Herbertia 53: 129-144 (1998)
John D. Fellers
2290 Longwood Drive,
Auburn AL 36830-7126, U.S.A.

Hippeastrum papilio imparts an air of royalty even in the ambiance of other amaryllis and other flowers. It is among the largest Hippeastrum in bulb size and foliage. Vigor is an obvious asset. Seedlings of H. papilio grow quickly; thus they are an ideal parent in hybridizing. Today a few cultivars are marketed with H. papilio in the parentage. Tepal (petals + sepals) arrangement as given in this article may be communicated 5 more effectively with the individual segments numbered as shown in the diagram. The setepal segments are numbers 1-2-3, rotating clockwise; number 1 is the upper most segment. Petepal segments are numbered 4-5-6, rotating clockwise; number 4 is the lowest segment.

A characteristic of H. papilio, and some other Brazilian species (and varieties) is for the two petepal segments numbers 5 and 6 to be the widest segments, the dominant segments. The number 4 petepal segment is the most narrow. Generally, setepal numbers 2 and 3 are slightly wider than petepal number 4. These are typically narrowly elliptical. Width of setepal number 1 is usually about 10mm narrower than the dominant petepals 5 and 6. This is a differentiating trait from the Dutch hybrid H. leopoldii types which have the setepal segments dominant. Setepal segment number 1 is the widest with the petepal segment number 4 the most narrow. Segment widths vary less in some other species. This is significant in reviewing the hybrids resulting from intercrossing these different varieties.

The flower form, with the dominant petepals number 5 and 6 and color marking suggested a butterfly, hence papilio, Latin for butterfly. The dark maroon veining and blotch, heavier in the upper three segments (setepal number 1 and petepal numbers 5 and 6) overlaid on the light green to chartreuse green base results in the eye catching blooms.

A characteristic in Hippeastrum, as well as some other amaryllids, is that setepals number 2 and 3 tend to be similar in form, size and color markings, except opposite hand. Petepal segments numbers 5 and 6 are similar in form, size and color markings, except opposite hand. Number 1 setepal typically is closer to the petepals number 5 and 6 in color markings. And number 4 petepal often shows similarities in color markings to the lower web (below the rib) setepals numbers 2 and 3; whereas above the rib (setepals 2 and 3) resemble petepals 5 and 6 in color markings.

Hippeastrum papilio follows this pattern with the upper three segments showing the heavy prominent dark maroon veining. The number 4 petepal is near solid light green (with some strains suggesting a chartreuse influence); a percentage may have a trace of pale reddish veining on one or both sides of the petepal number 4 rib area. The lower web of the segment (below the rib) of setepals numbers 2 and 3 resemble this number 4 segment and the upper webs, the other half, of those setepals resemble the three segments (numbers 1, 5 and 6).

Propagators and hybridizers initially experimenting with H. papilio are apt to be introduced to its idiosyncrasies. Learning the characteristics of this species is no doubt essential—the first order of this process. A few of these are covered:

1. Strains of H. papilio now in the U.S.A. seem to resist setting seed with their own pollen; they also resist setting seed with some relatives. However, some H. papilio strains set seed with distant strains of H. papilio. Most H. papilio strains offset freely. Some exceptions to the above-mentioned seed production has been reported. Hippeastrum papilio seems to be selective with the Hippeastrum types with which it is compatible. The H. papilio strains tried here seem to resist setting seed, both ways, with most of the "old Mead" hippeastrums as well as the H. leopoldii type Dutch hybrids. Some pollinations that initially appear to be setting seed and showing development beyond 28 days, subsequently abort [Science Editor's note: this is probably due to 2n x 4n crosses (H. papilio is diploid, hybrids are tetraploid.)]. And some of those fruits that continue on into a mature seed stage yield only chaff. The fruit likely would have revealed stunting in the latter part of the term. Occasionally, one of the "runt" fruits will produce 3-4 viable seeds and those are grown with anticipation. However, a few progeny of H. papilio F1 and F2, etc., appear less finicky.

All is not futileówith luck, perseverance and right conditions some species that are compatible with H. papilio can be discovered.

