Trans. Hort. Soc. 4: 281-305. (1822)
XLV. Description and Account of the Varieties of Double Scotch Roses, cultivated in the Gardens of England.
JOSEPH SABINE, Esq. F. R. S. &c. Secretary.
Read, November 7th, 1820.
|* The earliest varieties open before the end of May, and the succession of blossoms on the different plants is kept up till near the end of June.|
AMONGST the modern additions to the ornaments of our gardens, the varieties of Double Scotch Roses stand deservedly very high in estimation; their beauty is undisputed, and as they come into flower* full three weeks before the general collection of garden Roses, they thus protract the period of our enjoyment of this delightful genus. On the British collector's notice they have an additional claim, being almost exclusively the produce of our own country; for of the many kinds that I have observed there are only three which can by any possibility be supposed to have originated out of Great Britain.
|** See Sir JAMES SMITH, article Rose, in REES'S Cyclopedia; WOODS, in Transactions of the Linnean Society, vol. xii. p. 178; and LINDLEY Rosarum Monographia, p. 50.
+ Vol ii. P. 1 067. No. 7, and 8.
* See JACQUIN Fragmenta, 71. tab. 107. fig. I.
† See JACQUIN Fragmenta, 79. tab. 124
The Scotch Rose has been, and still is, sometimes called the Burnet Rose; it is the Rosa spinosissima of the English authors** of authority who have written on the genus: they have united the Rosa pimpinellifolia and the Rosa spinosissima of LINNAEUS, treating them as the same species, and not even separating them as varieties. WILLDENOW, however, in his Species Plantarum,+ has adhered to LINNAEUS'S distinction, in which he seems to be supported by JACQUIN, in his Fragmenta Botanica; MILLER, also, in his last edition of the Gardener's Dictionary, has kept them separate. The Rosa pimpinellifolia is the small wild, or (what I consider) the True Scotch Rose, with very small leaves, generally with smooth peduncles, and a flower, (with very few, if any, exceptions,) more or less tinged with red; this is the Rosa Scotica, or Dwarf Burnet-leaved Scotch Rose of MILLER; and it is figured by JACQUIN as Rosa pimpinellifolia.* The Rosa spinosissima of LINNAEUS, of WILLDENOW, and of JACQUIN,† has larger leaves, peduncles armed with small spines, and large white flowers, usually without any tinge of red; this MILLER calls Rosa spinosissima, or the Burnet-leaved Rose. I do not mean to question the propriety of considering them as the same species, but they are, assuredly, so different from each other, that they ought to have been treated as varieties; and when all the plants usually called Scotch Roses are brought together, the Rosa pimpinellifolia above alluded to must be considered as the type of the species, for, if they have all been derived from one stock, I apprehend that was the original parent; for which reason if I were writing an account of the genus, or treating on the particular species, I should certainly adopt pimpinellifolia as the specific name.
|* In some of the double varieties the weight occasioned by the increased number of petals causes the peduncle to bend, and consequently their flowers are pendulous.
** For the sake of conciseness I shall call that part which afterwards becomes the fruit, the germen, as it used to be so denominated; in later times it has been a question whether it ought to be considered as the dilated receptacle of the flower or the tube of the calyx, and it is thus differently described by different writers.
The True Scotch Rose in its perfectly natural state, is well known; growing abundantly on a dry soil, but more plentifully in the northern than the southern parts of the kingdom. Its general character is a compact, bushy shrub: low when in a wild state, but in gardens, though it begins to flower when very small, it grows to three and four feet, and even higher, extending widely at the base: some of the varieties are however more dwarf than others. The branches are very numerous, thickly covered with aculei of various sizes, some being larger, others smaller, and some like fine hairs or setae; the larger aculei of the root shoots are frequently recurved, and have a falcate or hooked appearance; the lower parts of the stronger ones are often very much dilated. The leaves, on the greater number of the branches, have, for the most part, three pairs of foliola; but on the surculi, or strong shoots which arise directly from the roots, they have usually five pairs in the first year. The petioles are almost always smooth, though, occasionally, they produce some scattered hairs; and a few aculei as well as small glands, are also sometimes found upon them. The foliola are small, elliptical or nearly round, with simple serratures, of a deep and opaque green above, paler underneath, and quite free from pubescence on both sides. The flowers come out singly, in great numbers, along the whole length of the branches, standing erect, and not nodding;* the peduncles are smooth, though not uniformly so, in wild as well as cultivated specimens, some are covered with setae; even the same plant is liable to vary in this particular, and the variation is more considerable in some of the double flowering sorts. The germen** is generally globose, but in several double varieties it becomes flattened, swollen, and somewhat campanulate, owing to the enlargement arising from the impletion of the flower. The leafits of the calyx (now called sepals) are quite simple, that is, without small leaves or pinnae on their sides, but have generally a leavy termination, more or less elongated; when the flower opens they become reflex, and more so in the double than in the single varieties.
