Picone, J.M., Clery, R.A., Watanabe, N., MacTavish, H.S., and Turnbull, C.G., Rhythmic emission of floral volatiles from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. "Quatre Saisons," Planta 218(3): 468-478, 2004

Abstract The control of rhythmic emission of floral volatiles emitted from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. Quatre Saisons throughout floral development under various light regimes was studied. 2-Phenylethanol was the major volatile emitted in addition to monoterpenols, oxidised monoterpenols, monoterpenes and aromatic compounds. All detected volatiles were emitted rhythmically, with maximum peaks coinciding 8–10 h into a 12-h photoperiod. For some compounds a secondary, nocturnal peak was apparent. The primary and secondary maxima both occurred at approximately 24-h intervals. Rhythms appeared to be regulated endogenously: rhythmic emission continued upon exposure to continuous light or continuous darkness, and a phase shift in emission was induced upon inversion of the photoperiod. Additionally, emission continued after flower excision. A similar profile of free volatiles was stored within the floral tissue, together with glycosidic forms of 2-phenylethanol (>99% β-D-glucoside), benzyl alcohol, citronellol and geraniol. Regression analysis indicated a significant decrease in glycosylated 2-phenylethanol through the photoperiod. These results suggest that glycosylated volatiles stored within petals may be a source of rhythmically emitted volatiles.