Time line of Yellow China Roses

Bot Mag 5: t. 1059 (1807)
[1059] Rosa multiflora
Our drawing of this lively and agreeable Rose was taken at Messrs. COLVILLE'S, in the King's-Road, where it flowered freely in July last. We believe that the country owes the introduction of this Rose from China to Mr. Evans, of the East-India House, by whom it has been liberally distributed; and its flowering has been expected with some degree of interest, as its blossoms were supposed to have been yellow; whence the name of Rosa flava in DONN'S Catalogue, if we do not mistake. There can be no doubt of its being a double coloured variety of the ROSA multiflora of Japan; with THUNBERG'S description of which, in his Flora Japonica, it corresponds in every respect, except that he says the flowers are white. Had it been an undescribed species, we should have called it ROSA rubiflora, as the flowers resemble those of the bramble, not only in external appearance, but in the length of the styles: we have therefore adopted this in our English name. Indeed, without seeing the fruit, it is not possible to decide absolutely whether it belong to the genus ROSA or Rubus; but on the presumption that our plant is the same as that described by THUNBERG, combined with the general habit, we refer it to the former genus.

[Note: In the 1807 edition of the Hortus Cantabrigiensis 4th ed., Donn listed:
33. flava — yellow China — — 1804
In the 5th edition of 1809, "flava" was replaced by "multiflora" (No. 43) with the same date of introduction, and the description was changed to "many flowered", native of Japan.]


East India Company: Chinese Plants (1817)
Wong li choon.—Rosa sp. floribus flavescentibus. This is the most delicate, slow growing, and difficult to propagate of all the roses cultivated in this part, and accordingly the most scarce and valuable. Flowers in different seasons of the year, has little or no smell.
[This is a tantalizing item. I don't know who shipped the plants, when they were shipped, or where they were delivered.]

François Cels: Catalogue des arbres, arbustes, et autre plantes de serre chaude, etc. (1817) p. 33
ROSA bengal
cent feuilles
— cramoisie
— bichone
— pourpre
— feuilles de pêcher
thé
— pompon
anenating
— jaune
— blanc

Le Bon Jardinier: Almanach pour l'anneé 1821 p. 809 (1820)
M. Noisette a rapporté d'Angleterre la rose multiflore écarlate, multiflora coccinea, et beaucoup d'autres, telles que quatre roses mousseuses nouvelles, etc.
    Cette année le docteur Cartier a obtenu dans ses semis de la rose dite bengale, une rose jaune double, qui M. Noisette, beaucoup d'autres amateur et moi avons vu avec bien de l'intérét. J'attendrai à l'année prochaine, pour en donner une description plus détaillée.

[Mr. Noisette has brought from England the scarlet multiflora rose, multiflora coccinea, and many others, such as four new moss roses, etc.
     This year Dr. Cartier got in his planting of the so-called bengal rose, a double yellow rose that Mr. Noisette, many other amateurs and I have seen with much of interest. I will wait until next year to give a more detailed description.]

According to Desportes (1828), Noisette imported the double pink R. multiflora from England to France in 1817. This implies that Cartier' bengale jaune flowered the same year.

Vibert: Essai sur les roses (1824)
p. 33
Chez l'étranger aussi, les roses ont le privilége d'exalter l'imagination et de troubler la vue, je n'oserais même affirmer s'ils n'ont pas plus que nous encore l'art de rendre souvent intéressant ce qui ne l'est guère. J'ai vu cultiver en serre, à Paris, et j'ai moi-même acheté l'arvensis, que les Anglais nous avaient vendu pour le bengale jaune. Heureux pays! où les roses, en changeant de nom, augmentent souvent d'une guinée, et nous reviennent quelquefois plus tard avec cette petite augmentation.
pp. 36-37
Un bengale jaune, double, est announcé en 1821: plusieurs personnes, dit-on, l'ont vu jaune et double chez M. Cartier, qui l'aurait trouvé de semence. Nous avons vu déjà que nous avions cultivé l'arvensis sous ce nom; mais au moins nous le tenions des Anglais, assez, coutumiers du fait. Celui-ci a été vu par le rédacteur; il est annoncé dans un de ces ouvrages destinés à faire connaître aux nombreux amateurs de la culture d'agrément les nouv\;elles conquêtes de l'industrie humaine. Bientôt cette nouvelle se répand avec une étonnante rapidité; vingt lettres me parviennent en peu de temps , qui me prouvent tout l'intérêt que chacun prend à cette découverte: l'un fait des vœux pour sa conservation, l'autre prend acte de sa demande pour le moment où il sera livré au commerce, un troisième demande qu'il soit vendu par souscription; de tous côtés, on m'accable de questions sur ce bengale, et on me charge d'en féliciter l'auteur. Les bonnes gens que les amateurs! comme ils aiment, comme ils s'intéressent à. ce qui est beau! Pourquoi faut-il trop souvent décevoir de si douces illusions? Consolez-vous du moins, et modérez vos regrets, le bengale en question est mort, il est vrai; mais il n'était pas jaune: c'était une de ces fleurs simples ou semi doubles, d'un blanc terne, telles qu'on en voit assez souvent dans les pimprenelles de semence. Toutefois, M. Cartier, que nous comptons au nombre de nos meilleurs comme de nos plus anciens amateurs, est étranger à cette méprise, qu'il faut attribuer à l'imagination un peu vive du rédacteur.

