Time line of Yellow China Roses
Bot Mag 5: t. 1059 (1807)
 Rosa multiflora
Our drawing of this lively and agreeable Rose was taken at Messrs. COLVILLE'S, in the King's-Road, where it flowered freely in July last. We believe that the country owes the introduction of this Rose from China to Mr. Evans, of the East-India House, by whom it has been liberally distributed; and its flowering has been expected with some degree of interest, as its blossoms were supposed to have been yellow; whence the name of Rosa flava in DONN'S Catalogue, if we do not mistake. There can be no doubt of its being a double coloured variety of the ROSA multiflora of Japan; with THUNBERG'S description of which, in his Flora Japonica, it corresponds in every respect, except that he says the flowers are white. Had it been an undescribed species, we should have called it ROSA rubiflora, as the flowers resemble those of the bramble, not only in external appearance, but in the length of the styles: we have therefore adopted this in our English name. Indeed, without seeing the fruit, it is not possible to decide absolutely whether it belong to the genus ROSA or Rubus; but on the presumption that our plant is the same as that described by THUNBERG, combined with the general habit, we refer it to the former genus.
[Note: In the 1807 edition of the Hortus Cantabrigiensis 4th ed., Donn included:
33. flava — yellow China — — 1804
In the edition of 1809, "flava" was replaced by "multiflora" with the same date of introduction.]
Le Bon Jardinier: Almanach pour l'anneé 1821
Cette année le docteur Cartier a obtenu dans ses semis de la rose dite bengale, une rose jaune double, qui M. Noisette, beaucoup d'autres amateur et moi avons vu avec bien de l'intérét. J'attendrai à l'année prochaine, pour en donner une description plus détaillée.
[This year Dr. Cartier got in his planting of the so-called bengal rose, a double yellow rose that Mr. Noisette, many other amateurs and I have seen with much of interest. I will wait until next year to give a more detailed description.]
Vibert: Essai sur les roses (1824)
Chez l'étranger aussi, les roses ont le privilége d'exalter l'imagination et de troubler la vue, je n'oserais même affirmer s'ils n'ont pas plus que nous encore l'art de rendre souvent intéressant ce qui ne l'est guère. J'ai vu cultiver en serre, à Paris, et j'ai moi-même acheté l'arvensis, que les Anglais nous avaient vendu pour le bengale jaune. Heureux pays! où les roses, en changeant de nom, augmentent souvent d'une guinée, et nous reviennent quelquefois plus tard avec cette petite augmentation.
Un bengale jaune, double, est announcé en 1821: plusieurs personnes, dit-on, l'ont vu jaune et double chez M. Cartier, qui l'aurait trouvé de semence. Nous avons vu déjà que nous avions cultivé l'arvensis sous ce nom; mais au moins nous le tenions des Anglais, assez, coutumiers du fait. Celui-ci a été vu par le rédacteur; il est annoncé dans un de ces ouvrages destinés à faire connaître aux nombreux amateurs de la culture d'agrément les nouvelles conquêtes de l'industrie humaine. Bientôt cette nouvelle se répand avec une étonnante rapidité; vingt lettres me parviennent en peu de temps , qui me prouvent tout l'intérêt que chacun prend à cette découverte: l'un fait des vœux pour sa conservation, l'autre prend acte de sa demande pour le moment où il sera livré au commerce, un troisième demande qu'il soit vendu par souscription; de tous côtés, on m'accable de questions sur ce bengale, et on me charge d'en féliciter l'auteur. Les bonnes gens que les amateurs! comme ils aiment, comme ils s'intéressent à. ce qui est beau! Pourquoi faut-il trop souvent décevoir de si douces illusions? Consolez-vous du moins, et modérez vos regrets, le bengale en question est mort, il est vrai; mais il n'était pas jaune: c'était une de ces fleurs simples ou semi doubles, d'un blanc terne, telles qu'on en voit assez souvent dans les pimprenelles de semence. Toutefois, M. Cartier, que nous comptons au nombre de nos meilleurs comme de nos plus anciens amateurs, est étranger à cette méprise, qu'il faut attribuer à l'imagination un peu vive du rédacteur.
Pirolle: l'Horticulteur Français vol. 1, pp. 572 (1825)
BENGALE THÉ; fleurs larges semi-doubles, blanc à teinte nankin, odeur suave du thé.
