Manual of Roses (1846)

William Prince Catalog p. 42

CLASS XXXI.—AUSTRIAN BRIAR, OR YELLOW EGLANTINE, &c. Rosa lutea, &c.

All the varieties have cupped flowers except those denoted otherwise.

  Name. Color and Character. $ cts.
1505. Austrian Yellow, or Copper, Austrian red and yellow. Bright lurid red above, yellow beneath, single, 50
1505 1/2. Capucine ponctué, Yellow beneath and mottled with red above, singular, single, 1 00
1506. Double blush, or Victoria, Salmon blush, buff centre, 75
1507. Double yellow, Yellow Provence. Sulphurea. Globular, large, full double, deep yellow, delicate foliage, blooms rarely, 75
1508. Double yellow, Williams, Yellow sweet briar. Bright yellow, 75
1509. Globe yellow, Bright lemon yellow, globular, 75
1510. Halrrison's yellow, Feast's Seedling. Hogg's yellow. Small, brilliant yellow, blooms profusely, 50 to 75
1511. Harrisonii, No. 1, Pale yellow, tinged with copper, 1 00
1512. Italian yellow, Straw yellow centre, very pretty, 1 00
1513. Lutescens, or Siberian yellow, Small, straw colored, single, 37
1514. Persian yellow, Deep orange, superb, distinct, 1 00
1515. Pompone yellow. Globular, small deep yellow, dwarf habit, 1 00
1516. Single orange, Orange yellow, 1 00
1617. Single yellow, Brilliant yellow, 50
1518. Superb yellow, Williams, Pale yellow, tinged with red, 1 00
1519. La bien trouvé, Pure white, highly fragrant, globose, 75

Manual of Roses: Comprising the Most Complete History of the Rose (1846)

THE PERSIAN, OR AUSTRIAN BRIAR.
Rosa lutea, vel sulphurea.

This much admired, and very peculiar Briar is found native, or naturalized, in the south of Europe, and particularly on the hills of the north of Italy, producing copper or red, as well as yellow flowers; but, strange to say, though the flowers are invariably single, they never produce seed. In this country it is also with extreme difficulty, and only by fertilizing its flowers, that seed can be perfected: if the flowers are examined they will all be found deficient in pollen, which accounts for this universal barrenness. A splendid, perfectly double variety having been obtained from Persia, and others being known to exist there, it is extremely probable that it originated in that country. All of this family have cupped, except where otherwise designated.

The Copper, or Red and Yellow Austrian, the Capucine of the French, is a most singular rose; the inside of each petal is of a bright copper red, ihe outside inclining to sulphur. I have also in my collection a rose with single flowers, imported from France under the name of Capucine de Semies, which is totally distinct from the preceding; the petals are yellow beneath, and the surface mottled with dull red, and sometimes entirely of a dull red hue. The foliage also differs from the preceding, being more delicate, and the growth of the plant is much more vigorous. To distinguish it I have called it Capucine Ponctué. A double, copper colored variety is yet a desideratum. The Double Yellow, or Williams' Double Yellow Sweet Briar, is a pretty double rose, raised from the Single Yellow Austrian a few years since; this blooms more freely than the original species, and is a most desirable variety. Rosa Harrisonii, or Harrison's Yellow, was raised from seed by the late Geo. Harrison, Esq., of New-York, from whom I received the first plant he parted with, in exchange for a Camellia Aitoni, which I had just then imported at an expense of three guineas. It has proved not only brilliant and beautiful, but what was equally important, a most free and profuse bloomer; the flowers which are not quite full double are about two inches in diameter and globular before expansion, but a hot sun makes them expand and lose much of their beauty. It is a more robust grower than the Double Yellow Briar, often forming shoots of five to six feet in a season; its flowers are also a little larger, and do not fade so soon. Numerous seedlings have been raised from this variety, but all that have come under my notice have proved very similar, or inferior to it. To one produced in England the name has been given of Harrisonii No. 1. This I have imported, and find the flower to be pale yellow, tinged with copper. A plant obtained from Mr. Feast, and said to be grown from seed by him, has produced flowers undistinguishable from those of the parent. The Single Yellow is the most brilliant Yellow rose we yet possess; and it will probably be the parent of some double varieties, its equal in color.

To this peculiar family of roses a few new varieties have been added. Cuivre Rouge, a curious hybrid, partaking of the Boursault Rose, with smooth thornless branches and dull reddish single flowers, and the Superb Double Yellow Briar, a seedling raised by Mr. Williams, of Pitmaston, from the same rose, and, I believe, at the same time, as the Double Yellow Briar. This has larger and more double flowers, but they are perhaps not so bright in color. A third variety is the Globe Yellow, a very pretty pale yellow rose, of humble growth: this variety was raised in Italy.

A new yellow rose has been given to us from the land of flowers, Persia. This was introduced by the London Horticultural Society in 1838, and is now called the Persian Yellow Rose. In habit it is very like the Single Yellow Austrian Briar; it seems to grow readily budded on the Dog Rose, and plants so budded have made shoots three feet or more in length in one season. In color it is of a deeper yellow than the Harrison, quite double, cupped, and not so liable to become reflexed as that very pretty and brilliant rose. Like the Yellow Austrian Briar, it loves a pure air and rich soil, and will then grow and bloom most freely. The Italian Yellow has straw colored flowers with a yellow centre. The Double Blush, or Victoria, is of a salmon blush color, with a buff centre, large, but not fully double. La bien Trouvé is classed in some European publications under this head, but my own investigations have not yet enabled me to decide whether appropriately or not. The flowers are white, double, highly fragrant, and of globose form.

