Euphytica 23: 447-457 (1974)
Breeding research on rose pigments. 1. The occurrence of flavonoids and carotenoids in rose petals
Doenja de Vries, Herman van Keulen, J. W. de Bruyn

Summary

As a preamble to a breeding programme for colour in roses, the relative quantities of carotenoids, cyanidin, pelargonidin, quercetin and kaempferol were determined in about 200 varieties and some species. Cyanidin was about normally distributed among red varieties, as were carotenoids and flavonols among white and yellow varieties. A positive relationship between pelargonidin and kaempferol was established, and a negative one between pelargonidin and quercetin. No other relations were found between the pigments.

[Yellow or white roses that are high in Kaempferol are more likely to give orange offspring when paired with an orange variety (pelargonidin-bearing). Varieties rich in Quercetin are more inclined to give cyandin-reds.]

In Table 1 all varieties and species screened are included, because information on rose pigments, which is scant, may be of benefit to breeders. Selections designated IVT had been bred at our institute and are not in the trade. In the Table column 1 indicates the colour group according to the American Rose Society (MODERN ROSES, 1969) by a figure as follows:

01 white or near white 09 medium pink
02 medium yellow 10 pink blend
03 deep yellow 11 light red and deep pink
04 yellow blend 12 medium red
05 apricot blend 13 dark red
06 orange and orange blend 14 red blend
07 orange-red 15 mauve
08 light pink 16 russet

Columns 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 represent the classes of relative quantities of carotenoids, cyanidin, pelargonidin, quercetin and kaempferol.

Considering the red varieties in this list (figures 05-15), it can be seen that their colours are made up of either cyanidin alone, or of cyanidin combined with pelargonidin; pelargonidin alone appears to be absent. None of these varieties was found to contain another anthocyanidin. The distributions of 150 red coloured varieties according to their relative cyanidin and pelargonidin contents are presented in Fig. 1. The distribution over the cyanidin classes is about normal; that over the pelargonidin classes also, were it not that the frequency in class 2 is rather high. About 20% of the varieties tested do not contain any pelargonidin (class 0), whereas all contain cyanidin. With the χ2-test it could be demonstrated that cyanidin and pelargonidin occurred independently in the same varieties.

Table 1. List of varieties and species, column 1 indicating the A.R.S. colour code, columns 2‑6 the relative
quantities of carotenoids, cyanidin, pelargonidin, quercetin and kaempferol respectively.

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Varieties A.R.S.
colour code
Carotenoids Cyanidin Pelargonidin Quercetin Kaempferol
Alex. Hill Gray 02 2 0 0 3 5
Allegro 07 0 4 5 0 3
All Gold 03 5 0 0 4 4
Amarillo 03 5 0 0 3 4
American Home 13 2 4 2 4 3
Arnica 06 2 2 4 1 3
Annabell (KORbell) 06 4 2 4 1 4
Anne Cocker 06 2 2 5 0 2
Anne Marie Trechslin 12 5 3 0 3 0
Angeline Lauro 07 0 3 6 0 3
Arturo Toscanini 07 0 6 6 1 4
Aventure 12 1 4 5 0 4
Baccara 06 0 6 6 1 4
Barbara 04 4 1 1 3 4
Belinda 09 5 1 4 1 3
Belle Blonde 02 5 0 0 3 2
Bengali 07 5 1 2 0 3
Bettina 05 5 3 0 3 2
Blessings 10 2 2 3 1 4
Burning Love 13 0 5 2 2 1
Canasta 12 0 5 3 2 1
Caria 09 0 4 3 1 1
Champs-Elysées 12 0 5 3 2 4
Chantré 05 5 2 0 3 3
Cherry Brandy 07 4 2 3 0 2
Christian Dior 12 3 5 2 2 0
City of Belfast 07 1 6 6 2 4
Clarita 06 2 3 6 0 4
Condesa de Sástago 14 4 3 0 4 2
Constanze 06 2 3 4 4 2
Crimson Duke 12 1 6 2 0 0
Crimson Glory 13 0 6 3 5 3
Criterion 11 1 4 2 5 4
Dame de Coeur 12 0 6 2 2 0
Demoiselle 08 5 3 0 0 0
Diablotin 06 1 5 6 2 4
Diamond Jubilee 04 4 1 0 2 5
Duftwolke 06 1 4 5 0 2
Duke of Windsor 06 2 2 5 0 3
Eden Rose 11 0 3 0 3 0
El Capitan 12 0 5 2 0 0
Esther Ofarim 06 5 3 4 1 4
Fidelio 12 3 5 6 0 3
Frau Karl Druschki 01 1 0 0 5 5

