American Rose Annual 32:173-192 (1947)
Classification and Breeding of Polyantha Roses
By DR. WALTER E. LAMMERTS
Rancho del Descanso, La Canada, California

THE polyantha roses are becoming increasingly important not only in the Eastern States where they have long held an important place in the landscaping of the larger homes, estates and parks, but also here in California where they have hitherto been used only sparingly. This increased popularity is largely due to the introduction in recent years of varieties combining the everblooming cluster habit of the older types with greatly improved flower color and form. Continued development of this class of roses by plant breeders depends on a thorough understanding of the history, classification and varietal diversity of already existing polyanthas so that future breeding efforts may take full advantage of the many accomplishments already achieved. It is the purpose of this article to point out some of the problems involved in classifying this highly diverse group of rose varieties, discuss the characteristics of certain important sub-groups, and indicate what seem to be worthwhile leads for rose breeders to follow in developing the ideal polyanthas of the future.

The most complete descriptive list of polyantha varieties is that found in Modern Roses II where they are arranged alphabetically along with the other varieties and classified into two groups, i.e., polyanthas and hybrid polyanthas. Presumably the polyanthas are those varieties having varying combinations of genetic factors from only two species, Rosa multiflora and Rosa chinensis, and the hybrid polyanthas are varieties resulting from crossing polyanthas with varieties in other classes or with other species of roses. Unfortunately, such clear-cut distinction is evidently very difficult, as will be made clear later in this paper. The original members of this group were distinct enough to be readily classified, as they all combined the small-flowered cluster habit of R. multiflora with the dwarf bush and continuous blooming habit of R. chinensis. Thus, the Crimson Rambler, imported from Japan in 1893 as the Engineers Rose, was a vigorous climber having irregular double bright crimson flowers which faded badly to blue. This variety was crossed by Levavasseur in 1903 to Gloire des Polyanthas to give Mme. Norbert Levavasseur, a bushy dwarf plant of continuous blooming habit but still retaining the crimson flower which "blues badly." Evidently Gloire des Polyanthas transmitted the dwarf everblooming habit from its R. chinensis ancestry. By crossing Mme. Norbert Levavasseur with an unrecorded variety, Levavasseur obtained and introduced in 1909 the famous Orléans Rose, typical of many true polyanthas. This rose had vivid rosy crimson flowers with a white center, glossy leaves, a bushy habit and free intermittent bloom all season. A truly remarkable array of sports have come from the Orléans Rose, and some of these have in turn sported again. The list of these sports, arranged chronologically, is as follows:

ORLÉANS ROSE (1909) — vivid rosy crimson, white center.
Miss Edith Cavell (1917) — scarlet crimson, overlaid velvety crimson (never blues). Should be very valuable in breeding.
    1. Ideal (1921) — dark velvety crimson.
        a Orange Perfection (1927) — orange red.
        b Julia Ann Bostick (1935) — apple blossom pink, white at base; single flower.
    2. Kersbergen (1927) bright currant-red.
    3. Orange Marvel (1928) salmon orange.
Coral Cluster (1920) — coral pink
    1. Pride of Hurst (1926) — coral pink, small, very double.
    2. Little Dorritt (1930) — coral salmon.
Juliana Rose (1920) — pale salmon.
Koster's Orléans (1920) — brilliant scarlet red.
Frau Elisabeth Munch (1921) — full scarlet cherry red.
Crimson Orléans (1922) — dark red.
Girlie (1923) — bright scarlet crimson.
Double Orléans (1924) — rosy crimson, white center, more double than Orléans rose.
Locarno (1926) — large orange red.
    1. Scarlet Button (1932) — brilliant scarlet.
Magnifique (1928) — clear pink.
Orange Queen (1923) — salmon orange.
Teschendorff Jubilaumsrose (1928) — brilliant rosy crimson darker than Orléans Rose.
Orléans Improved (1931) — vivid rose pink.
Gloire du Midi (1932) — brilliant orange scarlet.
Cameo (1932) — salmon pink.

