An Encyclopedia of Gardening. Book 2, Part 3. pp. 892-893 (1824)
J. C. Loudon

6559. Forwarding and Retarding Roses.

The earliest flowering Rose is the Monthly, which, in mild seasons, and planted against a wall, will sometimes flower in the beginning of April. The Roses next in succession are the Cinnamon, which flowers in May; the Damask, in the end of May or beginning of June; the Blush, York and Lancaster, Province and Dutch Hundred-leaved, in June, July and August. The Virginia and Musk Roses are the latest sorts: they flower in September, and, in shady situations, will sometimes continue in bloom till the middle of October; but the earliest Rose (the Monthly) is also the latest, and generally continues flowering till interrupted by frost. The earliest sorts may be materially forwarded by being planted against a south wall, and, if portable sashes be placed before them, and the wall is either flued or heated by fires, the plants may be brought to flower in February or March. The Monthly Rose, being protected by glass in autumn, or aided by artificial heat, may be continued in bloom till Christmas. A very common mode of obtaining late Roses, and one of the greatest antiquity, is by cutting all the flower shoots off when the buds begin to appear, or by rubbing off all the rudiments of shoots of every kind, early in the spring: a second crop is in consequence produced, which will not be in a state to bloom before the autumn.

6560. Forcing the Rose.

The best sorts for this purpose are the Common and Moss Province. The Indian sorts force well, or rather in stoves continue in bloom all the year; but the more common varieties, not being fragrant, they are in less repute than the European Roses. Rose plants should be a year in pots, previous to the autumn when it is intended to force them: they should be planted in pots six or eight inches in diameter, in rich loam, and placed in an open, airy situation, their flower-buds pinched off as they appear, and the plants put into a state of rest, by excluding sun and rain, but not a free circulation of air. Abercrombie says, " There is no certainty of obtaining a fine blow of roses in the depth of winter by the most expensive artifices; and yet fine flowers may be produced early in the spring by any ordinary stove, put in operation in December. When the plants are first introduced, keep the air of the house about 55°, never letting it fluctuate to more than two or three degrees below the above. In the second week aim at 60° as the standard, in the third week 65°. When a month has nearly elapsed, begin to increase the heat gradually to 70°: having brought it to this standard, let it afterwards exceed it from three to five degrees, rather than sink below. A succession may be kept up by introducing some pots every eight or ten days.