Pirolle: l'Horticulteur Français vol. 1, pp. 572 (1825)
BENGALE THÉ; fleurs larges semi-doubles, blanc à teinte nankin, odeur suave du thé.

Le Bon Jardinier pour l'année 1826 (1825)
A. Poiteau, rédacteur principal
p. xxxiii
Nous avons vu en fleurs, chez M. CELS, ce qu'on appelle Bengale jaune. C'est une sous-variété de la rose-thê, plus petite jaune serin pâle et presque semi-double. Elle conserve une faible odeur de la rose thé.
p. lii
Plantes nouvelles introduites dans le commerce, en 1825.
par M. Noisette
Rosier Bengale Jaune
Almanach p. 720
32. R. des Indes ... Le Bengale Jaune ou sulphureux, que nous avons vu en fleur chez M. CELS, paraît en être une sous-variété [of R. indica], plus petite et moins odorante.
[Note: The name is spelled sulfureux in the index]

Extraits de divers rapports faits à la Société Royale d'Agriculture et de Botanique de Gand (1826)
Plantes envoyées à la Société royale d'Agriculture et de Botanique de Gand, par M. Th. Beale, de Macao, le 18 Janvier 1826, remises à bord du bâtiment Cornelia Henrica, capitaine Sipkes, en retour de Batavia pour Amsterdam.
Caisse No. 4.
75 Rosa sinensis (yellow rose)

[CybeRose note: Thomas Beale on Wikipedia
Beale provided hospitality and assistance to James Main, gardener to Gilbert Slater, and "sent his Chinese gardener to places closed to Westerners to collect plants for Potts and Parks."
John Potts and John Damper Parks, both sent by the Horticultural Society of London.]

Catalogue of plants in the collection of Conrad Loddiges & Sons (1826) p. 56.
Rosa
—— odorata
—— odorata lutea
—— odorata Americana

Louis Noisette: Manuel Complet du Jardinier 4: 521-523 (1826)
p. 521
54. Rosier de l'Inde. R. indica; de Pronv. De la Chine.
     1. Rose thé, ou odoratissima. Fleurs très-grande, odorantes. Sous-variétiés;
   18. Bengale jaune, ou sulfureux; fleurs plus petites, jaunâtres, moins odorantes.
p. 523
56. Rosier du Bengale. R. semperflorens, Pronv. R. sinensis; Willd. R. bengalensis; Pers. R. indica; Lindl. etc.
   23. Bengale soufre. Fleurs doubles, d'un jaune pâle, ayant la forme et la grandeur de la rose thé.

Noisette: Catalogue général des arbres, arbustes et plantes, tant de serre que de pleine terre, etc. p. 67 (1826)
Rosa sinensis lutea [Note: This is the Bengale jaune, ou sulfureux mentioned above. Rosa sinensis Willd. = R. chinensis Jacq.]

Robert Sweet: Hortus Britannicus p. 138 (1826)
89 odorata sweet-scented 1810
  β flavescens yellow China 1823
107 Banksiae Lady Banks's 1807
  β lutea yellow-flowered 1823

Lindley: Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, Volume 6: 286-287 (1826)
Rosa Indica var. ochroleuca.
This plant was brought for the Society from China, in 1824, by Mr. PARKS, as one of the interesting yellow China Roses, which have long been known to collectors by the drawings of the Chinese; … The flowers are very large, solitary, pale sulphur colour, quite double, very fragrant, not expanding much more than R. sulphurea; but under the influence of much heat, opening fully, when they measure four inches across. This is one of the finest varieties of China roses known in the gardens; and so entirely different from any other, that it may be considered an important addition to our collections. It appears to be hardy, but thrives in a conservatory, where it expands its flowers better than in the open air.