2. The flowering window of H. papilio is relatively defined and consistent, with a limited straggler period. In working with H. papilio for over, 25 years, no flowers have been produced (in the strains here) after a few days beyond the end of the seasonal flowering window. However the F1 and F2 hybrids produce stragglers. The flowering window for H. papilio in this locality, greenhoused (winters), is about the first week in March plus or minus 10 days, depending upon the seasonal weather conditions. The flowers continue to open for about three weeks, then they shut down. {In California, plants frequently flower in both spring and autumn.]

A pollen bank is a necessary resource to achieve a reasonable variety of H. papilio hybrids. Most compatible plants follow H. papilio in blooming during a specific season; (some bloom in fall or winter) thus pollen from previous accessions is required when H. papilio is to be used as the seed parent. Hippeastrum pollen has a fairly good shelf life and can be kept at room temperature for many weeks as long as the humidity is low. Current pollen is kept in packets (labeled) in refrigerator containers while the bloom season is peaking. When this subsides the containers are capped and enclosed in doubled plastic bags, tied and placed in a refrigeratorónever frozen. Hippeastrum pollen stores well in refrigeration but usually fresher pollen of each plant replaces the old before the pollen materially deteriorates.

3. Hippeastrum papilio plants are virtually evergreen with a brief resting period in mid-summer; this resting period lasts for 3-4 weeks, then new growth begins to emerge. This is the ideal period for repotting or transplanting; however, this species tends to defer blooming until the roots get re-established after being disturbed. Like many other amaryllids, H. papilio tends to bloom more consistently when root bound.

4. Pure H. papilio appears relatively resistant to some diseases that plague other Hippeastrum. This trait seems to be passed on to some of the progeny, but it is not universal. Hippeastrum papilio seedlings with a H. puniceum-belladonna type pollen parent seems to be susceptible to some of the diseases that attack this pollen parent.

One group with a H. puniceum-belladonna type pollen parent (H. papilio as seed parent) consistently flowers for the first time at a young age. These flower in the third year rather than requiring the typical four to seven years. A seedling of one of these bloomed as a two year old, and an F1 seedling of that flower bloomed in one year but failed to set seed. Wrong pollen donors could have been selected.

5. No tests have been conducted to test cold hardiness of H. papilio or progeny in this locality, potted or in the ground. These amaryllids are all kept potted and moved out of a greenhouse in the early spring after the last frost. Plants are moved out only after all seed capsules have matured and are returned to the greenhouse about November when frosts could occur. Plants are covered for a light freeze (cardboard or even carpet) and they are summered under pine trees, thus frost protected when early fall frosts occur. On one occasion an early cold front approached with a predicted 30°F low. A batch of pots not yet in a greenhouse were covered sufficiently for that light freeze. Unexpectedly the cold dipped to about 24°F and held below freezing for some hours. The pure H. papilio came through without noticeable damage. Flowering in the subsequent season was fairly good considering the predictable shock. Some of the (hybrid) progeny also fared reasonably well, considering the stress. However, H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum kept in three and four gallon pots suffered significant damage (same conditions, same protection). These were moved into a greenhouse before another cold spell. Most bulbs lost foliage; some struggled throughout the following summer before leaves started to grow. Blooms were nonexistent in the following season and stingy for a couple more years.

6. Vigor is an attribute of H. papilio and bulbs are comparatively large. This vigor is passed on to progeny with several parent combinations. Flower characteristics is another issue. Most H. papilio crossed with another species usually will result in F1 seedlings which show flowers influenced by the other parent. Flower form and size may be affected, but color predictably will be dominated by the other parent. Without parent knowledge, one would be hard pressed to visually identify H. papilio traits in many of its F1 hybrids. The same may hold true with the F2 generation unless back crossed with H. papilio (and this could be a longer shot than expected). Third generation F3 crosses with both parents having H. papilio in the parent trail have produced seedlings that reveal some H. papilio traits. (And a limited few are somewhat close.)