The single flowers of the True Scotch Rose are cupped at first, but subsequently the petals become more expanded; the bud, before it opens, commonly shews a bright colour; the base or claw of the petals, whatever be the general colour of the flower, is usually white or greenish yellow. The scent, though very agreeable, is not so strong or fine as in many other Roses. The fruit is round, or nearly so, differing in size in the different varieties; it is dark coloured, becoming, when ripe, quite black, but in some plants it is of a deep reddish brown.
The Double Scotch Roses are more especially the object of attention with ornamental gardeners. They are nearly all strictly referable to the True Scotch Rose, or Rosa pimpinellifolia above mentioned, for the variations from the type, in foliage, and mode of growth, are very trifling in most of them; the chief difference between them is in the colours, and the impletion of the flower. The older books on gardening make no mention of any varieties of Scotch Roses; even the last edition of MILLER'S Dictionary does not notice any double one. In the second edition of the Hortus Kewensis, though the list there given of the cultivated Roses is large, not more than six varieties of the Scotch Rose are mentioned, only one of which is double, and that even is not properly a Scotch Rose; so that they are, in fact, altogether new subjects to a writer.
|* As nearly as I have been able to ascertain, the eight sorts were the small white, the small yellow, the lady's blush, another lady's blush with smooth footstalks, the red, the light red, the dark marbled, and the large two-coloured.|
The first appearance of the Double Scotch Roses was in the nursery of Messrs. DICKSON and BROWN (now DICKSON and TURNBULL) of Perth, between twenty and thirty years since. I am indebted to Mr. ROBERT BROWN, one of the partners of the firm at the above period, for the following account of their origin. In the year 1793, he and his brother transplanted some of the wild Scotch Roses from the Hill of Kinnoul, in the neighbourhood of Perth, into their nursery garden: one of these bore flowers slightly tinged with red, from which a plant was raised, whose flowers exhibited a monstrosity, appearing as if one or two flowers came from one bud, which was a little tinged with red; these produced seed, from whence some semi-double flowering plants were obtained; and by continuing a selection of seed, and thus raising new plants, they in 1802 and 1803, had eight* good double varieties to dispose of; of these they subsequently increased the number, and from the stock in the Perth garden the nurseries both of Scotland and England were first supplied.
In Scotland, Mr. ROBERT AUSTIN, of Glasgow, a corresponding member of the Society (of the firm of AUSTIN and M'ASLAN, nurserymen in Glasgow), about fifteen years since obtained the varieties from Perth, and has since cultivated them to a great extent, having now in his collection upwards of one hundred different new and undescribed sorts, some of which, perhaps, when compared with the best now cultivated, may not be deserving of particular notice; but many are of such beauty, and so decidedly distinct, that, when made public, they will greatly increase the catalogue of these ornamental plants.
In England, Mr. WILLIAM MALCOLM, of Kensington, in the year 1805, purchased from the Perth collection six of their original sorts, and subsequently obtained the two others. They had been sold before that time to several noblemen and gentlemen, who were customers of Messrs. DICKSON and BROWN. Messrs. LEE and KENNEDY, of Hammersmith, received the first of their stock from Mr. DRUMMOND BURTRELL, now LORD GWYDIR, who brought them from Perth, and their collection was afterwards encreased by purchases from the same quarter. The same kinds have since been also obtained by Messrs. WHITLEY, BRAMES, and MILNE, of Fulham. But, though the above three collections are by far the most complete of any, yet more or less of all the varieties are to be found in the other nursery gardens near London. Mr. LEE has lately raised, in his ground at Bedfont, beyond Hounslow, a great variety of seedlings, possessing extraordinary beauty; they attained a size fit for observation only in the present year, but I was not so fortunate as to be able to visit them when in blossom; I have, however, seen specimens of their flowers; and from these I conceive that many of the plants will assimilate with kinds before known; though several are very different, and will become important additions to general collections.