The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement, vol. 2, no. 6. (March 1827)
p. 61
The yellow Chinese rose, which M. Poiteau calls a subvariety of the tea-scented, (our R. odorata,) has flowered with M. Cels;
p. 188
Trees or Shrubs.—
35. Rosa Indica var. ochroleuca. This is one of the finest varieties of China roses known in the gardens; and so entirely different from any other, that it may be considered an important addition to our collections. It appears to be hardy, but thrives in a conservatory, where it expands its flowers better than in the open air.
p. 217
1826-27 Supplement to Pirolle's 1825 list.
Sect III.—Roses with flowers of the third dimension, or about 30 lines in diameter (2.5 in.)
139 * Bengale soufre, sulph.
140 * Bengale thé, cream

Dictionnaire d'Agriculture Pratique, vol 2, p. 539 (1827)
Nicolas François de Neufchâteau
30. Rosier Des Indes (Rosa indica). On le confond assez souvent avec le bengale auquel il ressemble en effet beaucoup. Sa plus belle variété est la rose thé, ainsi nommée de son odeur. Le Bengale jaune, qui paraît une sous-variété de la précédente [rose thé], à fleur sulfureuse.

Annalen der Blumisterei volume 3, p. 169 (1827)
Rosa indica flavescens, die blaß schwefelgelbe neue Theerose; sie ist weit größer wie die ordinaire Theerose, und hat einen ganz eigenthümlichen, starken Geruch. Preis im 24 fl. Fuß. 5 fl.
[Rosa indica flavescens, the new pale sulfur-yellow Tea-rose, it is far larger than the ordinary Tea-rose, and has a very peculiar, strong smell.
Note: This was apparently Parks' rose.]
p. 170
- Banksiana lutea plena, die Banksrose mit gelben, gefülten Blumen. 5 fl.
Paluvisini, neue Monatsrose
    [It is interesting that the yellowish-white 'Pallavicini' should have arrived from Italy so early. But no. In vol. 4 (1828) I found Paluvicini — Purpurviolett,]
p. 242
... Rosa Banksia lutea; Rosa Thea sulphurea ...

Roses; Or, A Monograph of the Genus Rosa - Volume 2 (1805-1828)
Henry Charles Andrews
Rosa Indica sulphurea — Yellow China Rose
The rosa sulphurea, known by the appellation of the Yellow China Rose, was raised at the Nursery of Mr. Knight, from seed of the R. odorata. We have seen it paler, but never deeper in colour than we have represented it.

Desportes: Rosetum Gallicum p. 102 (1828)
p. 93
Rosier du Bengale
2064 — — jaune. — alba aurantia.
p. 96
Rosier du Bengale
2142 — aurantia, — Fl. blanche, nuancée de jaune.
p. 102
2309 — jaune. — Thé soufre. — ochroleuca. Lindl. in Reg. Bot. — R. Chinensis, Thea sulphurea. Baum. Cat.
[CybeRose note: "Lindley in Reg. Bot." is the same mistake made by Don (1832). In fact, it was Lindley's description of R. banksiae var. lutea, that appeared in Bot. Reg. 13: t. 1105 (1827). Apparently there is some other source for this error that I have not yet located. Unless both authors made the same mistake independently. However, Lindley did mention Rosa ochroleuca in his discussion of R. Kamchatica: β. nitens in Bot. Reg. 10: t. 824 (1824), but this was something very different.]
p. 104
R. de Noisette
2381 — jaune-soufre. — sulphurea. N. — mutabilis. Maug. (Mauget, 1827)
p. 112
R. Musqué
2485 — à coeur jaune. — Noisette à cœur jaune. — R. l'Endormi. — Rothomagensis. N. (Rouen, 1825). Fl. blanche, coeur jaune.
2486 — jaune. — Princesse de Nassau. —flavescens. N. — Fl. jaune-nankin passant au blanc

Le Bon Jardinier p. 780 (1828)
32. R. des Indes. R. indica.
Le Bengale jaune ou sulphureux, que nous avons vu en fleur chez M. CELS, parait en être une sous-variétié, plus petite et moins odorante.

The Practical Gardener and Modern Horticulturist pp. 1076-1077 (1836) First published in 1828)
Charles McIntosh
And in such pits may with propriety be kept all or most of the delicate varieties of China roses, of which the yellow China, as our figure represents, is amongst the most interesting; and the sweet-scented China, which is too delicate to prosper well in most situations, could be brought to the greatest perfection if kept in pits of this kind during the winter months.
[Note: The illustration shows the simple sepals and campanulate receptacle described by Lindley for ochroleuca.]