Le Bon Jardinier pour l'année 1826
A. Poiteau, rédacteur principal
[Note: This edition of the publication, officially published in 1826 (according to the title page), was already listed in Journal Général de la Littérature de France, 28: 6 (1825).]
Nous avons vu en fleurs, chez M. CELS, ce qu'on appelle Bengale jaune. C'est une sous-variété de la rose-thê, plus petite jaune serin pâle et presque semi-double. Elle conserve une faible odeur de la rose thé.
Plantes nouvelles introduites dans le commerce, en 1825.
par M. Noisette
Rosier Bengale Jaune [Note: This is the Rosa sinensis lutea of Noisette's 1826 catalog below.]
Almanach p. 720
32. R. des Indes ... Le Bengale Jaune ou sulphureux, que nous avons vu en fleur chez M. CELS, paraît en être une sous-variétié [of R. indica], plus petite et moins odorante.
[Note: The name is spelled sulfureux in the index]
Catalogue of plants in the collection of Conrad Loddiges & Sons (1826) p. 56.
—— odorata lutea
—— odorata Americana
Louis Noisette: Manuel Complet du Jardinier 4: 521-523 (1826)
54. Rosier de l'Inde. R. indica; de Pronv. De la Chine.
1. Rose thé, ou odoratissima. Fleurs très-grande, odorantes. Sous-variétiés;
18. Bengale jaune, ou sulfureux; fleurs plus petites, jaunâtres, moins odorantes.
56. Rosier du Bengale. R. semperflorens, Pronv. R. sinensis; Willd. R. bengalensis; Pers. R. indica; Lindl. etc.
23. Bengale soufre. Fleurs doubles, d'un jaune pâle, ayant la forme et la grandeur de la rose thé.
Noisette: Catalogue général des arbres, arbustes et plantes, tant de serre que de pleine terre, etc. p. 67 (1826)
Rosa sinensis lutea [Note: This is the Bengale jaune, ou sulfureux mentioned above. Rosa sinensis Willd. = R. chinensis Jacq.]
|Robert Sweet: Hortus Britannicus p. 138 (1826)|
|β flavescens||yellow China||1823|
Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, Volume 6: 286-287 (1826)
Rosa Indica var. ochroleuca.
This plant was brought for the Society from China, in 1824, by Mr. PARKS, as one of the interesting yellow China Roses, which have long been known to collectors by the drawings of the Chinese; … The flowers are very large, solitary, pale sulphur colour, quite double, very fragrant, not expanding much more than R. sulphurea; but under the influence of much heat, opening fully, when they measure four inches across.
The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement, vol. 2, no. 6. (March 1827)
Trees or Shrubs.— 35. Rosa Indica var. ochroleuca. This is one of the finest varieties of China roses known in the gardens; and so entirely different from any other, that it may be considered an important addition to our collections. It appears to be hardy, but thrives in a conservatory, where it expands its flowers better than in the open air.
1826-27 Supplement to Pirolle's 1825 list.
Sect III.—Roses with flowers of the third dimension, or about 30 lines in diameter (2.5 in.)
139 * Bengale soufre, sulph.
140 * Bengale thé, cream
Dictionnaire d'Agriculture Pratique, vol 2, p. 539 (1827)
Nicolas François de Neufchâteau
30. Rosier Des Indes (Rosa indica). On le confond assez souvent avec le bengale auquel il ressemble en effet beaucoup. Sa plus belle variété est la rose thé, ainsi nommée de son odeur. Le Bengale jaune, qui paraît une sous-variété de la précédente [rose thé], à fleur sulfureuse.
Annalen der Blumisterei volume 3, p. 169 (1827)
Rosa indica flavescens, die blaß schwefelgelbe neue Theerose; sie ist weit größer wie die ordinaire Theerose, und hat einen ganz eigenthümlichen, starken Geruch. Preis im 24 fl. Fuß. 5 fl.
[Rosa indica flavescens, the new pale sulfur-yellow Tea-rose, it is far larger than the ordinary Tea-rose, and has a very peculiar, strong smell.
Note: This was Parks' rose, despite the name.]
Roses; Or, A Monograph of the Genus Rosa - Volume 2 (1828)
Henry Charles Andrews
Rosa Indica sulphurea — Yellow China Rose
The rosa sulphurea, known by the appellation of the Yellow China Rose, was raised at the Nursery of Mr. Knight, from seed of the R. odorata. We have seen it paler, but never deeper in colour than we have represented it.
