implements in an Ancient Mine in North Carolina (1881)

Hoots: One Thousand Shades of Chalcedony (1973)

15,800 year old stone tool in Oregon forces archaeologists to rethink timeline (2015)

King: Once a "hoax" always a hoax, even after the paradigm shifts (2004) Lansing Man

Bass: Medicine Crow cranium (1976)
It compares favorably in age with other well documented human skeletons from the Plains area, such as Lansing Man (Kansas) (3579 B.C.). Metrically, (with a cranial index of 76.7) and morphologically the Medicine Crow cranium falls well within the range of other early or middle Archaic skeletons.

American Journal of Physical Anthropology 114:146–155 (2001)
The Lansing cranium, placed at 5000–6000 BP by conventional radiocarbon dates (Bass, 1973), was pronounced by Hrdlicka (1903) to show no differences from recent groups in the region. It is, however, long, narrow, and high, and atypical of any recent Plains group.

Wright: Kansas Points (2000)
By the end of Folsom times Kansas had distinctly trended toward grassland, intermixed grassland, and savanna features from west to east.

The Head-forms of the Italians as Influenced by Heredity and Environment. Franz Boas and Helene M. Boas, American Anthropologist. 15: 163-188 (1913)
Boas found that head shape (long or short) can change significantly in a single generation, due only (apparently) to changes in environment. The item below about changes in Medieval skulls might have been due to changes in climate that took place in that period. And the changes in cranial index that occurred among native Americans also seems to have accompanied a change in habitat.

Times: Medieval skulls (2007)
A study into the mysterious changing skull shape of medieval man casts serious doubt on current theories.

Old Vero Man not as old as originally thought
Vero man was originally misdated because the extinct Ice Age animal fossils around it were not as old as paleontologists had claimed. That is, they did not "go extinct" as soon as the glacial ice melted. Title should read, "Ice Age animals associated with Vero man survived longer than originally thought".

Re-examining Vero man (2015)

Butchered remains of 14,550-year-old mastodon in Florida

Windover Bog People Archaeological Dig

Bat Creek Stone in Tennessee (1894)

The Red-paint People of Maine. Warren K. Moorehead. American Anthropologist, 15: 33-47 (1913)

Red Paint People in Maine

Hickox: Bolsa Chica remains (1994)

Divers Find 13,500 year old Skeleton in Mexico

Mycio: Atilla the Ukrainian (1993)

Aancient Russian town of Arkaim, same age as Egypt and Babylon

Hyde: Oak Island Treasure (1899)

Carl L. Johannessen on Maize in India before Columbus, Black-boned chickens in Guatemala and China, etc.

Johannessen: American crop plants in Asia before A.D. 1500 (1998)
Maize ears were reported from an archaeological excavation of a rock tomb of Han Dynasty times (221 B.C.—A.D. 220) in Maowen (or Meng Wen) County, Sichuan Province, dating to about 2000 B.P. A notice of this appeared in the Beijing Evening News, a small, modern Chinese newspaper. The article claimed that maize ears were used there as funerary objects during Hanwei times, in the same way that maize had been used by American Indians. Wang Jaiyou, currently of the Sichuan Provincial Museum, has reported on this site. The information was supposedly being followed up by archaeologists in Cheng Du (Zhang Xiaohua 1983). But in July 1998 I learned that since the "establishment archaeologists" did not believe maize could be that old in China, the 14C-dating of it was deemed unnecessary, and the ears were apparently not even saved. The early date for maize in northern Sichuan was accepted by certain government archaeologists in Beijing anyway. They also accepted a date for peanuts at circa A.D. 300. as well as two finds of Neolithic peanuts by Wang Dayou (1988: 282).

Uchibayashi: Maize in Pre-Columbian China (2005)

Garcia: Was Columbus secretly a Jew? (2012)

'El Negro', black navigator who guided Columbus to the New World.

Pedro Alonso Niño

Other Black Explorers

Holland: Blackwashing (2004)
Scratch the surface of a black conservative group and you find a Vast Right-Wing Conspiracy

Parrondo's Paradox
Winning at losing games

Demons, Ratchets and Parrondo's Paradox
An interview with Juan Parrondo

Combining the following two items with Parrondo's Paradox (alternating hot and cold).