 

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Varieties A.R.S.
colour code
Carotenoids Cyanidin Pelargonidin Quercetin Kaempferol
Fred Streeter 02 5 0 0 4 3
Frenzy 06 5 1 4 0 2
Fresco 06 4 1 3 1 5
Garden News 13 1 4 3 4 0
Golddigger 03 3 0 0 2 4
Gold Dot 02 4 0 0 0 3
Golden Chersonese 03 5 0 0 5 4
Goldene Sonne 02 5 0 0 3 0
Golden Girl 02 5 0 0 3 0
Golden Ideal 02 3 0 0 0 4
Golden Masterpiece 02 5 0 0 3 3
Goldgleam 02 5 0 0 2 5
Goldkrone 02 5 0 0 4 3
Goldrausch 02 5 0 0 4 4
Grisbi 03 5 0 0 0 4
Hadley 12 0 5 2 4 3
Happiness 12 1 5 2 4 2
Harry Kirk 02 1 0 0 4 4
Hawaii 07 2 2 5 1 4
Herz As 12 1 4 0 4 0
Hilda Heinemann 12 4 5 2 3 0
Hoosier Beauty 12 1 5 2 4 2
Independence 06 1 3 3 0 3
Indian Chief 07 4 6 3 0 0
Interview 06 2 2 4 1 4
Irish Mist 07 1 2 2 0 2
IVT no 6 07 0 5 5 1 4
IVT no 15 06 0 4 4 0 0
IVT no 20 07 0 5 5 2 3
IVT no 24 06 1 1 5 0 0
IVT no 26 07 0 4 4 0 0
IVT no 33 07 0 5 4 0 3
IVT no 34 06 4 4 5 1 4
IVT no 36 06 4 4 5 0 3
IVT no 39 06 2 4 5 0 4
IVT no 48 07 2 3 5 1 4
IVT no 103 06 1 3 5 0 3
IVT no 176 07 0 4 4 2 5
IVT no 181 06 2 3 6 2 4
IVT no 186 06 1 3 6 2 2
IVT no 187 07 0 5 5 2 5
IVT no 197 06 2 4 6 2 3
IVT no 330 07 3 4 5 2 3
IVT no 331 03 4 0 0 0 0
IVT no 348 06 0 1 5 0 0
IVT no 350 06 2 3 5 1 4
IVT no 353 12 0 5 2 2 0

 

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Varieties A.R.S.
colour code
Carotenoids Cyanidin Pelargonidin Quercetin Kaempferol
IVT no 654 12 0 2 4 1 4
IVT no 702 07 2 5 3 3 3
IVT no 716 12 2 5 4 2 3
IVT no 725 12 3 5 2 2 2
IVT no 729 12 3 5 1 4 2
IVT no 736 03 6 0 0 5 4
IVT R. 69/34 06 1 4 4 1 4
IVT R. 94/34 06 1 5 6 2 4
Joanna Hill 04 5 1 0 0 3
John Waterer 12 0 6 3 3 0
Josephine Bruce 13 2 5 0 0 0
June Park 11 0 2 0 3 3
Kabuki 03 4 0 0 0 2
Kagayaki 07 5 6 0 3 0
Karl Herbst 12 1 4 2 0 0
King's Ransom 03 5 0 0 2 3
Königin der Rosen 06 4 1 3 1 1
Kordes' Perfecta 10 2 3 0 2 0
Korp (Prominent) 07 5 3 5 2 4
Lady Seton 09 0 4 3 0 4
Lamplighter 03 5 0 0 3 0
Lara 09 1 2 2 0 0
Leenders' Flamingo 06 1 3 5 2 5
Lemon Ice 02 2 0 0 3 3
Lowell Thomas 03 5 0 0 2 3
Lucy Cramphorn 06 4 4 4 0 2
Lydia 03 5 0 0 4 0
Magic Moment 12 2 4 4 1 3
Marcelle Gret 03 5 0 0 0 3
Maréchal Niel 02 3 0 0 4 5
Marella 07 0 4 5 0 3
Marga Klompé 07 1 4 4 1 6
Margaret McCredy 07 2 4 2 4 0
Maria Callas 09 1 3 0 3 0
McGredy's Sunset 04 4 0 0 4 4
McGredy's Yellow 02 3 0 0 0 4
Meigold 03 5 0 0 3 4
Meilodie 07 2 4 5 0 4
Metropole 09 3 2 0 5 3
Michéle Meilland 10 4 2 0 4 2
Mignonne 08 0 1 2 0 3
Mischief 09 3 3 3 0 0
Miss France 06 2 5 5 2 3
Mme. Falcot 02 1 0 0 4 4
Mme. Joseph. Perraud 04 4 2 0 2 2
Mme. Kriloff 04 4 2 0 4 0