From the genetic point of view the interesting features of this list of 24 sports of the Orléans Rose are (1) the variation in color, (2) the variation in size of flower and degree of doubleness, Pride of Hurst being small and very double, and Julia Ann Bostick single flowered; and (3) the re-occurrence of the same color sports several different times. Thus there are six sports described as having brilliant scarlet or currant-red flowers, three with coral pink or salmon flowers, two with salmon orange flowers, and two with orange red flowers. Furthermore, these colors are clearly recessive to the vivid rosy crimson of the Orléans Rose, since in no case do we find varieties having these colors sporting back to crimson again. This is in line with the results of breeding data briefly presented previously (Lammerts 1945). The dark velvety crimson of Ideal is similarly recessive to the scarlet crimson of Miss Edith Cavell. The recorded statement that Miss Edith Cavell never blues is most interesting, as it would seem to indicate the reappearance of the non-bluing quality found in many R. chinensis varieties, and the recessive inheritance of this valuable trait. Varieties having this characteristic should be most valuable in breeding work. It would be decidedly worth while to gather all 24 of these sports in one collection to determine if all are really distinct, or if the same sport has occurred two or more times, resulting in identical varieties.

Other less complicated families of sports in the true polyantha class are (1) the double crimson Superba and its twin family of sports, Golden Salmon which sported to Sparkler and Ceská Pohádka, and Gloria Mundi which sported to Luminous, California Gold, Canberra, Coral Cup and Baby Gloria; (2) Phyllis which sported to Jessie, Orange King and Osmunda, Jessie in turn sporting to Marytje Cazant, Marytje Cazant then sporting to Perfection, and Orange King sporting to Mariposa, Salmon Beauty, Lindbergh, Fireglow and Frau Rudolph Schmidt; and (3) Tausendschön which sported to Echo, which in turn sported to Brilliant Echo, Direktor Struve, Eva Teschendorff and Greta Kluis, the latter sporting to Präsident Hindenberg. The recessive behavior of white is indicated by the occurrence of the two white sports, Direktor Struve and Eva Teschendorff from the dark pink Echo.

A list of true polyanthas is given in Table I. As far as the evidence given in Modern Roses II indicates, these have been derived only from R. multiflora X R. chinensis sources. Since the data on some is very meager their true nature could only be ascertained by growing them together in a collection, studying carefully their expressed characteristics, and probably also making a genetic analysis of any varieties which seem distinct enough from obviously true polyanthas such as the Orléans Rose to be suspected as having factors from species other than R. multiflora or R. chinensis. In Table I, varieties which may have value in future breeding work are indicated mainly on the basis of whether they are recorded as having inherited the nonfading tendency, fragrance, or attractive foliage.

In addition to the 220 polyanthas listed in Table I, which for want of better evidence we may assume represent the variability possible from crossing derivatives of just two species, we have 64 varieties listed in Modern Roses II as polyanthas but obviously actually hybrid polyanthas. These varieties in other words are the result of crossing polyanthas with other species or with varieties derived from other species. Naturally these exhibit a remarkably wide range of characters and the only features they share with the true polyanthas are the everblooming character and dwarf habit, and indeed some recent varieties can hardly be called dwarf! These as well as the 78 varieties of hybrid polyanthas listed in Modern Roses II may be classified into various groups based on which species, or species complex exerts the preponderant influence. Thus the rather large group of polyanthas X hybrid teas becomes Hybrid Polyantha Class I and is listed in Table II.

Another group of varieties are backcrosses of polyanthas X hybrid teas to hybrid teas. Presumably these should show more hybrid tea influence, as indicated by larger flowers, better bud form and more fragrance than most varieties in Hybrid Polyantha Class I. This group then becomes Hybrid Polyantha Class II and is listed in Table III.

Evidently rose breeders have not considered backcrossing of polyantha X hybrid teas to polyanthas as a very profitable means of producing good new varieties. At least only one variety is listed in what logically becomes Hybrid Polyantha Class III. This variety and parentage is as follows:

Variety Parentage Important character
Polyantha X
Hybrid Tea parent
Polyantha parent
Eglantine Rodhätte X Amaury Fonseca Small, single, fragrant, carmine, white center. Large cluster.

It would seem that backcrossing of polyantha X hybrid tea varieties indicated in Table II as having possible value in breeding, to non-fading, fragrant varieties of polyanthas listed in Table I would result in some very fine non-fading fragrant hybrid polyanthas with bud form definitely better than that now existing in the true polyantha group.