Desportes: Rosetum Gallicum p. 102 (1828)
2309 — jaune. — Thé soufre. — ochroleuca. Lindl. in Reg. Bot. — R. Chinensis, Thea sulphurea. Baum. Cat.
[Note: The Reg. Bot. refers to a form of R. spinosissima. I don't know yet what the Baumann brothers were selling as Thea sulphurea at the time.]
Le Bon Jardinier p. 780 (1828)
32. R. des Indes. R. indica.
Le Bengale jaune ou sulphureux, que nous avons vu en fleur chez M. CELS, parait en être une sous-variétié, plus petite et moins odorante.
|John Cree: Hortus Addlestonensis p. 33 (1829)|
|99||odorata P.||sw scented China||March, Oct.||10||blush||B.R. 804|
|100||β flavescens P.||yellow ditto||ditto||6||pale yellow|
The Practical Gardener and Modern Horticulturist pp. 1076-1077 (Oct 1829)
And in such pits may with propriety be kept all or most of the delicate varieties of China roses, of which the yellow China, as our figure represents, is amongst the most interesting; and the sweet-scented China, which is too delicate to prosper well in most situations, could be brought to the greatest perfection if kept in pits of this kind during the winter months.
[Note: The illustration shows the simple sepals and campanulate receptacle described by Lindley for ochroleuca.]
Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London vol. 7, p. 399 (1830)
Parks wrote: "The Commander, Captain Baker, had plants of the large Yellow China Rose, placed in the after cabin, which died in three weeks after we left Canton. I lost during the whole voyage only one out of four of this sort of Rose which were place on deck."
[Note: "One out of four" still does not tell us how many specimens survived.
Lindley briefly discussed the double yellow Rosa banksiae on pp. 226-227.]
Salon d'été: XLIIIième exposition publique de la société royale d'agriculture et de botanique de la ville de Gand p. 29 (1830)
M. F. Van Damme, Cultivateur, fleuriste, pépiniériste, avenue de la maison de détention
932. Rosa flavescens, Odeur de thé
M. Fr. Vanderhaeghen, Jardinier-fleuriste, rue belvue.
954. Rosa flavescens, Odeur de thé
The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement, 7: 479 (1831)
The Florist's Guide and Cultivator's Directory, &c. By Robert Sweet, F.L.S. &c. XLVIII. for June, contains:
"Mr. Smith, of Coombe Wood, will have several very distinct and curious hybrid roses in flower this season; among the rest he has a seedling, from Rosa odorata var. flavescens, with leaves like those of the yellow Austrian; this must certainly be fine, and will doubtless be yellow in colour."
[Note: This suggests that William Smith, gardener to the Earl of Liverpool, used flavescens rather than ochroleuca as a parent of Smith's Yellow Noisette. Smith later opened a nursery at Norbiton Common where he gained additional fame for his hybrid Rhododendrons and Pelargoniums.]
The Horticultural Register, 1: 87 (Aug 1831)
At Messrs. Rollisson & Sons', Tooting, Surrey:
Rosa odorata formosissima
—— ——— alba
—— ——— lutescens
Don: A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants, Volume 2 p. 582 (1832)
Rosa indica var. ochroleuca; flowers double, large, cream-coloured, without any scent. This variety was introduced from China in 1824 by Mr. Parks, and is figured in the thirteenth volume of the Botanical Register. It is commonly called the yellow Chinese rose.
[Note: Bold face indicates details properly belonging to R. banksiae var. lutea, which Parks also brought back from China.]
The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement, 8: 507 (Sept 1832)
A Banksian medal was also recommended to be bestowed on Mr. Wm. Smith, gardener to the Earl of Liverpool, for his yellow Noisette rose.
The Gardener's Magazine and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement, 8: 599 (Sept 1832)
1522. ROSA 13470 indica
var. Smithii Swt. Sm.'s yel. Noisette ... Eng. hybrid 1829 ... Sw. fl. gar. 2.s.158
(British Flower-Garden, Sept.)
Verzeichniss von im Freien ausdauernden Bäumen, Gesträuchen und Staudengewächse,
so wie der Hauspflanzen, welche im Hamburgischen botanischen Garten (1834)
Rosa odorata Narcisse
Rosa odorata Sulphurea variegata
Rosa odorata var. Thea aurantiaca
Rosa odorata var. Thea fl. luteo simpl.