Some exceptions surface from color carryover from the pollen parent when H. papilio is the seed parent. A percentage of these seedlings show some H. papilio-like flower traits but the color quality and pattern markings are often altered. They are just not the real H. papilio; however, a low percentage may be close. They may be lighter or some may have more intense, dark green color. Patterns of the maroon veining and solid color blotch may be altered; this color may be browner in lieu of prominent brown-red. The flower form may not be typical H. papilio with reduced dominance of petepals number 5 and 6. Displayed beside the real H. papilio, the difference is detectable.

Some of the H. papilio progeny will be described. The scenario on the progeny of H. papilio, for the most part, includes F1 crossings with H. papilio as the seed parent. Some reverse crosses and some extended generations (F2, F3 etc.) are included.

Typical measurements of the predominant strain of H. papilio in the parent trails of the cultivars introduced were: perianth, vertical (antithesis, i.e. tip of number 1 setepal to end of' number 4 petepal) is about 7.5 inches (19cm); the width of setepal number 1 is 44mm, setepals 2 and 3 are 33mm, petepal number 4 is 34mm and petepals 5 and 6 are 58mm, the dominant segments. The color of this strain is a rich prominent maroon (not scarlet) veining and blotch overlayed on a rich light green. The pollen, after anther dehiscence, is greenish. The flowers are displayed on thick, strong scapes about 27 inches [68cm] tall.

The first breakthrough found in discovering other hippeastrums compatible with H. papilio was with another Brazilian native, H. aulicum (1977). Hippeastrum aulicum produces smaller bulbs and plants than H. papilio but the flowers are about 6.5 inches (165mm) vertically. This H. aulicum strain looks similar to the H. aulica Ker Gawl. imported by Robert Goedert in 1966. In the flower segments of this H. aulicum a very dark, almost black, banding is sandwiched between a blue-green throat and the dark brownish-red segments. The pollen is greenish. Like H. papilio, the petepals numbers 5 and 6 are dominant. The lower three segments, setepals numbers 2 and 3 and petepal number 4 are long and narrow.

[Hybrids listed below follow the conventional method of listing a cross, the female (seed) parent is listed first, the male (pollen) parent is listed second.]

Hippeastrum papilio #23

Ackerpap x 'Sumac'

H. papilio x H. aulicum

H. papilio x H. x ackermannii

H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum

H. papilio x H. striatum

H. papilio x H. aulicum

(H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum) x Sprekelia formosissima

H. neopardinum
x H. papilio

Ackerpap 81-6

Papaul 78-1 x Papfrag

H. iguazuannum
x Austpapst

'Mystique' x Sprekelia

Papfrag x double

Papaul 78-1 x (Papaul 77-3 x H. mananita)


Cultivars of crosses with H. papilio as the seed parent and H. aulicum as the pollen parent are labeled "Papaul" to facilitate identity. That is, Papaul (H. papilio x H. aulicum). This cross was accomplished in 1977 and again in 1978. The 1977 seedlings from these crosses were labeled Papaul 77-1, Papaul 77-2, 77-3, etc. This cross produced plants and bulbs substantially larger than either of the parents. Albeit there are variations in shades and tints among all of the Papaul 77's that have bloomed to date, they are all dark reds that resemble a big H. aulicum (except one lighter seedling). Some are more toward garnet and some are bright dark red. The flowers of the Papaul 78's are darker still; some blooms show dark purplish-red veining on the dark red base. The segments tend to be more slender and narrow than the Papaul 77's. All of these seedlings have dominant petepals numbers 5 and 6 which is characteristic of both parents.

The parents of Papaul bloom in different seasons; H. papilio blooms about March 1 and the H. aulicum strain traditionally blooms about November 1. Papaul blooms about five weeks after H. papilio finishes, except for three Papaul 77-3 seedlings. The atypical light colored seedling blooms in mid-summer and is light, dull bay brown-red fading to yellowish chartreuse toward the apices of the lower segments. The segments are also atypically wide. The other two bulbs bloom near or during September and one of these is significantly similar to H. aulicum (just bigger). None of these three late bloomers have set seed.

Typical Papaul hybrids have flowers 7.5 inches (19cm) from top to bottom and have thick strong scapes about 25 inches (63cm) tall. They have lush disease-resistant foliage. The characteristic green pollen of H. papilio is inherited. Papaul hybrids have been important parents in extending the H. papilio progeny.