To bloom Austrian Briars in perfection, the soil should be moist, and the air dry as well as pure. But little manure is necessary, as they grow freely in any tolerably good and moist soil; neither do they require severe pruning, but merely the strong shoots shortened, most of the twiirs being left on the plant, as they, generally, produce flowers in great abundance.

No family of roses offers such an interesting field for experiments in raising new varieties from seed as this. First, we have the Copper Austrian, from which, although it is one of the oldest roses in our gardens, a double flowering variety has never yet been obtained. This rose is always defective in pollen, and consequently it will not bear seed unless its flowers are fertilized: as it will be interesting to retain the traits of the species, it should be planted with and fertilized by the Double Yellow; it will then in warm dry seasons produce seed not abundantly, but the amateur must rest satisfied if he can procure even one hep full of perfect seed. The French variety which I have called Capucine Ponctué seems to bear seed more freely, but as the color of its flowers is not so bright as the original, its seed, even from fertilized flowers, would not be so valuable.

The beautiful and brilliant Harrison and the Persian Yellow give us, however, the brightest hopes. They should be planted with the Double Yellow Briar; and will then, as has been proved, bear seed abundantly: no rose will perhaps show the effects of fertilizing its flowers more plainly than this, and consequently to the amateur it is the pleasing triumph of art over nature. Mr. Rivers remarks that every flower on his experimental plants, not fertilized, proved abortive, while, on the contrary, all those that were so, produced large black spherical heps full of perfect seed.

The Rosa Sulphurea, or Double Yellow Rose, or Yellow Provence, is arranged as a distinct species in the botanical catalogues, but it is evidently of the same parentage as the varieties of the Rosa lutea. It has been traced to Turkey, being probably brought there from Persia; and by some it is said to exist in China, the "Flowery Empire," that country which is not only the oldest in horticulture, but by far the most civilized and advanced in the development of those requirements that render human life most happy. In most European publications it is said to be a native of the Levant, whence it was introduced to the English gardens in 1629, but as it has never been found growing wild in its primitive character with single flowers, we may justly deem this hypothesis a mere fable. Nature has never yet presented us with double flowering species with which to commence the production of single flowering varieties, but directly the reverse. The process of producing new and often double varieties by fertilization, has doubtless been known to the Chinese for ages, else where would have originated above two hundred varieties of the Paeonia Moutan, whose existence was announced by the first British embassies? And whence the hundreds of double varieties of the Chrysanthemum, Camellia, and other genera now known to have flourished in China and Japan long before the nations of Europe knew of the existence of a single variety, or had imbibed the idea of producing double flowers? Recent developments are shedding a flood of light upon the history of that country, and proving beyond all question that the pretensions to original discovery of many of the arts by Europeans, and their vaunted claims to civilization, are as circumstances of yesterday, when contrasted with the thousands of years that the same arts have flourished in that ancient empire.

Be the origin of the Rosa Sulphurea what it may, it is one of the most ancient and beautiful varieties known to European gardens, introduced there in 1629. The flower is large, bright yellow, very double, and of globular form: its foliage is particularly delicate, with a glaucous pubescence; and its shoots have a greenish yellow tinge, very unlike the single yellow, yet Mr. Rivers has ventured a supposition that it was produced from that variety fertilized by the Damask, which is also of oriental origin. The Pompone Yellow, Dwarf Double Yellow, or Pompone Jaune, is the variety deemed nearest allied to the preceding; it is of dwarf habit; the flower small, deep yellow and globular; it blooms more freely than the preceding one. Both, however, are excessively shy of producing full blown flowers, although they grow in any moderately good soil with great luxuriance, especially if properly pruned, and show an abundance of flower buds, but some "worm in the bud" generally causes them to fall off prematurely. To remedy this, various situations have been recommended: some have said, plant it against a south wall; others, give it a northern aspect, under the drip of some water trough, as it requires a wet situation. All this is quackery and nonsense. The Double Yellow Rose being a native of a warm climate, requires a warm situation, with a free and airy exposure, and rich soil.

At Burleigh, (England,) the effect of situation on this rose is forcibly shown. A very old plant is growing against a southern wall, in a confined situation, its roots cramped by a stone pavement; it is weakly and never shows a flower-bud. Another plant is growing in front of a low parapet wall, in a good loamy soil, and free airy exposure; this is in a state of the greatest luxuriance, and blooms in perfection almost every season.

Mr. Rivers suggests that for the humid climate of England, it would be well to bud it on short stems of the Dog Rose, or Sweet Briar; these to be potted in autumn, and forced late in the spring, giving the plants plenty of air, thus endeavoring to imitate the dry and warm climate of Italy, where it is said to bloom in perfection. With us such artificial means are unnecessary, as we have a sun quite as warm and glowing as that of Italy, and we doubt not that beneath the sunny skies of our own glorious country, a good soil and an open exposure will produce the desirable results.