A very interesting and complex group of hybrid polyanthas are those involving Rosa Wichuraiana. Some of these are the result of crossing polyanthas with Dorothy Perkins, a variety obtained by crossing R. Wichuraiana X Mme. Gabriel Luizet, a hybrid perpetual; others are the result of crossing directly to R. Wichuraiana. They logically may be classified in a group distinguished from those previously considered by characters inherited from R. Wichuraiana, and become Hybrid Polyantha Class IV, or Hybrid Polyantha-Wichuraiana hybrids. They are listed in Table IV.

Several further developments in this group have produced varieties which might well be included in Class IV because of the marked R. Wichuraiana influence. One of these is Poulsen's Copper which resulted from a cross of Ellen Poulsen with Mevrouw G. A. van Rossem. The bud is long pointed and flower high-centered rose-pink and orange. Unfortunately the fine foliage characteristics of Ellen Poulsen have been lost. Evidently backcrossing to varieties in this class having the desirable disease-resistant glossy foliage is necessary for complete development of this line. The other varieties referred to above are results of attempts initiated by me at the Armstrong Nurseries seven years ago to combine the evergreen, fine foliage characters of a variety in this class, i.e., Mrs. Dudley Fulton, with the miniature flower and plant of R. chinensis minima, using the variety Tom Thumb.

The result has been the development of a line quite unlike anything previously developed, and in fact, quite unexpected when the cross was made. Though some very dwarf plants no larger than Tom Thumb resulted, the really important hybrids were the ones combining the evergreen foliage and large cluster habit of Mrs. Dudley Fulton with an amazing profusion of fine little miniature double flowers. Three of these have now been introduced, two through the Armstrong Nurseries and one through the University of California at Los Angeles. They are named China Doll, Pinkie, and Pink Cascade. Together they form a graduated series as regards height in the order named, Pink Cascade being very broad, bushy and about three feet high. All have fine, soft pink, double flowers, produced in very great abundance on very large clusters. Pinkie, developed by Herbert Swim of the Armstrong Nurseries from China Doll, has very good bud form, making the individual flowers highly desirable for corsage use. The development of this line has been presented in some detail to show the very profitable results of taking already existing lines of development and carrying them even a step or two forward.

Crosses of polyanthas with Rosa rugosa or derivatives of R. rugosa make up Class V. These are listed in Table V. They are all characterized by having large leathery, dark green foliage, inherited from R. rugosa.

An interesting combination is the variety Helen Leenders, a cross of Orléans Rose X Rosa foetida bicolor. This hybrid polyantha might well be used in further breeding work as it should carry the beautiful bicolor orange reverse of Austrian Copper Rose, which is inherited as a recessive, i.e., does not appear in the first generation cross. Two other roses classed as polyanthas but having no polyantha heritage at all as far as can be determined, also carry this recessive factor, namely Tip-Top, a cross of Trier X R. foetida bicolor and Aschenbrödel, a cross of Petite Leonie X R. foetida bicolor.

A very complex hybrid polyantha is the cross of Karen Poulsen X R. moyesi, called Langley Gem. This is actually a polyantha X hybrid tea X hybrid tea X R. moyesi. It has leathery bronzy foliage and even if only partially fertile should be useful in introducing the unique blood red color.

The following group of varieties evidently have no polyantha background at all, neither R. multiflora nor R. chinensis entering into their ancestry. Nevertheless they evidently have certain characters such as cluster habit, which make them similar enough to be classified as either polyanthas or hybrid polyanthas. This indicates that other species of the genus Rosa have either factors identical to those in R. multiflora and chinensis or so similar to them in effects as to be indistinguishable phenotypically. Though this is not an uncommon situation genetically it does create a classification problem well nigh impossible of solution. Nevertheless from the point of view of further breeding work these pseudo-polyantha varieties should be kept separate from the true polyanthas and hybrid polyanthas. In Table VI the characters which evidently led rosarians into classifying these genetically diverse varieties into the polyantha group are noted briefly under the column "Polyantha-like characters."

Finally there is a group of varieties classed as polyanthas and hybrid polyanthas whose recorded parentage is so incomplete as to make it impossible to classify them. These could probably be classified into some of the above groups if grown in a test garden in direct comparison with varieties in other classes. Thus Fluffy Ruffles, a cross of Miss Rowena Thom X Seedling 72, in all probability is in the polyantha X hybrid tea class judging by its appearance. These varieties with their parentage as far as given are listed in Table VII.