The next cross achieved was a reverse of the above; H. aulicum x H. papilio and labeled Aulpap. Other Brazilian species also proved to be compatible. Hippeastrum corriensis and H. x ackermanii crossed readily with H. papilio.

Although there are some minor differences in three batches of Aulpap they are similar enough that the premier one may be discussed as representative. Aulpap 77-1 evolved with a huge crinum-like bulb and vigorous leaves. It is a dependable bloomer each season with 7.5-8 inch (± 20cm) perianths. This mother bulb and its scions have produced three- or four-flowered scapes. Like its parents the numbers 5 and 6 petepals are dominant; however the other segments are long and slender, more like the forms of some of the Papaul 78. The color for all Aulpaps is lighter than the Papauls toward harsh orange, although it is a darker orange-red (not scarlet). Petal veining is prevalent as with some of the Papaul 78's. This seedling (and siblings) to date has set seed only with H. angustifolium pollen. Other crosses, including selfs, produced a long list of failures. Other batches of Aulpap have a limited number of compatible breeders also.

Hippeastrum papilio crosses readily with pollen from a H. puniceum-H. belladonna type found growing in Florida near an old farm house purchased by a friend. The flowers are apricot-orange with a yellow throat and short ribs. Plant and flowers were larger than typical H. puniceum found growing in Florida. Seedlings from the cross 80-2 (H. papilio x H. puniceum-belladonna type) bloomed with shades of light orange to apricot with yellowish throats and ribs, (half way to apices) which is different from the pollen parent. One is a solid orange, a bright lively orange. The flower of the orange seedling is smaller than its siblings, about the size of its pollen parent. The apricot-orange seedlings with yellowish throats produces blooms larger than the pollen parent with wide imbricated segments. These, especially the solid orange cultivar, have been used in a number of breeding combinations.

One would be hard pressed to predict either parents of seedlings produced by crossing H. papilio with H. corriensis, crossed either way. The strain of H. corriensis used has relatively small plants and bulbs with H. gracilis-sized flowers about 4.5 inch (114mm) vertical. The orange-red flower segments have green throats. Thin speckled green bands separate these colors. The segments are long, slender and elliptic. This strain usually blooms here in late June. Seedlings of this H. corriensis crossed with H. papilio generally bloom earlier than H. corriensis.

Hippeastrum corriensis crossed with H. papilio as either seed or pollen parent produced seedlings with similar plants intermediate in size between these parents. Flower forms are similar but with large slender segments. Petepals number S and 6 are only marginally wider than the other segments. The flowers produced by Papcor 81-1 (H. papilio x H. corriensis) have porcelain white bases with dark red (to mauve) thin stripes or wide veins. The throat and lower ribs are dark green. The reverse Corpap 81-3 (H. corriensis x H. papilio) is darker red with much less white. Ribs show some dark green in the lower segments. The intense purplish dark red in segment centers of petepals number 5 and 6 extends down the segments into the throat.

Hybrids produced by crosses between H. papilio and H. x ackermannii (H. aulicum x H. x johnsonii) show similar results to those with H. corriensis; these seedlings do not resemble either parent. However, cultivars with H. papilio as the seed parent have lighter colored flowers than cultivars with H. x ackermannii as the seed parent. Hippeastrum x ackermannii is about the size of H. aulicum. The flowers do not open so widely, only about 5 inches (12.5cm) across. The color is claret-orange. The color of the Papacker 81-5 (H. papilio x H. x ackermanii seedlings are near solid dark red, with some lightening between veined areas. Ribs and apices of setepals numbers 2 and 3 are lighter as well. This tint appears to have a purplish brown influence. Feathering contiguous to the greenish rib at the throat is almost black. This is the selected average; others are lighter or darker. The characteristic wider petepal numbers S and 6 are evident in these blooms.