Journal of Molecular Evolution, 61(2): 264-73. (Aug 2005)
The RNA world on ice: a new scenario for the emergence of RNA information.
A V Vlassov, S A Kazakov, B H Johnston, L F Landweber
Abstract The RNA world hypothesis refers to a hypothetical era prior to coded peptide synthesis, where RNA was the major structural, genetic, and catalytic agent. Though it is a widely accepted scenario, a number of vexing difficulties remain. In this review we focus on a missing link of the RNA world hypothesis-primitive miniribozymes, in particular ligases, and discuss the role of these molecules in the evolution of RNA size and complexity. We argue that prebiotic conditions associated with freezing, rather than "warm and wet" conditions, could have been of key importance in the early RNA world.

Journal of Molecular Evolution, 61(1): 54-64 (Jul 2005)
Evolution of the Genetic Triplet Code via Two Types of Doublet Codons
Huan-Lin Wu, Stefan Bagby, Jean M.H. van den Elsen
Abstract  Explaining the apparent non-random codon distribution and the nature and number of amino acids in the ‘standard’ genetic code remains a challenge, despite the various hypotheses so far proposed. In this paper we propose a simple new hypothesis for code evolution involving a progression from singlet to doublet to triplet codons with a reading mechanism that moves three bases each step. We suggest that triplet codons gradually evolved from two types of ambiguous doublet codons, those in which the first two bases of each three-base window were read (‘prefix’ codons) and those in which the last two bases of each window were read (‘suffix’ codons). This hypothesis explains multiple features of the genetic code such as the origin of the pattern of four-fold degenerate and two-fold degenerate triplet codons, the origin of its error minimising properties, and why there are only 20 amino acids.
CybeRose note: Neither of the hypothetical doublet codes provided for glutamine and asparagine, the two amino acids that are least stable at high temperatures. This suggests that the "universal" DNA code is derived from two earlier systems that thrived in extreme heat.

It may have been the alternation between high heat and near freezing cold that accumulated sufficient negative entropy to foster the beginning of life. The alternation between DNA and RNA phases in existing life forms looks like a shadow of the origin of Life. .

Candler: Confederate Records of Georgia (1909)

Jackson: Landlord Abuses (1885)

Wheelwright: Landlordism; its Origin and Growth (1896)


Curious geological artifacts and fossils (1820)

Jardine: The Pressure to Hoax (2006)

McLouth: Dustfall in Michigan (1904)

Ancient Animals of Ashfall (Nebraska)

Satter: Fossil of 2000 pound rodent (2008)

Dogs in pre-Columbian Peru (2016)      More ancient dogs

American Contributions to Ancient Agriculture

Cook: American Origin of Agriculture (1902)

Cook: Food Plants of Ancient America (1903)

Cook: History of the Coconut Palm in America (1911)

Cook: Polynesian names of sweet potatoes (1916)

Cook: Trans-Pacific Agriculture (1917)

Neglected History

Aristotle and the "Abrahamic" Religions

The popular notion that Western philosophy and mathematics began with the Greeks is undermined by their heavy dependence on their Persian predecessors. And, of course, some of the peoples who came to be known as "Persians" had their roots in India.

Alexander the Great and Christianity

Theo-fascism in the 21st century

Pro tip: In the East, "Western Liberalism" is code for democracy.
In the West, democracy, in the inclusive sense, is denounced as "secularism".
But when theo-fascists say "democracy", they mean "power to the correct people".


Here we find puzzling, quasi-religious notions from two 20th century theo-philosophers being used to justify fascism in the 21st.

Snyder: Ivan Ilyin, Putin’s Philosopher of Russian Fascism (2018)
If you like your "truths" to be fact free, and accept arbitrary lines drawn in the sand to be "pure and objective", then maybe Ilyin is for you:

Although Ilyin wrote hundreds of tedious pages along these lines, he also made clear that it did not matter what had actually happened or what Russians actually did. That was meaningless history, those were mere facts. The truth about a nation, wrote Ilyin, was "pure and objective" regardless of the evidence, and the Russian truth was invisible and ineffable Godliness. Russia was not a country with individuals and institutions, even should it so appear, but an immortal living creature. "Russia is an organism of nature and the soul," it was a "living organism," a "living organic unity," and so on. Ilyin wrote of "Ukrainians" within quotation marks, since in his view they were a part of the Russian organism. Ilyin was obsessed by the fear that people in the West would not understand this, and saw any mention of Ukraine as an attack on Russia. Because Russia is an organism, it "cannot be divided, only dissected."

On the other hand, Atilla the Ukranian probably favored a Ukranian truth, precisely as "pure and objective" as Ilyin's Russian truth.

Lynch: Putin's "Brain" (2018)
Dugin, like Ilyin, relied on metaphysical thinking. "Truth" rests on belief, not on "mere facts". He claimed to use Marxist methods, while rejecting Marx's rejection of metaphysics. A little dose of superstition turns reality on its ear.