Rosa odorata var. Thea fl. luteo semipl.
The Beauties of Flora t. 4 (1834)
Eliza Eve Gleadall
Rosa odorata flavescens — The sweet-scented China Rose
[Note: A drawing of this rose with instructions for coloring it.]
Pirolle: Les Roses (1835) vol. 3, t. 173.
Rosa indica sulfurea, Bengale Jaune-Soufre
This charming and valuable rose was imported from England to Paris by Mr. HARDY, in 1825 or 1826. Several amateurs and merchants have also received specimens from Mr. LODDIGES the same year.
[Note: Loddiges & Sons (1826) listed Rosa odorata lutea. Buist (1839) identified Lutea as a synonym for Flavescens.]
The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries 1(4): 218 (June 1835)
R. Thea odorata, var. lutea. The yellow-flowering Tea Rose. This is in great demand, and commands an extraordinary price. A few days since I endeavored to purchase, for a gentleman, at one of the nurseries, a variety of roses. The yellow tea was one of the number wanted; but the price named was exorbitant, and this, too, for a very small plant.
R. Thea odorata, var. Palavicina. Flower a bright yellow, inclining to an orange color, with a pink or red centre; a very beautiful kind.
Paxton's Magazine of Botany, and Register of Flowering Plants, 2: 33 (1836)
Rosa odorata - purple white - 8 ft
Rosa odorata flavescens - light yellow - 6 ft
Boitard: Manuel complet de l'amateur de roses, p. 266
BENGALE SOUFRE. Péan. Fleurs doubles, d'un jaune pâle, ayant la meme grandeur et la même forme que celles de la rose thé ordinaire.
BENGALE FLEUR DE SOUFRE; Laffay. Fleurs larges, doubles, d'un jaune sulfureux pâle.
[Note: I assume that Péan and Laffay sold these roses, but were not the breeders.]
Thomas Rivers Jr.: Rose Amateur's Guide p. 20 (1837)
In England, but few varieties [of Hybrid Chinas] have been originated; as the common China rose does not in general ripen its seeds sufficiently for germination. The parents of Brown's superb blush, which is an English hybrid, raised by the late Mr. Charles Brown of Slough, one of our most scientific and persevering cultivators, cut off in the prime of life, was the old tea-scented rose, Rosa indica odorata, impregnated with some hardy summer rose. Rivers's George the Fourth is also an English rose; but as this came by accident, its origin is not so well ascertained. Rosa Blairii is also English, and raised from the yellow China, impregnated with some variety of hardy rose.
Thomas Rivers Jr.: Rose Amateur's Guide p. 73 (1837)
Mr. Parkes [sic] introduced the yellow from China in 1824; and even now, though so many fine varieties have been raised, but few surpass it in the size and beauty of its flowers, semi double as they are; it has but a very slight tea-like scent, but its offspring have generally a delicious fragrance, which I impute to their hybridisation with Rosa odorata.
[Note: This is flavescens, mistakenly identified as Parks' rose. The incorrect spelling of "Parks" was later copied by Buist (1839) and Hibberd (1874).]
Societe d'horticulture de Liege,
douzième exposition d'été
les 2, 3 et 4 Juillet 1837, p. 34 (1838)
*M. F. de Sauvage
769 Rosa thea lutescens
Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum vol. 2 p. 771 and vol 4 p. 2560 (1838)
R. i. 11 ochroleuca Bot. Reg., the yellow China Rose, has large cream-coloured flowers, deepening almost into yellow in the centre. It was introduced by Mr. Parks, in 1824, and has rapidly become a great favourite, in pots and ornamental flower-gardens.
R. i. 12 flavescens Hort. — This, Mr. Gordon assures us, is the true tea-scented yellow China rose, and not the preceding variety, which is generally confounded with it.
[Note: According to Sweet (1826), this flavescens was introduced in 1823, a year before Parks returned from China with the rose Lindley named ocroleuca.]
Buist: The American Flower Garden Directory p. 78 (1839)
Flavescens, lutea or yellow tea, pale straw colour, cupped petals, very large, and though only semi-double, has not a rival of its colour; it was introduced to England from China by Mr. Parkes in 1824; is a strong grower, but more tender than any other tea rose of its habit.