The reverse, Ackerpap 81-6 (H. x ackermanii x H. papilio) produces richer darker ruby-red flowered seedlings. The plant selected as an example displayed a lighter colored margin at the segment ends on the flower reverse; only a trace of this reflected in the flowers. The segments are wider than Papacker 81-5 seedlings. Ackerpap 81-6 used as the seed parent and crossed with another species hybrid (non-papilio) produced eye catching dark ruby red flowers. Hippeastrum Ackerpap crossed both ways has proven to be a significant parent.

One cross with Ackerpap as the seed parent and pollen from 'Sumac Pinini' resulted in a cultivar with a unique color along with siblings more closely aligned with the pollen parent in color. It is labeled 85-Apap-18 (Ackerpap x 'Sumac Pinini'). Siblings from this cross revealed several flower colors and shades. The unique darkest flowered, identified as 85-Apap-18a, produced flowers about 6 inches (16cm) vertical ; these were rich maroonish with light pergameneous picotee edges on all segments. The leaves of all siblings are somewhat bluer than H. papilio leaves.

The majority of the seedlings that survived to flowering age from 85-Apap-18 bloomed much lighter in color. Some flowers were lineolate or with fine dots of darker tints reflecting traits traceable through the pollen parents with "leopard spotted" flowers. Seedling flowers varied in perianth size (vertical) from 5.625 inches (144mm) to 7.25 inches (195mm). The smaller lighter flowers are labeled 85-Apap-18b. They are not remarkably different in flower size and form from 85-APAP-18a. The longer perianth lengths had long, slender, elliptical segments.

Hippeastrum papilio crossed with leopard spotted hybrids seems consistently to bear seedlings with spotted flowers. The plant and flower color quality may be enhanced. 89-Pap-101 (H. neopardinum x H. papilio) produced seedlings that flowered with similarities to the lighter colored form of 85-Apap-18b. 89-Pap-101 flowers had clean defined lines in the veining. Those with long, slender, lacy segments were suggestive of a cultivar marketed as 'Spotty'.

Hippeastrum papilio is reported to be in the genetic background of at least one of the yellow flowered cultivars currently marketed. The influence of a yellow parent in H. papilio F1 crosses can be demonstrated with 85-Pap-27 (H. papilio x H. mananita). Hippeastrum mananita Doran is a medium-sized plant with a flower form somewhat suggestive of the currently marketed 'Germa'. The tepal tube is longer and the yellow color is slightly more canary by using H. mananita. Leaves and growing habits are not similar.

The F1 seedling 85-Pap 27 inherited a yellow base from the pollen parent; the medium light red veining can be attributed to H. papilio. The color markings are consistent with the characteristic H. papilio patterns in other hybrids. Knowledge of the parentage assists in suggesting this.

Hippeastrum papilio x (Korsakoff form of H. greenii x H. aglaiae) produced a dominant white with red veining mid-segment to apices on petepals 5 and 6 only. Thin picotee margins and a green throat set off the color. Interestingly, this cultivar resembles H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum in color. The form is individual with the high setepal number 1 and downward extension of petepal number 4; this results in an abnormal perianth measure misleading the flower size. The width displays an interesting form. The dominant petepals number 5 and 6 draw inward butterfly wing-like suggesting kinship to If. papilio. This plant is identified as 84-Pap-4 [H. papilio x (Korsakoff form of H. greenii x H. aglaiae)].

The hue in the red color in H. papilio flowers has a suggestion of brownish influence. Hippeastrum papilio x H. striatum brings out brown in its seedlings This seems to be a trend in this parent combination. The H. striatum strain used is apricot with a buff throat. The segments are not wide.

85-Pap-7 (H. papilio x H. striatum) produces seedlings with flowers that vary from near solid lively orange-brown with only a slight trace of veining near the throat, to more pronounced bright orange veining. Another seedling, 85-Pap-8, with similar parents, has a buffish rib stripe in setepals numbers 2 and 3 and petepal number 4. The segments are medium wide without dominance by setepals or petepals. The tepal tube is long and sometimes exceeds its perianth in measurement; a ratio of about 7.5 inches (19cm) tepal tube to about 6.75 inch (17cm) perianths have been recorded. The flowers are slightly drooping, a characteristic of H. striatum. Scapes and buds develop a purplish red color in early development and age reddish at flowering. Scapes tend to age more greenish during the bloom period.

