Species Plantarum
second & third editions
Linnaeus - 1762, 1764

capensis 1. AMARYLLIS spatha uniflora remotissima, corolla aequali, staminibus pistilloque rectis. Amoen. acad. 6. afr. 11.*
Sisyrinchium indicum. Cornut. canad. 168. Mori. hist. 2. p.421. s.4. t.23. f.9. Rudb. elys. 2. p.236. f.17.
Habitat ad Cap. b. Spei.
lutea 2. AMARYLLIS spatha uniflora, corolla aequali, staminibus declinatis. Hort. cliff. 135. Roy. lugdb. 36.
Narcissus autumnalis major. Clus. hist. 1. p.164.
Colchicum luteum 1. majus. Bauh. pin. 69.
Habitat in Hispania, Italia, Thracia.
Atamasco 3. AMARYLLIS spatha uniflora, corolla aequali, pistillo declinato. Hort. cliff. 135. Gron. virg. 36. Roy. lugdb. 36.
Lilio-Narcissus virginiensis. Catesb. car. 3. p.12. t.12.
Lilio-Narcissus vernus angustifolius, flore purpurascente. Barr. ic. 994.
Lilio-Narcissus liliflorus carolinianus, flore albo singulari cum rubedine diluto. Pluk. alm. 220. t.43. f.3.
Lilio-Narcissus indicus pumilus monanthos albus. Moris. hist. 2. p.266. s.4. t.24. f.4.
Habitat in Virginia
formosissima 4. AMARYLLIS spatha uniflora, corolla inaequali, petalis tribus genitalibusque declinatus. Hort. cliff. 135. Hort. ups. 75. Act. stockh. 1742. p.93. t.6. Roy. lugdb. 36.
Lilio-Narcissus jacobaeus, flore sangvineo nutante. Dill. elth. 195. t.162. f.196.
Narcissus jacobaeus major. Rudb. elys. 2. p.89. f.10.
Habitat in America meridionali, innotuit europaeis 1593.
Squamae totidem quot filamenta, e receptaculo ortae, filamentorum basi arcte adsident; an sic in reliquis?
reginae 5. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis campanulatis aequalibus undulatis, genitalibus declinatis. Mill. dict. t. 24.
Lilium americanum, puniceo flore, Belladonna dictum. Herm. par. 194. t. 194.
Habitat in Caribaeis.
Differt ab A. Belladonna marginibus petalorum undulatis, nec ad ungues recurvatis.
Belladonna 6. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis campanulatis aequalibus ungue reflexis, genitalibus declinatis. Hort. cliff. 135. Roy. lugdb. 36. Mill. dict. t.23
Lilio Narcissus polyanthos, flore incarnato, fundo ex luteo albescente. Sloane. jam. 115, hist. I. p.244. Seb. thes. I. p.25. t.17. f.1.
Lilium rubrum. Merian. surin. 22. t.22.
Habitat in Caribaeis, Barbados, Surinama.
sarniensis 7. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis revolutis, genitalibus erectis. Hort. ups. 75.
Amaryllis spatha multiflora, corollis aequalibus patentissimis revolutis, genitalibus longissimis. Hort. cliff. 131. Roy. lugdb. 36.
Narcissus japonicus, rutilo flore. Corn. canad. 157. t.158. Rudb. elys. 2. p.23. f.14. Ehret. select. t.9. f.3. Kaempf. amoen. 872. Seb. mus. 1 t.17. f.3.
Lilium sarniense. Dugl. monogr. t.1,2.
Habitat in Japonia, nunc in Sarnia insula Angliae.
zeylanica 8. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis campanulatis aequalibus, genitalibus declinatus, scapo tereti ancipiti. Roy. lugdb. 36.
Lilio-Narcissus zeylanicus latifolius, flore niveo externe linea purpurea striato. Comm. hort. 1. p.73. t.37. Rudb. elys. 2. p.181. f.9.
Tulipa javana. Rumph. amb. 5. p.306. t.105.
ß Lilio-Narcissus africanus, scillae foliis, flore niveo linea purpurea striato. Ehret. pict. 5. f.2. Trew. ehret. t.13.
Habitat in Zeylona.
longifolia 9. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis campanulatis aequalibus, genitalibus declinatus, scapo compresso longitudine umbellae. Roy. lugdb. 36. Ehret. pict. t.13.
Lilium africanum humile longissimis foliis, polyanthos saturato colore purpurescens. Herm. parad. 195. t.195.
Habitat in Æthiopica
orientalis 10. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, corollis inaequalibus, foliis linguiformibus Buttn. cunon. 215.
Amaryllis spatha multiflora, foliis ovato-oblongis obtusis. Roy. lugdb. 37.
Lilio-Narcissus indicus maximus sphaericus, floribus plurimis rubris liliaceis. Moris. hist. 2. p.568. s.4. t.10. f.35.
Narcissus indicus orientalis. Swert. flor. 31. f.1.
Brunsvigia. Heist.
Habitat in India.
ciliaris 11. AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, foliis ciliatis.
Habitat in Æthiopica.
Folia plana, linearia, pollicis latitudine, bipalmaria longitudine, adeoque figura Amaryllidis, non vero Haemanthi, sed marrgine undique ciliate, ciliis albis nec ferrugineis; adeoque longe recedit ab Haemantho ciliari; neutra tamen nobis floruit.
Appendix: p.1680Amaryllis Belladonna
Monographia System of Vegetable Generation. Lond.
1758, oct. t. 1-5 [Dr. John Hill]