I have for many years collected the Scotch Roses with considerable attention; and the plants which I describe in this Paper have, with very few exceptions, flowered, and been examined by me, in my own garden. Four years ago I began to prepare my notes upon them, with the intention of laying them before the Society. Each succeeding season has certainly added something to my information respecting these plants; but I consider the time which has elapsed, since I entered on the subject, as employed rather in confirming my first observations, than in very essentially increasing my knowledge of the varieties.
My arrangement of the Double Scotch Roses has been formed in sections, founded on the general colour of the flower; the plants which are placed under each section having still sufficient difference of character to distinguish them decidedly from each other. This arrangement will enable those persons who may wish to make small collections, to select one or more from each section, by which means they will obtain the most prominent differences in a very small number of plants. Another very important advantage arising from the classification by the colour of the flowers, will be, that whenever any new variety is raised, and established as worthy of distinction, its place in the arrangement will be assigned with ease. I have in many cases preferred names founded on the colours of the flower, to designations of mere fancy, which give no aid to classification or description, and are therefore very objectionable.
Of the DOUBLE WHITE SCOTCH ROSES I have four distinct kinds.
The Small Double White is a plant of moderate size. In its flowers the peduncles are small and thin, the germen semi-globose, and the sepals narrow; the bud shews itself of a greenish white colour, with a slight crimson tinge; the expanded flower is not large, more than semi-double, with small petals in the centre, the claws of which being yellow, they give a tinge of that colour to the middle of the flower. As the flower decays, the petals lose their regular arrangement, and become apparently broken. The fruits, when ripe, are black and globose, but not abundant. This is rather an indifferent variety as to beauty, but it blossoms freely, the flowers opening about the middle of the season of the Scotch Roses. A bad representation of it is given in ANDREWS'S Roses, under the name of R. spinosissima nana, or Dwarf Thorny Rose.
|* Vol. ii. p. 99.|
The Large Semi-double White is a strong growing plant, with large and broad aculei on the branches. The peduncles are short and thick, bearing setae; the germen is flatly campanulate; the sepals are short; and the whole of these parts have a mahogany coloured tinge. The bud is large, much swollen, and stained with brownish red; the flower is semi-double, expanding well; the petals are large; the stamina are very apparent; and the styles are thickened, and appear as if the centre of the blossom would become proliferous, which is often the case with Double Roses The fruits are black, rather compressed, and few in number. This sort flowers late, and the blossoms occasionally fail, but those which do open are very fine. It appears in the older French catalogues under the name of the Double Pimprenelle Rose, and has been recently figured and described in REDOUTÉ'S Roses,* as Rosier Pimprenelle blanc à fleurs doubles; where the credit of its origin is given to M. DESCEMET; and it is said to be now usually called in the French nurseries, the Rosier pompon blanc.
The Large Double White. The peduncles are long and thin, the germen campanulate, and the sepals triangular; the bud is thick and white; the flower is large and quite double, with a finer scent than usual. The plant grows very strong, so that the leaves on the surculi have six pair of foliola, the lower of which do not grow opposite. I observed it in 1819, in Mr. LEE'S nursery at Hammersmith, where it flowered for the first time, having been imported from France.
Whitley's Double White. The peduncles are moderately long, thick, and covered with strong setae; the germen is very much flattened; the sepals are triangular, short, and broad; the bud is large, and greenish white, with a dash of dark red; the flower is very large, opens early, is semi-double, and expands freely, shewing the yellow claws of the petals conspicuously; the stamina are very apparent, and the styles are thickened and enlarged. The fruits are not numerous, they are large, black, and globose, but rather flattened, and so much opened at the top as to shew the seeds. This sort was raised from seed of the small Double White, by Mr. WHITLEY, in his late nursery at Brompton, about ten years since; it is a very fine variety, of more vigorous growth and habit than usual, but still a True Scotch Rose. The aculei on its young branches are sometimes very red.
Of the DOUBLE YELLOW SCOTCH ROSES there are only two which I can recommend to particular notice, though there are others which I shall mention.