John Cree: Hortus Addlestonensis p. 33 (1829)
99 odorata P. sw scented China March, Oct. 10 blush B.R. 804
100 β flavescens P. yellow ditto ditto 6 pale yellow  
             
Expositions publiques de la Société d'Agriculture et de Botanique de la Ville de Gand, 25 Jan 1830
Il est encore résolu, qu'en témoignage de reconnaissance, la Société exposera des plantes pour M. Th. Beale (*), négociant à Macao, province de Canton en Chine;   It is further resolved, that in a token of gratitude, the Society shall exhibit plants for Mr. Th. Beale (*), a merchant in Macau, Province of Canton in China;
(*) Liste des Plantas envoyées le 18 Janvier 1829, Par M. TH. BEALE, de Macao, et que M. le docteur Moke, à son retour en Europe à bord du bátiment Raymond, avait bien voulu se charger de remettre à la Société.   (*) List of Plants sent on January 18, 1829, by M. TH. BEALE, of Macao, and which Dr. Moke, on his return to Europe aboard the ship Raymond, had been kind enough to undertake to hand over to the Society.
5. Rosa chinensis, jaune. Pas encore introduce en Europe   5. Rosa chinensis, jaune. Not yet introduced in Europe
[Note; this shipment also included Hibiscus chinensis, jaune]

Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London vol. 7, p. 399 (1830)
Upon the proper management of Plants during their Voyage from China to England.. In a Letter to the Secretary. By Mr. John Damper Parks. (Read Feb 5, 2838)
"The Commander, Captain Baker, had plants of the large Yellow China Rose, placed in the after cabin, which died in three weeks after we left Canton. I lost during the whole voyage only one out of four of this sort of Rose which were place on deck."
Lindley briefly discussed the double yellow Rosa banksiae on pp. 226-227.]

Loudon: Hortus Britannicus: A Catalogue of All the Plants ..., Parts 1-2 (1830) p. 211

13470 Indica L.
  Garden Varieties referable either to R. indica or R. semperflorens.
  Alba Centifolia Lucida Purpurea
  Animating Cerise éclatante Major Sanguinea
  Atro-nigra Chiffonnée Minor Sans Epines
  Bengale à Bouquet Cucullata Monstrosa Subalba
  Bengale à Fl. Panaché Elegans Moonshine Terneaux
  Bengale Blanche Florida Nigra Thisbe
  Bichonia Gigantea Ochroleuca Veloutée
  Canecens Lie de Vin
13474 fraseriana Hort. — Fraser's
13476 flavescens Hort — flavescent China — 1821
13479 semperflorens Cur. — ever-blowing — 1789
13480 Lawrenceana Swt. — Miss Lawrence's — 1810

Salon d'été: XLIIIième exposition publique de la société royale d'agriculture et de botanique de la ville de Gand p. 29 (1830)
M. F. Van Damme, Cultivateur, fleuriste, pépiniériste, avenue de la maison de détention
932. Rosa flavescens, Odeur de thé
M. Fr. Vanderhaeghen, Jardinier-fleuriste, rue belvue.
954. Rosa flavescens, Odeur de thé

The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement, 7: 479 (1831)
The Florist's Guide and Cultivator's Directory, &c. By Robert Sweet, F.L.S. &c. XLVIII. for June, contains:
"Mr. Smith, of Coombe Wood, will have several very distinct and curious hybrid roses in flower this season; among the rest he has a seedling, from Rosa odorata var. flavescens, with leaves like those of the yellow Austrian; this must certainly be fine, and will doubtless be yellow in colour."
     [Note: This suggests that William Smith, gardener to the Earl of Liverpool, used flavescens rather than ochroleuca as a parent of Smith's Yellow Noisette. Smith later opened a nursery at Norbiton Common where he gained additional fame for his hybrid Rhododendrons and Pelargoniums.]

The Horticultural Register, 1: 87 (Aug 1831)
At Messrs. Rollisson & Sons', Tooting, Surrey:
Rosa odorata formosissima
——  ———   alba
——  ———   lutescens

George Don: A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants, Volume 2 p. 582 (1832)
Rosa indica var. ochroleuca; flowers double, large, cream-coloured, without any scent. This variety was introduced from China in 1824 by Mr. Parks, and is figured in the thirteenth volume of the Botanical Register. It is commonly called the yellow Chinese rose.
     [Note: Bold face indicates details properly belonging only to R. banksiae var. lutea, which Parks also brought back from China.]