 

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Varieties A.R.S.
colour code
Carotenoids Cyanidin Pelargonidin Quercetin Kaempferol
Mme. Pierre S. Dupont 04 5 1 0 3 3
Mount Chasta 01 0 0 0 0 5
Mrs. Sam McGredy 03 5 0 0 3 4
Mullard Jubilee 12 0 5 4 0 4
Muria 06 1 2 5 1 3
New Style 13 0 6 2 0 0
Norris Pratt 03 5 0 0 3 4
No. 80/1176-70 06 1 2 5 1 3
No 2090 06 2 3 6 0 5
Numéro Un 07 2 3 4 1 5
Pascali 01 1 0 0 0 3
Peace 04 3 1 0 3 0
Peer Gynt 03 5 0 0 0 0
Pepe 14 3 3 0 3 0
Pharaoh 12 1 5 4 2 4
Pink Peace 11 1 4 0 3 2
Pink Supreme 09 3 3 0 5 3
Poinsettia 12 1 5 2 4 0
Polynesian Sunset 06 3 3 4 i 4
Richard E. West 02 2 0 0 4 4
Roelof Buisman 12 1 5 2 3 1
Roi Soleil 02 4 0 0 4 4
R. ecae AITCH. 02 4 0 0 5 4
R. foetida HERRM. 'Austrian Yellow' 03 6 0 0 3 1
R. foetida HERRM. 'Austrian Copper' 04 5 3 0 4 0
R. foetida HERRM. 'Persian Yellow' 03 6 0 0 3 0
R. foetida HERRM. x? 'Star of Persia' 03 6 0 0 4 3
R. hemisphaerica HERRM. var.
rapinii (BOISS) ROWLEY
03 6 0 0 6 5
R. hugonis HEMSL. 02 4 0 0 5 5
R. spinosissima L. 'Extra rood' 13 0 5 0 6 4
R. xanthina Ldl. 03 4 0 0 5 5
Rose Moët 03 5 0 0 4 0
Roter Champagner 12 0 5 2 4 2
Roter Stern 12 1 6 2 2 0
Samourai 12 2 5 2 2 0
Satisfaction 11 0 4 0 4 4
Scarlet Queen Elisabeth 07 1 4 6 1 3
Scarlet Sunset 07 1 5 6 2 4
Schneewittchen 01 0 0 0 2 4
Signora 06 4 2 0 3 0
Silva 10 2 2 0 4 2
Sincera 01 0 0 0 0 3
Soleil d'Or 04 4 2 0 3 0
Sonia 09 1 1 3 0 3
Sonnet 08 1 1 2 0 2

 

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Varieties A.R.S.
colour code
Carotenoids Cyanidin Pelargonidin Quercetin Kaempferol
Soraya 06 3 4 4 0 2
Souvenir de Pierre Notting 02 3 0 0 4 6
Spartan 06 1 3 5 0 3
Summer Holiday 07 1 4 6 0 4
Summer Sunshine 03 4 0 0 4 2
Super Star [Tropicana] 06 1 2 5 0 2
Suspense 14 4 4 2 2 0
Sutter's Gold 04 4 2 0 4 0
Talisman 04 4 2 0 3 2
Tradition 12 1 5 2 3 1
Traviata 14 0 4 0 2 0
Tyriana 11 1 2 0 0 0
Uncle Walter 12 0 6 2 3 1
Valencia 05 5 2 0 3 0
Vara Iglo 01 1 0 0 0 4
Virgo 01 0 0 0 2 4
Vivace 06 1 1 4 1 5
Wendy Cussons 12 0 5 0 4 0
Western Sun 03 4 0 0 3 2
Whisky 05 5 1 2 0 3
White Masterpiece 01 1 0 0 1 5
Wisbech Gold 03 5 0 0 2 0
Wizo 06 2 2 5 0 2