The small Double Yellow has peduncles long, thick, and smooth, but sometimes partially hispid; germen campanulate; sepals small; the buds have a tinge of green, and in places a slight stain of red. The flower is small, opens well, and is rather fuller than semi-double, having some small petals mixed with the stamina. The fruits are dark red, somewhat compressed, and not abundant. The colour of the flowers is a pale sulphur, rather than a yellow, which latter term raises a false expectation of beauty. The variety, however, is very excellent; it flowers about the middle of the season, and is not of strong growth. It is figured by ANDREWS in his Roses as R. spinosissima sulphurea.
Amongst a collection of Double Scotch Roses, which I received some years since, from my late friend, Mr. GEORGE ANDERSON, was The Pale Double Yellow. This agrees exactly with the preceding in general characters; but its peduncles are hispid, and the flowers are paler, so much so, that they may easily be mistaken for white.
The other superior variety which I allude to above, is, The Large Double Yellow. It has long and thick peduncles, bearing strong red setae; the germen is nearly flattened, and the sepals are narrow; the buds are of a dingy sulphur colour, with a tinge of red which is preserved in a few slight spots of that colour on the outer petals, after the bud expands; the flower is larger than that of any other Scotch Rose I am acquainted with, except WHITLEY'S Double White; it is semi-double, and of a much deeper colour than the Small Double Yellow. The petals are large, and expand freely; the stamina are particularly conspicuous and strong; the styles are swollen and lumpy. The fruits are few, but large, widely expanded at top, globose, and black. I received this kind from Mr. WILLIAM MALCOLM of Kensington; it flowers later than most others, and its blossoms are very splendid, but sometimes they do not open well. It is a vigorous grower, becoming taller than most others, and the aculei on its branches are particularly strong and large.
Approaching to this is another variety, of a plant which I found in the Hammersmith nursery, where it was called the Globe Double Yellow: but as it rarely opens its flowers well, it does not deserve cultivation. It is distinguished from the preceding kind by its peduncles being quite smooth.
Of the DOUBLE BLUSH SCOTCH ROSES I have seen several which are not sufficiently distinct from those here noticed, to deserve being separately described. Those which I shall enumerate I consider essential to a perfect collection.
The Princess Double Blush. This may readily be mistaken for the Small Double White, which it greatly resembles; but it differs in the flower, being better cupped, and more evenly shaped; in many of its flowers, at their first opening, there is a slight suffusion of blush. In some specimens the outside petals are blotched with crimson, and have more blush than the inside of the flower. It does not produce fruits generally. It is a neat Rose, blossoms early, and is not of strong growth.. I found it in Mr. LEE'S garden at Hammersmith, with the name of The Princess, which I have preserved.
The Double Lady's Blush. In this the peduncles are thick, of a moderate length, and covered with setae; the germen is thick and semi-globose; the sepals long and narrow; the buds are of a very pale flesh colour; the flower opens of a very delicate pale pink or blush, which, by exposure to the sun, becomes gradually white; the petals are large, with a few slight dashes of red, like small lines or stripes, occasionally observable in them, their backs are always so pale as to approach nearly to white; the flower is fuller than semi-double, expands well, is cupped, and particularly beautiful when it opens. The fruits are few, black, and not large, with a slight opening on the top. The plant grows strong and tall, comes early into blossom, and bears a profusion of flowers. This was one of the first double varieties raised, and is, perhaps, the most generally known, its beauty being particularly attractive. I do not think that any new variety possessing the same character of opening with a blush and going off white, is likely to be superior to it in all points of excellence.
The next in my collection is Anderson's Double Lady's Blush, which was given to me by the late Mr. GEORGE ANDERSON. It has long and thin peduncles, some bearing a few setae: others being quite smooth; the germen is globose; the sepals are long and narrow; the bud is pale, and in opening shews a rich pink; the flower is large, expands well, is flat, and not cupped; it is perfectly semi-double, having no small petals mixed with the stamina; the petals are deeply notched; they are of a rich blush colour, but fade off entirely white. The fruits are of moderate size, black, and compressed. It comes into flower later than the Common Lady's Blush.