[Note: Buist accepted the misidentification of flavescens as Parks' rose, as well as Rivers' misspelling of "Parks".]
Loudon: An Encyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs p. 343 (1842)
* R. i. 11 ochroleuca Bot. Reg. has large cream-coloured flowers, deepening almost into yellow in the centre. It was introduced by Mr. Parks in 1824, and appears to have been since lost.
* R. i. 12 flavescens..—This, Mr. Gordon assures us, is the true tea-scented yellow China Rose, and not the preceding variety, which is generally considered as such, and confounded with it.
Paul: The Rose Garden Div. 2, p. 170 (1848)
ochroleuca, with large double cream-coloured scentless flowers;
flavescens, the true tea-scented yellow China Rose;
[Note: Paul repeated Don's error that ochroleuca was without scent. In fact, it was very fragrant. Flavescens, on the other hand, was not highly scented.]
Annals of Horticulture, Volume 5 p. 497 (1850)
19. Yellow, or Yellow China, sulphur yellow.
...19 is the old Yellow China, which is too well known to need any comment.
James Shirley Hibberd: The rose book, a practical treatise on the
culture of the rose p. 53 (1864)
The first of the Tea roses known in England was the Blush, introduced in 1810. In 1824, Mr. Parkes introduced the Yellow Tea-scented (which is still entered in the catalogues), a very beautiful semi-double and slightly scented rose.
[Note: Clearly this is flavescens rather than ochroleuca. The misspelled "Parkes" was borrowed from Rivers (1837).]
Gardeners' Chronicle (May 9, 1874)
By-the-by, I have had a Tea Rose in blossom in the vinery — of a sort I rarely see, and of which I really do not know the proper name. It used to grow over a cottage in Herefordshire, which I knew many years ago, and the Herefordshire nurseryman from whom I got my standard calls it "the old yellow China." Is this the right name, and is the Rose more common than I imagine? Its petals are loose and thin, and of pale primrose colour, and before it is fully out it is at its best. Its leaves are large and handsome, and of glossy green. Its blossom has a certain half-bitter scent of Tea about it, to which the scent of no other Tea Rose can at all compare — it is so strong and aromatic. — H.
Gardeners' Chronicle (May 23, 1874)
The Old Tea China, or Jaune of the French.—
In answer to "H.," p. 600, I reply that the above is the proper name of what is commonly called the "Old Tea China." It is a long Magnolia-shaped flower, good only in bud. "H.'s" description of it is correct. It is not common now. There was one in the Blandford Nurseries a few years ago, and I believe it is there now; it was offered as a present to me, but I did not accept it. — W. F. Radclyffe.
Gardeners' Chronicle (May 30, 1874)
The Original Tea Rose.—In reply to "H.," p. 600, on the original yellow Tea Rose, and to W. F. Radclyffe, p. 673, I have got a Rose like the one described, but I believed it to be Smith's Yellow; it is remarkable for a long pointed bud. I believe that the original of most Tea Roses is Odorata. I got one from Mr. Veitch which flowers most profusely, and it is the sweetest Rose that I know. I have got a very sweet Musk Rose, Princess de Nassau. Is this the same as "the old Musk?" — Granville Ll. Baker, Harwiche Court, Gloucester
[Note: This comment suggests that a yellowish Tea rose was sometimes mistaken for Smith's Yellow Noisette, which did not have a long pointed bud.]
Weathers: Beautiful roses for garden and greenhouse, p. 15 (1903)
... in 1824, the first yellow Tea Rose (flavescens) was introduced.
[Note: He repeated the old confusion between Flavescens (1823) and Ochroleuca (1824). By 1903, Ochroleuca was long gone from most English gardens.]
Drennan: Everblooming Roses for the Out-door Garden of the Amateur (1912)
Flavescens, the old semi-double Yellow Tea, has produced La Pactole and Devoniensis.
Flavescens.—Semi-double. Pale yellow. Introduced in the twenties from China.
[Note: The old confusion again.]
Hurst: Notes on the Origin and Evolution of our Garden Roses (1941)
... SMITH'S Yellow, the last being a true dwarf Yellow Tea although classed as a Noisette on account of its origin.
[Note: Early reports made it clear that Smith's Yellow Noisette flowered in corymbs like a proper Noisette.]