In the 1731 and 1741 editions of Miller's Gardeners Dictionary, Sir Hans Sloane's description of the Red Lily of Barbados and Jamaica was attached to the plant now called Hippeastrum puniceum. Linnaeus referred to this plant by Sloane's phrase name in Hortus Cliffortianus. Some time in the early 1740s, someone decided that Sloane's phrase name belonged to the Cape Belladonna. Miller expressed his doubts, but continued to cite Sloane's phrase name for the Cape Belladonnas. Linnaeus may have had some knowledge of the confusion through George Ehret, who had contributed some of the drawings for Hortus Cliffortianus. Ehret married Miller's sister-in-law, and was a friend of Sloane.

In 1744 Ehret painted the pink and white Cape Belladonna as "Lilio-narcissus Americanus Belladona dictus par. bat.", which incorrectly identified the plant as a color variant of Hermann's "Lilium americanum, puniceo flore, Belladonna dictum." This may explain why Linnaeus omitted Hermann's phrase-name from Species Plantarum (1753). In the 1760 edition of Miller's Figures of Beautiful Plants ..., here referred to as Mill. dict., the descriptions of the two Belladonnas were reversed. Linnaeus knew Latin but could not read English (though of course he could make out words derived from Latin, and probably some others), so when he saw the West Indies plant with Sloane's and his own Hort. cliff. phrase-names attached he had no reason to suspect the error. Linnaeus had cited Hermann in Hort. Cliff. under the plant he would later name Amaryllis belladonna, but he was apparently now convinced that Ehret and Miller considered the pink and white Belladonna to be the species as Hermann had described.
*Plukenet (1673) had mistakenly listed Aldinus' Lilio-narcissus rubeus Indicus (an obvious Hippeastrum) as a synonym for the many-flowered Lilio-narcissus Indicus saturato colore purpurascens of Morison (possibibly a Brunsdonna).

The name Lilium Reginae was reportedly assigned by Douglass (1728) to a form of Red Lily (though the figure and pamphlet described by Miller have not been found), but Linnaeus gave the name to the Cape Belladonna due to the confusion started by Ehret (reviving Plukenet's earlier error*) and accidentally "confirmed" by a printing error. Hermann's Lilium americanum... is certainly what Linnaeus named Amaryllis belladonna, but in fairness we should note that the left-facing flower in Hermann's figure does have an uncharacteristically funnel-like shape, suggesting that it might be a different species.

The appendix refers to the work by Dr. John Hill who used a microscope to study this plant in exquisite detail. One of the plates cited shows the beard pads at the base of the petals. Linnaeus was not able to include this detail in the current work, but mentioned "basi ciliata" in his Mantissa Plantarum of 1767 & 1771. Hill's plate of a two-flowered specimen makes it clear that Linnaeus knew which of the plants was A. Belladonna, and that two flowers could be called "multiflora". John Parkinson (Paradisi 1629) distinguished Daffodills as monanthos ("one flower or two at the most") and polyanthos ("many flowers"). This may explain why Patrick Browne called the Jamaica Amaryllis "uniflora". Linnaeus's use of the word "ungue" has caused much confusion. John Hill (Vegetable System 1774) translated the word as "base", which clears up the matter. He described the petals of Belladonna as having a bend at the base (ungue reflexis); and distinguished reginae by "the Petals in this are waved at the edge, and strait at the base."

Hill's Jamaica Amaryllis or Amaryllis biflora was distinguished by its ascending style and filaments.