|* I apprehend, that the Rosier Pimprenelle rouge fleurs doubles, of REDOUTÉ'S Roses, vol. i. p. 119, is this plant; the figure represents the peduncles as having setae, but they are described to be occasionally smooth. The French Rose is represented to have been raised by M. DESCEMET, and to have been subsequently nearly lost, and only preserved by accident, and that it was also observed in Messrs. LODDIGES'S garden at Hackney. Messrs. LODDIGES'S plant is certainly the one I have described, and that came from Holland, not from France. The observations on this Rose in the work alluded to are remarkable in shewing the want of information of the writer; who seems to be entirely ignorant of the existence of any other Double Scotch Roses than this and the white one mentioned above in p. 289.|
The Dutch Double Blush* has been so called in my catalogue, because it appears to have been introduced into our nurseries from Holland, where it is called Rosa spinosissima flore pleno. It is a stronger growing plant than many others; its aculei are dark red, the larger ones thin, and much flattened. It has generally four pair of foliola even on the leaves of its flowering branches; the foliola are large; the peduncles are long, thickened, and quite smooth; the germen large and campanulate; the sepals long, narrow, and leafy; the bud shews a delicate pale blush; the flower is large, semi-double, and expands well; the petals are large, rather turned back, thin and semi-transparent, with a faint blush pervading the whole of them, both within and without, but it is more intense in the centre; the whole colour goes off on exposure to the sun; the general tinge is deeper than in the Lady's Blush, and the flowers open some time after those of that variety. The fruits are abundant, inclining to dark red rather than black, compressed, and open at the mouth.
The Double Provins Blush belongs to the section of the Blush Scotch Roses; it is a sort very generally known, growing tall and strong, and coming early into blossom. It originated I believe in the Perth nursery. The peduncles are thick, long, and quite smooth; the germen is full, large, and campanulate; the leaves of the calyx are broadly triangular, with a long pointed leaflet at the end, and expand widely: the whole are tinged with a mahogany colour. The bud is of a very pale pink, or rather a dingy white; the flower is particularly large and double, of a delicate flesh colour, deeper than the Lady's blush, and more glowing in the centre; it is cupped, and well shaped, the centre petals being smaller than the outer; the scent is fine, more like that of a Provins Rose than a common Scotch Rose. It bears but few fruits; they are large, black, and globose, with slightly expanding tops. The whole flower has a character different from all the others, and when it opens well is peculiarly handsome; but the buds occasionally fail, and do not expand, in which case the flesh colour becomes dull and of a smoaky hue, the buds then continue closed, and in that state decay.
The Double Pink Blush. This was obtained from Mr. GEORGE ANDERSON, who procured it from Scotland. I have never observed it in the nurseries. It is one of the earliest in blossom; it has thick and short peduncles armed with setae, and a semi-globose germen. The bud is pink; the flower semi-double, and not large; the petals are of an uniform pink, or flesh colour, which pervades the whole, except the claws, the backs are somewhat paler; the colour goes off a little after the flower has been some time opened; but it does not become ultimately white. The fruits are numerous, black, and compressed.
The Double Rose Blush. I received this from the Hammersmith nursery as the Light Red, which name is quite unsuited to it. Its peduncles are long, thick, and smooth; the germen full and campanulate, the leaves of the calyx short and broad. The flower is particularly full-double; it does not expand much, but is cupped, having the petals arranged closely together; they are of a fine rose colour, but differ from those of all the other kinds in having a deeper hue on their edges than in any other part; the backs of the petals are quite pale. It does not produce fruit. This is one of the latest of all the double Scotch Roses in flowering, and it is very unproductive of flowers, for they seldom open fairly, though, when well blown, they are particularly handsome, and have a very delicate scent, much resembling the finest rose-water. I apprehend it is this variety which ANDREWS has figured in his Roses, under the name of R. spinosissima carnea.
My next section contains the plants usually sold in the nurseries under the name of DOUBLE RED SCOTCH ROSES: of these there are many, as in the other sections, with slight shades of difference; but I make only three distinct varieties.
The first I consider as the True Double Red. It has its peduncles short, sometimes smooth, sometimes slightly hispid; the germen is small, and semi-globose; the leaves of the calyx are small; the bud has but little colour; the flowers are middle-sized; expand well;. and the petals, which are much notched, are somewhat reflexed, a circumstance which gives additional beauty to the flower; the inside of the petals is a fine rose colour, sometimes slightly mottled, becoming gradually paler as it approaches the edges, where it is nearly white; the claws shew much yellow, and the outside of the petals is very pale. This is a very beautiful Rose; it grows tall, flowers plentifully, and opens early. The fruits are abundant, large, black, and compressed. The aculei on the branches are rather stronger than usual in Scotch Roses, they are much expanded as well as flattened at their bases; but I have another plant which produces flowers similar to those here described, in which the aculei are not so strong.