BREEDING THE IDEAL POLYANTHAS

The ideal polyantha or hybrid polyantha will of course vary with the locality in which we live. In the eastern and central states, or the corn belt area, the ideal varieties will be very hardy and blackspot resistant. In the western and particularly the milder southwestern states, the main considerations are mildew resistance and a practically evergreen habit. In all localities it would seem that the ideal polyantha should be primarily a good landscape plant. This means it should lend itself to use as a border planting along driveways, at edges of shrubberies, or around the rose garden itself. Also varieties useful for planting in beds to give masses of color are highly desirable. Many of the newer and some of the older varieties fill these needs quite well.

1Buck, Sgt. Griffith J. 1945. The Chinese Rose as a Parent of Better Varieties. The American Rose Annual, 1945: 85-89.
2Larnmerts, W. E. 1945. The Scientific Basis of Rose Breeding. The American Rose Annual, 1945: 71-79.

However, from the point of view of ideal types, all leave much to be desired. The foliage should be more abundant and of a glossy leathery type in both the bronzy and dark green colors. It should be unmarred by either blackspot or mildew lesions. Most polyanthas, even the most recent, have flowers which fade too quickly, often to undesirable shades. This characteristic undoubtedly is inherited from the R. multiflora side of the family. By crossing the varieties indicated in the various tables to R. chinensis mutabilis, or to non-fading older polyantha varieties indicated in Table I, this fading tendency can be eliminated. In fact, not only does R. chinensis mutabilis not fade but the flowers actually darken as they age! Crosses I have already made indicate that this very desirable character is readily transmitted. Furthermore, as pointed out by Sgt. Griffith J. Buck1 (ARA, 1945, p. 85), we can increase the hardiness of our R. chinensis varieties. To develop the foliage we must make liberal use of hybrids involving Captain Thomas as discussed in a previous article (Lammerts2, ARA, 1945, p. 71). The polyantha-Wichuraiana hybrids such as Ellen Poulsen (Table IV) may also be very useful in building up foliage characters. The need of very abundant flowering cannot be too strongly stressed. Abundance of flowering depends on (1) the size of individual flower clusters, (2) rapidity with which new clusters are formed, and (3) rapidity of individual flower opening. Many of the newer varieties such as China Doll, Pinkie, and Pink Cascade are ideal in this respect. They need to be developed into other colors with the desirable characteristics mentioned above, i.e., better foliage, unfading flower, and increased hardiness.

As regards colors, we have in several recent varieties some excellent shades. Goldilocks comes very close to being an ideal yellow, though efforts must be continued toward the attainment of the deeper yellow shades. Again, Floradora, though a most remarkable color, varying from Nopal red to scarlet, fades badly and is too tall and stiff in habit of growth to be an ideal landscape plant. This color on an unfading flower, however, and a more dwarf compact habit would be a sensation!

Finally, as always, we come to fragrance, a character many polyanthas, especially the recent ones, are singularly lacking. In the tables listed, polyantha varieties are noted which have been recorded as fragrant. It would seem decidedly worth while to use these in building up fragrance within this group. Of course crosses to fragrant hybrid teas may be necessary in order to introduce enough factors to create really fragrant polyanthas. Much more data on the inheritance of fragrance is needed in order to more intelligently attack this phase of the problem.

Though the attempt made in this paper at a genetic classification admittedly leaves much to be desired, and certainly does not solve the problem of just how we should classify the highly heterogeneous polyantha group, at least a clear idea of its complexity is presented. Obviously we would be unwise to continue listing varieties in Tables II to VII as just polyanthas, and furthermore some workable way of excluding the pseudo-polyanthas (Table VI) from the hybrid polyantha classes is needed. Perhaps we ought to set up for these roses and those in Table VII the terms "large and small-flowered cluster roses" as is done in many nursery catalogues. In fact, the cluster habit is about all these varieties have in common and also share with the true polyanthas and hybrid polyanthas. Only by growing all of these varieties together in test gardens, and making a painstaking study of their characters can a really adequate system of classification be made. If at all possible the genetic distinctions separating polyanthas and true hybrid polyantha classes from the pseudo groups should be recognized, as any system of classification obscuring these distinctive features will increase the difficulties of the plant breeder in selecting the proper varieties for further progress. Basic research on the inheritance of certain complex characters such as fragrance, bud form and disease resistance is urgently needed. Very possibly the research committee of the American Rose Society may be able to interest scientists at state and federal institutions in some of these fascinating problems, the solution of which would so greatly aid rose breeders in attaining the ideals herein set forth. In any event, the field is wide open, the players but few, and the rewards in terms of greater usefulness of the rose very great.