Hippeastrum papilio and some of its F1 crosses have a history in bigeneric crosses. Papauls and Papfrag (H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum) as seed parents crossed with pollen of strains of Sprekelia resulted in bigeneric crosses that produced several blooms.

Hippeastrum papilio crossed with the bigeneric hybrid x Hippestralia 'Mystique' produced cultivars with flowers different from either parent. 'Mystique' was acquired, being marketed to be a Hippeastrum x Sprekelia hybrid. Identity of its parents was not provided. 'Mystique' is a lively dark red flower with a flower form closer to Hippeastrum yet different enough to be believable as a half-Sprekelia hybrid. The bloom is about the size of H. gracilis. Hybrids resulting from crossing this bigeneric hybrid with Hippeastrum species have produced blooms appearing to have reverted to the Hippeastrum flower form. A dark red H. gracilis x Hippestralia 'Mystique' bloomed with a distinctive tangerine color and larger than both parents.

92-Pap-11 resulted from a trial crossing of H. papilio by 'Mystique'. The seedling plant shows vigor, typical for H. papilio progeny. Blooms are wide open, about 6.5 inches (167mm), with segments not remarkably different in widths. The number 1 setepal is about 6mm wider than petepal numbers 5 and 6 and petepal number 4 is about 12mm narrower than the other four segments. The color is lively light orange-red overlayed on a yellow-buff base. This is a bloom with a "sunny" appearance. The light red occupies about the same pattern and position on the segments of this cultivar that the dark brownish-red occupies on H. papilio and a bit more solid. The yellow replaces the light chartreuse green of the H. papilio.

Further crossing with second and third generation hybrids of H. papilio ushers in a wider world of intrigue. The vigor seems to elevate in some of these. Wide, long leaves; thick, wide diameter scapes (sometimes taller); and big flowers are also common. More variance in the sibling seedlings from a single capsule was observed. Plants showing incompatibility in breeding with H. papilio may set seed with certain H. papilio F1 and F2 plants: Papauls (H. papilio x H. aulicum), Papilio 80-2 (H. papilio x H. puniceum-belladonna type).


The H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum hybrid was purchased and incorporated into my breeding programs. To assist in maintaining identity and parent trail documents, code Papfrag was assigned, consistent with F1 crosses produced in this program. Hippeastrum papilio x H. fragrantissimum has white flowers with red veining contiguous to a wide whitish rib, predominantly in the petepals. Throat and ribs show a pale greenish chartreuse-ivory suggesting royalty. Tepal tubes usually exceed the vertical measure of flower perianths, about 6.75 inches (172mm); these are supported on tall 30 inch plus scapes. Flowers on offsets may vary with the concentrations and thickness of lines of the red veining from the mother bulb (of this hybrid); an interesting phenomenon. A slight pleasant fragrance also is passed from the pollen parent.

84-Pap-20 (Papaul x Papfrag) is a product of H. papilio F1 generations in both parents. Seedling siblings from this union produced blooms quite diverse in color. Flowers near white to very dark red (toward black) surfaced also with in-betweens. One bloom had an ivory-green throat suggesting pollen parent influence and a lavender blush on segments. The white seedling 84-Pap-20a is suggestive of H. papilio with vigor as well as flower size and form. Petepals numbers 5 and 6 are the dominant segments; only these two segments possess sparse, faint, thin, red veins on a white base (noticeable with close inspection). Thin red picotee edges appear only on these two segments also; the other segments are pure white. The perianth measures about 7 inches (18cm)

Flower form of 84-Pap-20b, the dark black-red form, is closer to that of the pollen parent Papfrag. Segments of this flower are not remarkably different in width. The bloom is only slightly larger than H. gracilis with 5.75 inch (148mm) perianths.