The Double Light Red is also an early variety, blossoming soon after the Double Red. Its peduncles are generally smooth, but sometimes there is a slight hispidity on them; the germen is semi-globose, and the sepals rather long; the buds shew but little colour, and the flower, when opened, is more cupped than that of the preceding, and less brilliant in its colour, which, instead of being purely rose, is tinged with a purplish hue, and the whole is paler; the petals, when opened fully, have rather a confused appearance, and shew much of their pale backs. The fruits are black, few in number, small and globose, with a slightly extended neck. This Rose has much affinity to the Light Marbled in the next section; it might, without impropriety, be called the Pale Purple Red, but the name under which I have described it seems generally to have been attached to it in the nurseries.
The Double Dark Red has short, thick, hispid peduncles, semi-globose germens, and small sepals; the buds are pale; the flower, when blown, is well cupped; it is more than semi-double; the whole of the inside of the petals is of a dark rose colour, rather inclining to lake; the back of the petals have an uniform pale purplish hue, as if the inside colour were seen through the substance of the petal, they are also reticulated with veins The flower is good, and though not so handsome as the first sort, is still excellent; in going off it becomes marbled, and the edges of the petals are ultimately blanched, as in the two others. The fruits are small, not numerous, black, and globose, with the peduncles remarkably enlarged. This variety approaches the second in the general character of the flower, but it is altogether darker.
Of the DOUBLE MARBLED SCOTCH ROSES I make three varieties, which are very different from each other.
The Double Light Marbled has peduncles moderately long, thickened, and smooth; the germen is large and campanulate; the sepals short and triangular; the buds are quite pale; the flower is of a moderate size, more than semi-double, having its petals rather crumpled; their colour in the inside is carmine mottled with reticulations of white veins, this becomes gradually paler from the centre, and the edges, as the flower goes off, becomes nearly white; the backs of the petals are quite pale, shewing very little colour; the styles are swollen. The fruits but rarely come to maturity. This is a very handsome Rose; it flowers soon after the earliest. It is distinct, by its marbling, from the Double Light Red, to which it otherwise approaches.
The Double Crimson Marbled, has small and short peduncles, free from setae; the germen is small and semi-globose, and the sepals are small; the bud shews a dark tinge; the flower is very small, and rather more than semi-double; the petals are beautifully marbled with lake and white, and their backs shew the reticulations of their white veins over a rather conspicuous purplish colour. The fruits are few, black, small, and globose. This variety was received from Messrs. DICKSONS, brothers, of Edinburgh, by Messrs. WHITLEY and Co. under the name of Light Marbled. It flowers late, and sometimes not very well.
The Double Dark Marbled. The peduncles are moderately long, thin, and smooth; the germen is semi-globose, with small sepals; the bud is of a deep purplish red; the flowers are very numerous, small, and semi-double, opening well,, and appearing very brilliant; the interior of the petals is mottled with deep purple lake on a pale ground, the paleness extending more perceptibly to the edges. After the flower has been some time expanded, the edges of the petals become much lighter, but still remain mottled, leaving the centre very distinctly marked with the darker colour, which is always more intense in that part; the yellow claws. shew themselves conspicuously when the flower is fully opened. The backs of the petals are not so brilliant as the insides, yet they are of a deep colour, and varied with white lines, but do not appear mottled. The fruits are abundant, rather large, black, and globose. This Rose comes into flower about the middle of the season of Scotch Roses, and is perhaps the most beautiful of the whole tribe; it has been usually sold under the name of the Double Velvet, and at Mr. LEE'S had been also called the Petite Red Scotch.
The character of the DOUBLE TWO-COLOURED SCOTCH ROSES is very peculiar; the petals have distinct colours on their two surfaces; the inside being very dark, and the outside quite pale: as the buds open, the edges of the petals turn back and are exposed to view, thus exhibiting conspicuously the two colours, which are also equally perceptible in the fully expanded flower.