TABLE I

POLYANTHA ROSES
Parentage and Significant Distinctive Characteristics
Variety Parentage Significant, Distinctive Characters
Adora Unlisted Very fragrant, double, rose-pink.
Aennchen Muller Crimson Rambler X Georges Pernet (pol.) Large, double rose cluster habit.
Amarante Unlisted Dark amaranth, cluster 25-70.
Amaury Fonseca Unlisted Good form, white, suffused light pink in fall.
Andree Lenoble Unlisted Rose or red, does not fade.
Arras Sport of Triomphe Orleanais Crimson-red.
Baby Alan Unlisted Very double, shining pink; cluster.
Baby Alberic Unlisted Bud yellow; flower double, creamy white; perpetual bloom.
Baby Betty Eblouissant X Comtesse du Cayla Small, full, fragrant, pink; abundant, recurrent bloom.
Baby Deitz Unlisted Full, Oriental red, edges salmon.
Baby Elegance Unlisted Single, pale, yellow-orange.
Baby Faurax Unlisted Small, double, fragrant, violet-blue; large cluster.
Baby Gloria Gloria Mundi sport Larger salmon-red flower.
Baby Lyon Rose Unlisted Double, coral-red, shaded chrome-yellow.
Baby Mine Cl. Cecile Brunner seedling Sulphur, varying to butter-yellow.
Baby Rosamunde Unlisted Semi-double, rose-pink
Beaucaire Unlisted Large, double, chamois-pink edges, copper-yellow center, reverse coppery red.
Beaute d'Automne Phyllis X unnamed seedling Double, bright rose-pink; cluster 50-70.
Beauty of New South Wales Orléans Rose seedling Small, single, fragrant bright crimson; cluster 20-60.
Bebe Blanc Unlisted Double, white; large cluster.
Bernice Baby Tausendschon X Gloria Mundi. Flower small, double, globular, very fragrant, brilliant cerise-pink; cluster. Foliage
glossy. Should be useful in breeding.
Bohmova Popelka Unlisted Dark blood-red; foliage curiously variegated.
Borderer Jersey Beauty seedling Semi-double to double; slightly fragrant. Salmon.
Break o'Day Unlisted Semi-double, cupped, copper-pink, yellow center; cluster.
Brilliant Echo Sport of Echo Rosy pink.
Britannia Coral Cluster X Eblouissant Small, single, crimson; cluster 30-40.
California Gold Gloria Mundi sport Full, globular, bright orange-yellow. Does not fade disagreeably.
Camellia Juanita X Mrs. R. M. Finch Flower small, double, nutty fragrance, rose-lake-pink.
Cameo Orléans Rose sport Small, salmon-pink.
Canarienvogel Etoile de Mai X Souv. de Catherine Guillot Semi-double, saffron-yellow.
Canberra Sport of Gloria Mundi Salmon-coral-pink.
Carol Ann Unlisted Unfading orange-salmon. Dwarf.
Carmen Sistachs Unlisted Small, double, fragrant, rose-pink; cluster.
Ceska Pohadka Golden Salmon sport Bunches of red, salmon, rose and white.
Charlotte Wierel Bebe Leroux X Helene Videnz Cream-white to rose-pink center.
Charmaine Evelyn Thornton seedling Double, fragrant, pink tinged salmon, bright glossy foliage. Good breeding type.
Chatillon Rose Orléans Rose X unnamed seedling Bright pink, semi-double, glossy leaves; cluster.
Clotilde Soupert Mignonette X Mme. Damaizin Large, double, fragrant, pearly white to rose-pink center.
Conchita Unlisted Double, clear, salmon; cluster.
Coral Beauty Sport of unnamed Orléans Rose sport Deep coral-red.
Coral Cluster Orléans Rose sport Coral-pink.
Coral Cup Gloria Mundi sport Double, soft coral; cluster
Coralline Unlisted Orange-red; very large masses.
Cotorrita Real Unlisted Small, globular, very double, white, rose, and yellow; cluster.
Crimson Orléans Orléans Rose sport Dark red.
Dainty Unlisted Dainty salmon-pink.
Dainty Dawn Amaury Fonseca X Aennchen Muller Semi-double, fragrant, cerise-pink to mauve; cluster.