Buist: The American Flower Garden Directory, pp. 182-189 (1832)
No. 12. Rosa Bengal, or Yellow-tea, is a very free flowerer, the shape of the flower is more like No. 8 [Rosa odorata, or Tea-rose] than any of the others; the petals are large and gracefully set, having a peculiar scent or flavour, and is of a sulphur colour. We cannot say as to its being hardy, but suppose it as much so as No. 8.
     [CybeRose note: Lindley described Ochroleuca as "so entirely different from any other".]

The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement, 8: 507 (Sept 1832)
A Banksian medal was also recommended to be bestowed on Mr. Wm. Smith, gardener to the Earl of Liverpool, for his yellow Noisette rose.

The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement, 8: 599 (Sept 1832)
1522. ROSA 13470 indica
var. Smithii Swt. Sm.'s yel. Noisette ... Eng. hybrid 1829 ... Sw. fl. gar. 2.s.158
(British Flower-Garden, Sept.)

Verzeichniss von im Freien ausdauernden Bäumen, Gesträuchen und Staudengewächse,
so wie der Hauspflanzen, welche im Hamburgischen botanischen Garten (1834)

Rosa odorata Narcisse
Rosa odorata Sulphurea variegata
Rosa odorata var. Thea aurantiaca
Rosa odorata var. Thea fl. luteo simpl.
Rosa odorata var. Thea fl. luteo semipl.

The Beauties of Flora t. 4 (1834)
Eliza Eve Gleadall
Rosa odorata flavescens — The sweet-scented China Rose
     [CybeRose Note: A drawing of this rose with instructions for coloring it.]

Pirolle: Les Roses (1835) vol. 3, t. 173.
Rosa indica sulfurea, Bengale Jaune-Soufre
This charming and valuable rose was imported from England to Paris by Mr. HARDY, in 1825 or 1826. Several amateurs and merchants have also received specimens from Mr. LODDIGES the same year.
     [CybeRose Note: Loddiges & Sons (1826) listed Rosa odorata lutea. Buist (1839) identified Lutea as a synonym for Flavescens.]

The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries 1(4): 218 (June 1835)
R. Thea odorata, var. lutea. The yellow-flowering Tea Rose. This is in great demand, and commands an extraordinary price. A few days since I endeavored to purchase, for a gentleman, at one of the nurseries, a variety of roses. The yellow tea was one of the number wanted; but the price named was exorbitant, and this, too, for a very small plant.
R. Thea odorata, var. Palavicina. Flower a bright yellow, inclining to an orange color, with a pink or red centre; a very beautiful kind.

Rivers: Catalogue of Roses (1835) in The Floricultural Cabinet and Florists' Magazine (Dec 1, 1835) Chinas and Teas pp 269-272
These are China Roses having a strong odour of tea; they are seminal varieties of the old blush tea scented rose, (rosa indica odorata) and of rosa ochroleuca, or the yellow China rose. They are more delicate than those of the preceding section as to the cold in Winter, and also in their flowers, as they seem to require the warm dewry nights of August and September to bring them to perfection; in hot weather, in June and July they are very fleeting, as their flowers are large and of a delicate texture, soon fading in sunny weather. They require careful cultivation, and must have a raised border against a south, south-east, or west wall. This border should be a compost of rotten manure, or leaves, light loam and sand, equal parts, and raised about eighteen inches above the surface; when grown as low Standards, they are surpassingly beautiful; but they should be taken up in November, and their roots laid in mould, in a shed, as our sharp winters would injure them, so as to prevent their blooming in perfection, if left exposed.
CHINA ROSES, (Rosa indica.)
Sulphurea superba — pale sulphur — cupped, very large and double [Presumably 'Ochroleuca']
TEA SCENTED CHINA ROSES, (Rosa indica odorate.)
Yellow — pale sulphur cupped, — large and semi-dble ['Flavescens']

Paxton's Magazine of Botany, and Register of Flowering Plants, 2: 33, 34 (1836)
Rosa odorata - purple white - 8 ft
Rosa odorata flavescens - light yellow - 6 ft
Rosa noisette new yellow - yellow - 10 ft.

Boitard: Manuel complet de l'amateur de roses, p. 266 (1836)
Fleurs jaunâtres.
BENGALE SOUFRE. Péan. Fleurs doubles, d'un jaune pâle, ayant la meme grandeur et la même forme que celles de la rose thé ordinaire.
PAULINE BORGHÈSE. Laffay. Fleurs pleines, moyennes, odorantes, d'un carné tirant sur le jaune nankin.
LA CHINOISE. Laffay. Fleurs moyennes, pleines, d'un carné jaunâtre.
BENGALE FLEUR DE SOUFRE; Laffay. Fleurs larges, doubles, d'un jaune sulfureux pâle.