The Small Double Two-coloured has short peduncle, slightly thickened, and covered with setae; the germen is flatly campanulate, with triangular and short sepals; the bud is at first tinged with dull purple, but soon assumes its two-coloured appearance; the flower is semi-double, and of a good size; the petals are notched, and have, their edges revolute; their inside being of a brilliant purple lake, mottled with darker colour, and the outside almost white. The fruits are small, black, and globose, but not abundant.
The Large Double Two-coloured, which has also been called the King of Scotland, is in every respect a stronger plant than the preceding. The peduncles are thicker and more hispid; the germen and sepals are larger; the bud is more swollen, and the flower is of greater size, though similar in character, being semi-double; the petals have a pale exterior; but, on their inside, instead of being mottled, are an uniform rich lake. The fruits are few, black, compressed, and open at the top. It is figured by ANDREWS in his Roses as R. spinosissima bicolor. This is the preferable variety of the two, and is certainly one of the finest of the collection. Both kinds are rather late in flowering.
The DOUBLE DARK-COLOURED SCOTCH ROSES will include all those darker than the red ones heretofore described, exclusive of those which, on account of having their petals mottled, or of two distinct colours, are placed in the sections of Marbled and Two-coloured.
The small Double Light Purple has slightly hispid peduncles, semi-globose germens, and narrow sepals; the buds are of a very dingy colour, but the flower when open, notwithstanding it is small, is neat and handsome; though fuller than semidouble, its petals are lightly disposed together, and when expanded shew the stamina; the colour of the petals is a reddish purple, much paler on the backs, though not so two-coloured as in those plants so named; the petals are notched, revolute on their edges. The fruits are numerous, black, and compressed. It blossoms late.
The Double Purple is a very late as well as a bad flowering plant; but being distinct, and having been established in our gardens, it cannot he passed over. The peduncles are long, thickened, and smooth, the germen campanulate, and the sepals narrow, the whole tinged with a mahogany colour; the bud is much swollen, and of a palish hue; the flower, though not large, is thick, and full double; the petals grow upright, and are thus cupped, and do not expand freely; their inside is of a dark lake colour, more inclining to purple than any variety I have described; the backs of the petals are much lighter than the inside, but not distinctly two-coloured, though sufficiently so to give a slight appearance of variation to the general effect of the flower. The styles in the centre are, in some cases, swollen into numerous elongated lumps. It does not, generally, produce fruits.
The Double Crimson. I found this in Mr. WILLIAM MALCOLM'S nursery at Kensington mixed with another variety. Its peduncles are fine, moderately long, and smooth; the germen is semi-globose, and the sepals long; the bud is of a dark brown red; the flower is small and semi-double, having a few smaller petals in the centre; the inside of the petals is of a deep, rich crimson, without marbling; but shewing the reticulation of the veins a little; the backs are not so brilliant, but have the veins perceptible. The flower is very rich and handsome, and except that it is not marbled, has a strong affinity to the Dark Marbled. The fruits are small, few, black, and globose. It is late in coming into blossom.
Having now noticed all the True Double Scotch Roses, which I am well acquainted with, except such as, from their close similarity to those described, do not merit separate mention, I subjoin a table of the Sections and Varieties.
|SECTION I. Double White Scotch Roses.||SECTION IV. Double Red Scotch Roses.|
|1.||Small Double White.||16.||True Double Red.|
|2.||Large Semi-double White.||17.||Double Light Red.|
|3.||Large Double White.||18.||Double Dark Red.|
|4.||Whitley's Double White.||SECTION V. Double Marbled Scotch Roses.|
|SECTION II. Double Yellow Scotch Roses.|
|5.||Small Double Yellow.||19.||Double Light Marbled.|
|6.||Pale Double Yellow.||20.||Double Crimson Marbled.|
|7.||Large Double Yellow.||21.||Double Dark Marbled.|
|8.||Globe Double Yellow.||SECTION VI. Double Two-coloured Scotch Roses.|
|SECTION III. Double Blush Scotch Roses.|
|9.||Princess Double Blush.||22.||Small Double Two-coloured.|
|10.||Double Lady's Blush.||25.||Large Double Two-coloured.|
|11.||Anderson's Double Lady's Blush.|
|12.||Dutch Double Blush.||SECTION VII. Double Dark-coloured Scotch Roses.|
|15.||Double Provins Blush.||24.||Small Double Light Purple.|
|14.||Double Pink Blush.||25.||Double Purple.|
|15.||Double Rose Blush.||26.||Double Crimson.|
If, in the course of less than twenty years from the appearance of the first of these varieties, so many have been obtained, a much more extensive list of good flowers may probably ere long be formed. The exertions of Mr. AUSTIN of Glasgow, and of Mr. LEE of Hammersmith, which I have before mentioned, have even already produced some which, when they shall have been examined, and distinguished by appropriate names, will well deserve places in any collection. The greatest improvements which I expect to arise, exclusive of the enlargement of the size of the flowers, will be in the darker colours, and in those of a pure rose colour, which will form a section intermediate between the Blushes and the Reds. In the raising of new plants from seed, with a view to the attainment of new varieties, it is probable that the greater number obtained will, resemble those above enumerated, and that by far the greater proportion will bear blush flowers.