"Everything is relative," said Dugin in an interview with the BBC in 2016. "In Russia, we could use postmodernity in order to explain to the West that if any truth is relative, we have our special Russian truth. . . . Postmodernism teaches us . . . [that] the truth is a question of belief."


Bill Barr and Betsy DeVos rail against secularism (Feb 27, 2020)
Barr and Devos publicly denounced democracy and the secular foundations of the United States. They want us to believe whatever it is they pretend to believe, which has something to do with their quest for even more wealth, and power over us little people.

Schager: The Evangelicals Trying to Turn America Into a Theocracy (2019)

Cocozelli: The Catholic Right (2006)

Cocozelli: The Catholic Right, Part Two:
An Introduction To The Role Of Opus Dei (2006)

Cocozzelli: Did Opus Dei Teach A.G. Barr to ‘Puts Away His Scruples’? (2019)
I don't mean to suggest that Barr ever had scruples to put away, but his "Jesuitical sophistry", to quote Judge Napolitano, is evidence that he answers to a "Higher Authority" than the U.S. Constitution. And like other Opus Dei adherents, he expects to make a pile of money along the way.
    The Opus Dei cult began in Spain during the tyranny of Generalissimo Franco, who is still dead. Alas, despite what we were shown in 'The Da Vinci Code', there are no albino monks flagellating themselves into obedience.
    Just to recap, Opus Dei, literally meaning, "The Work of God" was founded in Spain 1928 by the priest Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer. He based its mission upon the idea that lay Catholics could achieve holiness without entering a religious order. It is a personal prelature — meaning that, unlike a diocese, is not territorial but is a combination of laity, clergy and prelates who undertake specific pastoral activities. It is known for recruiting very influential members, especially those simpatico with culturally conservative causes. To describe its many wealthy and powerful leaders as economic royalists would be an understatement.

Yinon Plan (1982)
Yinon argues that the world was witnessing a new epoch in history without precedent, which required both the development of a fresh perspective and an operational strategy to implement it. The rationalist and humanist foundations of Western civilization were in a state of collapse.

Each strain of neo-fascism, Jewish as well as Christian, has its own anti-rationalization for the driving quest for power and wealth. There is no contradiction when a Russian fascist cult provides aid to American christian fundamentalists or to the party of Italy's far-right deputy Prime Minister, or tampers with American elections. Their shared contempt for Western Liberalism (= democracy) and humanism justifies this cooperation. Sad, impotent old men striving to gain a substitute for their lost power.

Early Medicine

Smallpox inoculations in the 18th century and earlier


Alfred Watkins: Early British Trackways, Moats, Mounds, Camps, and Sites (1922)
It is not easy to realise that many British roads were as ancient to the Roman invaders as the Roman remains are to us.

Alfred Watkins: The Old Straight Track (1925)

John Michell: The View Over Atlantis (1975) p. 28
The straight roads of Britain could hardly have been less than 1500 years old at the time of the Roman invasion, and many must be even older. It has often been noted as a curiosity that roads attributed to the Romans are closely linked with  prehistoric monuments, many quite insignificant as landmarks and some already in ruins by the time the Romans saw them.

The Ancient Paths (2013) by Graham Robb
'Roman' roads were actually built by the Celts, new book claims

Sino-Platonic Papers no. 44, Jan 1994
The Three Thousand Year Old Chärchän Man [Celt?] Preserved at Zaghunluq
by Dolkun Kamberi

Campbell: Etruria Capta: Sepulchral inscriptions, Volume 1 (1886)

Campbell: Oldest Celtic document and its Etruscan companion (1887)

Campbell: Monumental Evidence of an Iberian Population of the British Islands (1887)

Campbell: The Celt in ancient Egypt and Babylonia (1896)

Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King (2016)

Basque and Algonquian syllabary
Syllabary found on ancient Basque inscriptions of Spain and Portugal, untranslated until 1979, when Barry Fell noted a match with the Algonquian syllabary of Canada. He was able to give phonetic renderings of the ancient Iberian inscriptions. That these are indeed written in an early form of Basque language was confirmed in 1980 and 1981 by Imanol Agire, the Basque epigrapher, lexicographer, and authority on the history of world alphabets (Fell 1982).

Turnbull: Ik language and Middle-Kingdom Egyptian (1972)

Jafari: Zoroastrian Religion and Democracy (2007)

Antia: Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), Source of the Judeo-Christian Heritage

Magee: Persia and Creation of Judaism

Cumont: Mithraism & Christianity

Farr and Filioque