* According to the Preface, vol. 1, p. vii, "The engraving and printing of this Work, for which collections had been making for several years (see the Gardener's Magazine, vol. vi., for 1830, p. 582. and p. 718.), was begun in August, 1834; and it has been published in Numbers, the first of which appeared in January, 1835, and the 63d and last on the 1st of July, 1838."
† Repeating George Don's error of 1832. Rosa banksiae lutea was described and illustrated in Bot. Reg.
George Gordon was Superintendent of the Arboretum in the Horticultural Society's Garden. His comment is ambiguous. Whatever he meant by "true", the supplement appended to vol. 4 was issued in time to have been responsible for Rivers' misidentification of flavescens with Parks' ochroleuca.

Loudon: Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum (Jan 1835 to July 1838*)
vol. 2 p. 771

R. indica.
R. i. 11 ochroleuca Bot. Reg., the yellow China Rose, has large cream-coloured flowers, deepening almost into yellow in the centre. It was introduced by Mr. Parks, in 1824, and has rapidly become a great favourite, in pots and ornamental flower-gardens.
vol 4, suppl. p. 2560
R. i. 12 flavescens Hort. — This, Mr. Gordon assures us, is the true tea-scented yellow China rose, and not the preceding variety, which is generally confounded with it.

Thomas Rivers Jr.: Rose Amateur's Guide p. 20 (1837)
In England, but few varieties [of Hybrid Chinas] have been originated; as the common China rose does not in general ripen its seeds sufficiently for germination. The parents of Brown's superb blush, which is an English hybrid, raised by the late Mr. Charles Brown of Slough, one of our most scientific and persevering cultivators, cut off in the prime of life, was the old tea-scented rose, Rosa indica odorata, impregnated with some hardy summer rose. Rivers's George the Fourth is also an English rose; but as this came by accident, its origin is not so well ascertained. Rosa Blairii is also English, and raised from the yellow China, impregnated with some variety of hardy rose.

The China Review, Or, Notes and Queries on the Far East, 20: 129 (1892-1893)
Botanical Collectors by E. Bretschneider
Parkes. This name appears frequently in Forbes’ and Hemsley’s Index Florae Sinensis, is, Mr. Hemsley obligingly informed me, John Damper Parks, a gardener who, in 1822 or 1823, was sent by the London Horticultural Society to Canton to procure there living plants and was very successful in his exertions. His name is misspelt on the labels in the Kew Herbarium, probably because Parkes is a common English name, whilst Parks is uncommon.

Thomas Rivers Jr.: Rose Amateur's Guide p. 73 (1837)
Mr. Parkes [sic] introduced the yellow from China in 1824; and even now, though so many fine varieties have been raised, but few surpass it in the size and beauty of its flowers, semi double as they are; it has but a very slight tea-like scent, but its offspring have generally a delicious fragrance, which I impute to their hybridisation with Rosa odorata.
[Note: This is flavescens, mistakenly identified as Parks' rose. This spelling of "Parkes" was copied by Buist (1839) and Hibberd (1864). Rivers himself repeated this passage without alteration in his 2nd (1843), 3rd (also 1843), 4th (1846), 5th (1854), 8th (1863, 11th (1877). Probably the others as well.]
p. 72
Sulphurea superba is a fine and very double variety of the yellow Chinese or Tea Rose: its flowers are large, rather flat, and quite unique.
p. 76
The yellow Tea or yellow Chinese Rose, for they are one and the same, is placed here, as it has decidedly more of the habit and appearance of the Tea-scented Rose than of the Chinese: its smooth glossy leaves and faint odour of tea sufficiently show its affinity.


Lindley: Devastating English winter of 1837/38 (1838)
The white and yellow China Rose, the sweet-scented hybrid, Hamon, and Blairii, were entirely destroyed even in Hampshire; but the latter was injured on a south wall at Dropmore.

The Flower-Garden (1838)
China Rose—(Rosa Indica)
Sulphurea Superbe, pale sulphur, very large, double and cupped [Ochroleuca]
Tea-scented Roses—(Rosa Indica odorata)
Yellow, pale sulphur, large, half-double and cupped [Flavescens]

Societe d'horticulture de Liege, douzième exposition d'été les 2, 3 et 4 Juillet 1837, p. 34 (1838)
*M. F. de Sauvage
769 Rosa thea lutescens

Buist: The American Flower Garden Directory p. 78 (1839)
Flavescens, lutea or yellow tea, pale straw colour, cupped petals, very large, and though only semi-double, has not a rival of its colour; it was introduced to England from China by Mr. Parkes in 1824; is a strong grower, but more tender than any other tea rose of its habit.
[Note: Buist accepted the misidentification of Parks' rose, as well as Rivers' misspelling of "Parkes". So far, this appears to be the first time 'Flavescens' was named as Parks' rose, rather than 'Ochroleuca'.]