Dereham Pride Eblouissant X Orange King Dark crimson.
Dick Koster Unlisted Large, bright salmon-rose to orange.
Direktor Struve Sport of Echo White.
Dolly Varden Unlisted Very large, double, clear pink.
Dorothy Dix Unlisted Rose-pink; cluster.
Dorothy Howarth Leonje Lamesch X Aennchen Muller Coral-pink, fragrant; cluser.
Double Orléans Orléans Rose sport Rosy crimson, white center.
Dr. Vasquez Unlisted Long bud, large, bright saturn-red flower.
Eblouissant China rose X Cramoisi Superieur Very double, dazzling deep red; bronzy, glossy foliage. Valuable for breeding.
Elizabeth Unlisted . Unfading rich salmon
Else Chaplin Unlisted Semi-double, deep rich pink; large trusses.
Enid Unlisted Pale pink; cluster.
Erna Teschendorff Mme. Norbert Levavasseur sport Small, semi-double, strawberry-red.
Evelyn Thornton Leonie Lamesch X Mrs. W. H. Cutbush. Double, fragrant, shell-pink to salmon; large leathery foliage. Valuable for breeding.
Fireball Unlisted Glowing reddish orange foliage dark, glossy.
Fireglow Orange King sport Single, brilliant vermilion red; cluster.
Flamboyant Unlisted Large double, bright scarlet to non-bluing crimson-carmine. Foliage glossy. Should be useful in breeding.
Flaming June Unlisted Bright orange-scarlet.
Franc Leddy Unlisted Small, double, light orange-red.
Frau Elisabeth Munch Orléans Rose sport Scarlet, cherry-red.
Frau Marie Bromine Sport of Dr. Kater Bright dark red.
Frau Rudolph Schmidt Jessie sport Dark ruby-red.
Gabrielle Privat Unlisted Brilliant carmine-pink.
George Elger Unlisted Very double, coppery yellow to clear yellow; large cluster.
Girlie Orléans Rose sport Bright scarlet-crimson.
Gloire du Midi Orléans Rose sport Double, brilliant orange scarlet.
Gloria Mundi Superba sport Orange-scarlet; cluster.
Glorious Sunset Mariposa sport Small, bronze, suffused red; cluster.
Glory of Hurst Orléans Rose X Jessie Semi-double, cherry-red; cluster. Glossy foliage.
Gnome Unnamed seedling X Mevr. Nathalie Nypels Large, double, cream yellow, fragrant.
Golden Perfection Unlisted Small, double, very fragrant, golden yellow. Useful for breeding.
Golden Poly (M. Leenders) Unlisted Large, very fragrant, golden yellow to yellowish white.
Golden Salmon Superba sport Large, pure orange; huge trusses.
Golden Salmon Superieur Golden Salmon sport Small, unfading golden salmon
Greta Kluis Baby Tausendechon sport Double, carmine-red.
Greta Kluis Superior Sport of Greta Kluis Deep carmine-red.
Heinrich Karsch Orléans Rose X Joan Semi-double, violet-rose.
Hurst Gem Sport of Orange King Small, brilliant orange-scarlet.
Hythe Cluster Unlisted Semi-double, deep pink.
Ideal Miss Edith Cavell sport Double, open, globular, dark velvety crimson.
Imatra Orléans Rose seedling Pink to white.
Indefectible Aennchen Muller seedling Semi-double, bright clear red.
Inspecteur Jagourt Mrs. Henry Winnett X Eblouissant Large, double, purplish pink; foliage glossy.
Jeanine Defaucamberge Merveille sport Large, double, peony form, bright salmon pink to light pink.
Jeanne d'Arc Seedling X Mme. Norbert Levavasseur Fragrant, pure milky white.
Jessie Sport of Phyllis Bright crimson, fading rose-pink.
John Wallace Marieanna Kluis Superior sport Large, double, open, deep red.
Julia Ann Bostick Ideal sport Small, single, cupped, apple-blossom-pink to white center.
Juliana Rose Orléans Rose sport Pale salmon; cluster.
Katchen von Heilbronn Freudenfeuer X unnamed variety Small, double, very dark red.
Kees Knoppers Mevr. Nathalie Nypels sport Large, semi-double, open, fleshy white; cluster.