Extending the breeding program with H. papilio x H. aulicum F1 generations, (Papauls) unlocks some gems. 90-Pap-25 [Papaul 78-2 x (Papaul 77-3 x H. mananita)] captured the plant vigor contributed by H. papilio and produced flowers with 7.125 inch (184mm) perianths. Dominant petepals numbers 5 and 6 also came through. The color is a unique honey-melon with a pale salmon-cinnamon blush. 90-Pap-28, with substantially the same parent trail, blooms with near identical flower form but the flowers show a more pinkish salmon blush. The blooms are a measure of improvement over paler flowering cultivars produced by Papaul 77-3 x H. mananita. The dark flowering siblings of this latter cross are a unique rich, dark mahogany (giving an air of elegance). This is a color that has surfaced in other combinations.

The pure orange seedling of 80-2 (H. papilio x H. puniceum-belladonna type) has contributed several credible orange flowered plants. 8427-Auspapst has 8.25 inch lively orange flowers with minimal yellow throat and nodding form; it is a cross between a plant imported from Australia and Papilio 80-2. 8427-Auspapst has not set seed to date but the pollen is fertile. Hippeastrum iguazuanum x 8427-Auspapst resulted in seedling 90-AM-1 which bloomed with enormous flowers, about 10 inch (252mm) across. Thick, strong scapes supported these flowers. Setepal number 1 measured 83mm wide; the other two setepals were 76mm wide. A degree of nodding form also transferred. Flowers opened wide and did not show the clawed petal characteristic of H. iguazuanum. The bright, intense orange was interrupted with light yellow ribs almost to the apices.

Three F1 selections of H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum (Papfrag) shows the versatility of this cultivar in breeding. A picotee type, evolved in breeding, was selected as the seed parent to be pollinated with Papfrag. Seedling 94-PAPP-21 (picotee type) x Papfrag displayed pure picotee flowers with no fleck or blemishes. Rather than porcelain-white, a very pale greenish ivory off-white surfaced. It also inherited H. papilio vigor with 33.5 inch (85cm) scapes of 1.5 inch (38mm) diameter. The dominant setepals formed a flower wider horizontally than the 7.5 inch (192mm) vertical perianth measurement. The segments are wide and imbricated. Setepal number 1 measured 96mm wide and numbers 2 and 3 measured about 93mm wide; width of petepal number 4 was 58mm with the other two petepals 74mm. Petepals were slightly erect adding interest to the form. A sibling more normal in plant and flower size produced a perfect clear porcelain white flower with distinctive dark, ruby red picotee margins. The cross seemed to make it better.

Massive blooms surfaced on seedling 93-Pap-13 (Papfrag x a double flowered Hippeastrum). With about 24 segments, 93-Pap-13 might be termed a quad. The flowers were substantially larger than the pollen parent, about 8.375 inches (21cm) wide. Tepal tubes about 6 inches (15cm) long added abnormal weight on the scapes. A very thick, strong 26 inch (66cm) scape required staking when both flowers opened. On the flower the four base segments have similar form with the light ivory green color observed in the setepals of Papfrag (H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum). The upper segments reflected the petepal markings of Papfrag. The characteristic thin picotee edges (of Papfrag) are also present on all segments of this cultivar.

The bi-generic cross 94-Papsk-14 (H. Papfrag x Sprekelia TMH) affords an interesting scenario. This is a cross with H. papilio x H. fragrantissimum as the seed parent and a Sprekelia formosissima strain as the pollen parent. These seedlings developed a characteristic vigorous plant. The leaves are not remarkably different from typical Hippeastrum in appearance; however they are thicker which helps them resist flexing in the wind. The process of flower development seems to go through stages before anthesis. At first the flower opens minimally with the setepal number 1 recurving upward slightly. The impression is that the flowers might have a long tepal tube and a modest opening. The number 1 setepal continues to recurve upward while the other segments remain straight. This is a form characteristic reminiscent in other bigeneric crosses of Hippeastrum with Sprekelia in the early stage of the bloom. Then the flowers open and look like a Hippeastrum. The perianth measures about 5.25 inches (134mm) and the tepal tube measures about 4.5 inches (115mm). The setepals are dominant. Flower color is bright, clear, medium dark red with white ribs extended halfway up the segments.

In summary, these are samples of the cultivars derived from hybridizing with H. papilio in the parent trail. This demonstrates that H. papilio progeny can enhance our amaryllid repertoire. The frontier is still out there.