Shortly before his death in Dec. 1843, Loudon wrote: "The 'Arboretum Britannicum' was got up between the years 1833 and 1838, and published on Mr. London's own account, at an expense of upwards of 10,000/.; the greater part of this sum was owing at the completion of the work, but it sold so well, till the late depression of the book trade in 1841, that only about 2,600/. of the debt remained to be paid off at the end of that year."

The depression in the book trade in 1841 is relevant to the discussion because it, and the devastating winter of 1837/38, help to explain why the Ochroleuca/Flavescens reversal was not corrected. Nurserymen were scrambling to propagate enough new specimens to replant the countryside, and publishers were struggling to keep their businesses afloat.

In 1843, Rivers published a second edition of his 'Guide'. It was so well received that Rivers published a third edition of that work in the same year.

Loudon had tried to correct the confusion between Flavescens and Ochroleuca in 1842, but his death in December of 1843 put an end to this effort. Rivers repeated the same passage regarding Parkes [sic] and the semi-double, weakly scented Yellow China Rose down to his eleventh and final edition of 1877 (the year he died).

Buist (1839) added 'Flavescens' and Lutea' as synonyms for 'Yellow Tea'.

Paul (1848) listed 'Flavescens' and 'Jaune' as synonyms.


Ferdinand von Biedenfeld: Das Buch der Rosen (1840) p. 180
1. Sulphur Bengal Rose. (Gefüllt, blassgelb, Grösse und Gestalt der Thee-Rose.)
2. Pauline Borghese. (Voll, mittelgross, wohlriechend, fleischfarbig, in Nankinfarbe übergehend.)
3. La Chinoise. (Mittelgross, gefüllt, mit Fleischfarbe angehauchtes Gelb.)
4. Bengal flowers of Sulphur Rose. (Gross, gefüllt, schwefelgelb.)

Loudon: An Encyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs p. 343 (1842)
Rosa indica
* R. i. 11 ochroleuca Bot. Reg. has large cream-coloured flowers, deepening almost into yellow in the centre. It was introduced by Mr. Parks in 1824, and appears to have been since lost.
* R. i. 12 flavescens..—This, Mr. Gordon assures us, is the true tea-scented yellow China Rose, and not the preceding variety, which is generally considered as such, and confounded with it.

William Paul: The Rose Garden Div. 2, 1369 (1848)
Group XXXIII.—The Chinese, or Montly Rose
  48. *SULPHUREA SUPERBA

flowers sulphur, large; form, cupped.

Group XXXV.—The Tea-Scented Rose
145. YELLOW: (Flavescens)
(Jaune)
flowers sulphur colored, large and double; form, globular. The petals of this Rose are very large, the buds long and beautiful in a half-expanded state.
Appendix 170
ochroleuca, with large double cream-coloured scentless flowers;
flavescens,
the true tea-scented yellow China Rose;
[Note: Paul repeated Don's error that ochroleuca was without scent. In fact, it was very fragrant. Flavescens, on the other hand, was not highly scented.]

Annals of Horticulture, Volume 5 p. 497 (1850)
19. Yellow, or Yellow China, sulphur yellow.
...19 is the old Yellow China, which is too well known to need any comment.

The Rose Amateur's Guide (1861) Page 139
Thomas Rivers (Nurseryman.)
The Old Yellow Tea Rose bears seed abundantly; but it has been found, from repeated experiments, that a good or even a mediocre rose is seldom or never produced from it; but fertilised with the Yellow Briar, something original may be realised.

James Shirley Hibberd: The rose book, a practical treatise on the culture of the rose  p. 53 (1864)
The first of the Tea roses known in England was the Blush, introduced in 1810. In 1824, Mr. Parkes introduced the Yellow Tea-scented (which is still entered in the catalogues), a very beautiful semi-double and slightly scented rose.
[Note: Clearly this is flavescens rather than ochroleuca. The misspelled "Parkes" was borrowed from Rivers (1837).]