La Marne Unlisted Single, blush-white; large loose cluster.
La Reine Elizabeth Unlisted Dark crimson; large cluster.
Laxton's Pink Delight Unlisted Single, fragrant, wild-rose pink.
Leonie Lamesch Aglaia X Kleiner Alfred Semi-double, light coppery red.
Lindbergh Orange King sport Very brilliant geranium-red; retains color until petals fall. Useful for breeding.
Lisbeth Stellmacher Aglaia X Marie van Houtte Small, double, very fragrant, pure golden yellow. Useful for breeding.
Little Dorrit Coral Cluster sport Coral-salmon.
Little Princess Unlisted Double, pale salmon-coral.
Locarno Orléans Rose sport Large, orange-red; huge cluster.
Luminous Gloria Mundi sport Small, double, brilliant scarlet-orange; cluster.
Madge Prior Unlisted Single, claret, white eye; large cluster.
Magenta Unlisted Large, double, very fragrant crimson-carmine. Foliage glossy. Useful or breeding.
Magnifique Orléans Rose sport Large, clear pink; cluster.
Malva Unlisted Large, mauve, white center; glossy foliage.
Maman Turbat Mme. Norbert Levavasseur X Katharina Zeimet Large, China rose, reverse aurora and white; large cluster.
Marechal Foch Orléans Rose sport X Jessie Semi-double, fragrant, cherry-red to pink; cluster.
Margaret Elbogen Unlisted Fragrant, pinkish white.
Margarete Herbst Unlisted Double, dark blood-red that does not burn or fade. Useful for breeding.
Margo Koster Unlisted Large, orange-red; cluster.
Margy Unlisted Semi-double, open, spicy fragrance, brilliant, vivid red.
Marie-Jeanne Unlisted Pale blush-cream; cluster of 40-60. Thornless.
Marie Pavic Unlisted Double, white with fleshpink center; cluster.
Mariposa Orange King sport Deeper orange-red.
Martha Thalia X Mme. Laurette Messimy Double, coppery rose; cluster 7-20.
Mary McHutchin Unlisted Semi-double, crimson; cluster.
Marysa Unlisted Pure white, lily-of-the-valley fragrance.
Maud E. Gladstone Orléans Rose X King Edward VI Small, double, fragrant, Malmaison pink, shaded coral. Glossy foliage. Useful for breeding.
Mauricette Sistau Unlisted Large, pure white passing to rosy white; cluster.
Merveille des Jaunes Unlisted Double, bright coppery golden yellow; cluster.
Merveille des Rouges Unlisted Semi-double, velvety crimson; large cluster. Dwarf.
Mieze Schwalbe Frau Rudolph Schmidt sport Rose-red.
Millie Unlisted Light cherry-red, yellow base; cluster.
Mimi Pinson Unlisted Clear crimson to purplish rose to Neyron-pink.
Miss Edith Cavell Orléans Rose sport Double, scarlet-crimson (never blues); cluster. Glossy foliage.
Mistress Pat Unlisted Sweetbriar fragrance, Chatenay pink.
Mlle. Jeanne Lenail Mrs. W. H. Cutbush X Mrs. Taft Bright ruby-red shaded carmine.
Mme. Anth. Kluis Unlisted Large, semi-double, unfading salmon-pink.
Mme. Francois Graindorge Unlisted Large, dark reddish pink, mixed magenta; large cluster.
Mme. Gaston Mestreit Jeanny Soupert X Katharina Zeimet Delicate flesh-white; cluster.
Mme. Jules Gouchault Maman Turbot X George Elger Double, fragrant, bright pink, tinted coral; cluster.
Mme. Norbert Levavasseur Crimson Rambler X Gloire des Polyanthas Small, semi-double, crimson; large cluster.
Monette Phyllis X unnamed seedling Fiery red, to rose; large cluster.
Mrs. R. M. Finch Orléans Rose seedling Double, rosy pink; large impressive cluster.
Mrs. W. H. Cutbush Mme. Norbert Levavasseur sport. Large for class, semidouble, open, deep pink; cluster.
Ninie Vandevelde Unlisted Salmon.
Nypels Perfection Unlisted Semi-double, hydrangea-pink.
Orange Cheer Unlisted Unfading clear orange without shade of scarlet.