|* Lawrence's Roses, pl. 63.|
The account of the Double Scotch Roses would here terminate if confined to those which are strictly referable to the species; but as there is another Double Rose, which has been long known in the nurseries under the name of The Tall Double Scotch Rose, it might seem an omission if I were to leave it unnoticed. The plant appeared in the Hammersmith nursery many years since, having been obtained from the garden of the late Dr. PITCAIRN, beyond which I cannot trace its history. This is the Double Scotch Rose to which I have alluded, as being inserted in the second edition of the Hortus Kewensis; it is the R. spinosissima of that work, and is figured by Miss LAWRENCE, in her work on Roses.* The representation there given is tolerably correct, but the flower is rather too richly coloured. The plant differs much from the Scotch Roses, being of taller growth, and looser habit; the branches do not grow thickly together, but detached; the aculei are of various sizes, and straight, but they are generally small, and many are more like setae than aculei; the petioles are hairy, the foliola are not flat, but folded together, and bend back at their connection. with the petiole; their colour is a paler green than is usual in the foliola of Scotch Roses; they are also more elliptical and more acutely serrated; and their under surfaces are hairy. The peduncles are short, not stiffly upright, thickening towards the top, and having glandiferous setae; the germen is long, ovate, and smooth, with long narrow sepals, which when the flower opens, are reflected quite to the peduncle. The bud is a bright pink; the flower is large and double, having a fine rich scent; it opens cupped, and has no resemblance to the flowers of the Double Scotch Roses; the centre has a very delicate and beautiful tinge of pale carmine, approaching to flesh colour; the outside petals are so much paler, as to be almost white; the interior petals gradually become shorter and smaller as they approach the centre, and the stamina are seen amongst them; the petals have occasionally a stripe of carmine in them, like to that of a carnation, or similar to the variegation of the York and Lancaster Rose. The flowers become paler after they have been sometime expanded, and as they open in succession, there is a great variety of appearance when the plant is in full bloom. It comes into flower after the true Scotch Roses are over, and is a very desirable plant for any garden.
The tall Scotch Rose above described, is one of the anomalies in this widely extending genus, for which it is difficult to assign a proper position in an arrangement of the collection. I suspect it to be a garden production, and probably a hybrid; the latter conjecture is strengthened by the circumstance that it does not produce ripe fruits. If its type had existed in a wild state, it would have been placed in the division of the pimpinellifoliae, with R. involuta, R. Doniana, and R. Sabini, but I cannot think that it has originated from any of these species. There are several other Double Roses of more recent origin, especially amongst the varieties raised by the French, which will assimilate to, and perhaps form a class to which this Rose may be united; but with these I am not, at present, sufficiently acquainted to give a perfect account of them.
Roses; Or, A Monograph of the Genus Rosa, vol. 2 (1828)
H. C. Andrews
ROSA spinosissima, nana; varietates.
| These beautiful varieties of the Dwarf Scotch Rose are, when out of bloom, all exactly alike, and not to be distinguished from the white.
We have figured them all three on one plate, that, by close comparison, the diference between them may be easier ascertained.
On the list of Garden Roses they may be separately known by their distinctions of colour, as bicolor, sulphurea, and carnea. We have represented them in their full height of three years growth from seed: so low a stature renders them well adapted to form elegant inclosures for other plants.
Rowley: Scotch Rose and its Descendants (1963)
Paul: Scotch Roses (1848)