Gardeners' Chronicle (May 9, 1874) p. 600
By-the-by, I have had a Tea Rose in blossom in the vinery — of a sort I rarely see, and of which I really do not know the proper name. It used to grow over a cottage in Herefordshire, which I knew many years ago, and the Herefordshire nurseryman from whom I got my standard calls it "the old yellow China." Is this the right name, and is the Rose more common than I imagine? Its petals are loose and thin, and of pale primrose colour, and before it is fully out it is at its best. Its leaves are large and handsome, and of glossy green. Its blossom has a certain half-bitter scent of Tea about it, to which the scent of no other Tea Rose can at all compare — it is so strong and aromatic. — H.

Gardeners' Chronicle (May 23, 1874) p 673
The Old Tea China, or Jaune of the French.—
In answer to "H.," p. 600, I reply that the above is the proper name of what is commonly called the "Old Tea China." It is a long Magnolia-shaped flower, good only in bud. "H.'s" description of it is correct. It is not common now. There was one in the Blandford Nurseries a few years ago, and I believe it is there now; it was offered as a present to me, but I did not accept it. — W. F. Radclyffe.

Gardeners' Chronicle (May 30, 1874) p. 704
The Original Tea Rose.—In reply to "H.," p. 600, on the original yellow Tea Rose, and to W. F. Radclyffe, p. 673, I have got a Rose like the one described, but I believed it to be Smith's Yellow; it is remarkable for a long pointed bud. I believe that the original of most Tea Roses is Odorata. I got one from Mr. Veitch which flowers most profusely, and it is the sweetest Rose that I know. I have got a very sweet Musk Rose, Princess de Nassau. Is this the same as "the old Musk?" — Granville Ll. Baker, Harwiche Court, Gloucester
[Note: This comment suggests that a yellowish Tea rose was sometimes mistaken for Smith's Yellow Noisette, which did not have a long pointed bud.]

Weathers: Beautiful roses for garden and greenhouse, p. 15 (1903)
... in 1824, the first yellow Tea Rose (flavescens) was introduced.
[Note: He repeated the old confusion between Flavescens and Ochroleuca. By 1903, Ochroleuca was long gone from most English gardens.]

Drennan: Everblooming Roses for the Out-door Garden of the Amateur (1912)
p. 95
Flavescens, the old semi-double Yellow Tea, has produced La Pactole and Devoniensis.
p. 238
Flavescens.—Semi-double. Pale yellow. Introduced in the twenties from China.
[Note: The old confusion again.]

Hurst: Notes on the Origin and Evolution of our Garden Roses (1941)
... SMITH'S Yellow, the last being a true dwarf Yellow Tea although classed as a Noisette on account of its origin.
[Note: Early reports made it clear that Smith's Yellow Noisette flowered in corymbs like a proper Noisette.]


Current status:

7/15/17: 'Sulphurea Superba' (or 'Sulphurea Superbe') appears to have been the commercial name for 'Ochroleuca'. Three sources place it with the Chinas; 'Yellow' or 'Flavescens' is with the Tea-scented varieties.


7/14/17: It now appears that Cartier's 'Bengale Jaune' flowered for the first time in 1817. This must be the 'Jaune' listed in Cels' catalog of that year.

Loudon (1830) gave 1821 as the year of introduction (or importation) of 'Flavescens'.

At this point I am becoming almost convinced that Knight's Yellow China rose was the same as Cartier's Bengale Jaune.

After Napoleon's rampage was brought to an end in 1814, there was much interest among gardeners and farmers in learning what had been going on across the channel during the war years. Boursault imported Knight's Animating in 1816. And apparently Knight received 'Bichonne' from France around this time, as well. Prince (of Long Island, NY) was offering 'Bichonnia' by 1822; and in 1825 identified it as 'Knight's bichonia'.

From the printing history of Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum (Jan 1835 to July 1838) and the abridged edition of 1842, it appears that Park's Yellow China rose enjoyed a brief period of great popularity, followed by a rapid decline in interest. In other words, it appears to have been a fad. Everyone wanted it in the late 1820s to early 1830s, but by the 1840s it was gone from fashionable gardens. It may have lingered in protected places, but the less double and more reliable Flavescens mostly took its place.

It also appears that Gordon's comment, quoted by Loudon, led Rivers (1837) to suppose, mistakenly, that Flavecens was the rose that Parks brought back from China. Loudon (1842) again specified that Ochroleuca was Parks' rose, but Rivers' version was passed along in his subsequent editions, as well as to Buist (1839) and Hibberd (1874).

The devastating winter of 1837/38 was probably responsible for the general loss of Parks' rose, along with many others. And the influx of new and more reliable Teas and Chinas from Italy made Parks' rose obsolete.

The 1841 depression in the book trade may have played some role in allowing the Ochroleuca/Flavescens reversal to remain uncorrected.

Parks' Yellow vs. Knight's Yellow