Orange Glow Unlisted Bright golden orange; large truss.
Orange King Jessie sport Very small, double, light coral-red.
Orange Marvel Miss Edith Cavell sport Salmon-orange.
Orange Perfection Ideal sport Orange-red.
Orange Queen Orléans rose sport Salmon-orange.
Orange Rosette Gloire du Midi sport Scarlet-orange-red.
Orléans Improved Orléans Rose sport Vivid rose-pink.
Orléans Rose Mme. Norbert Levavasseur X unknown variety Semi-double, vivid rosy crimson.
Osmunda Jessie sport Dark carmine.
Paris Unlisted Bright red, unfading.
Perfection Marytje Casant sport More delicate coral-pink.
Perle Angevine Jeanne d'Arc X Mrs. W. H. Cutbush Small, double, pale rose; cluster.
Perle d'Or R. multiflora X Mme. Falcot Salmon-pink. Noisette fragrance; cluster.
Phyllis Unlisted Small, bright red.
Picciola Ina Unlisted Pure salmon; very large cluster.
Pierre Cormier Unlisted Brilliant scarlet-red; cluster.
Pink Delight Unlisted Single, fragrant, rosepink.
Prasident Hindenburg Greta Kluis sport Double, carmine to deep red.
President Duhem Unlisted Double, bright red.
President Paulmier Unlisted Double, pure blood-red, passing to garnet (neither blues nor burns); cluster 20-25. Valuable for breeding.
Pride of Hurst Coral Cluster sport Small, double, coral-pink.
Primerose Sistau Unlisted Cochineal-carmine, shaded yellow.
Prince Jean de Luxembourg Jeanny Soupert X Miniature Small, double, pure white; cluster 100-150
Princesse Marie Clotilde Napoleon Unlisted Large, double, porcelain-white, shaded pink.
Princesse Marie Jose Unlisted Large, full, white, shaded rose.
Rafaela de Pena Unlisted Double, pure orange.
Raymond Privat Unlisted Double, Parma violet; cluster.
Red Admiral Unlisted Scarlet; cluster.
Red Finch Mrs. R. M. Finch sport More double, cerise.
Rosette Unlisted Double, fuchsia-red.
Rosieriste Pajotin-Chedane Unlisted Semi-double, deep red, white markings; cluster.
Rosy Morn Unlisted Large, fragrant, rosy pink; cluster.
Rotraut Unlisted Full, dark red; cluster.
Rouge Unlisted Brilliant scarlet-crimson.
Rubis Merveille des Rouges X Jessie Double, bright ruby-red; cluster.
Ruby Unlisted Glowing scarlet.
Rufus Unlisted Double, intense scarlet, does not burn in hottest sun; cluster. Valuable for breeding.
Salmon Beauty Orange King sport Very double, peach-pink to soft salmon; cluster.
Salmon Queen Juliana Rose sport Deep salmon.
Salmonea Unlisted Salmon-pink.
Scarlet Button Locarnl sport Brilliant scarlet.
Scarlet Leader Unlisted Double, brilliant orange. scarlet, unfading; cluster.
Seduction Unlisted Double, peach-blossom-pink; cluster.
Senta Schmidt Suzanne Turbat sport Semi-double, coppery orange.
Sheelagh Baird Unlisted Shell-pink, overlaid with rich rose-pink; immense pyramidal cluster.
Sheila Unlisted Orange-salmon. Fine for pot-plant forcing.
Souv. de Jules Nicolas Mathieu Lamarche Eblouissant X Petit Constant Small, single, cardinal-red, yellow base.
Sparkler Golden Salmon sport Small, semi-double, red; cluster.
Stadtrat Meyn Unlisted Large, brick-red; cluster.
Sulcova Kladenska Unlisted Bright pink.
Sunshine George Elger X William Allen Richardson Small, double, fragrant golden orange; cluster. Glossy foliage. Useful for breeding.
Superba Unlisted Double, crimson.
Suzanne Albrand Unlisted Large, Neyron-red; large cluster.
Suzanne Miller Unlisted Double, bright cherry-red (does not fade in sun); cluster.
Suzanne Turbat Petit Constant seedling X unnamed seedling Medium size, double, coral-red.
Svornost Orléans Rose sport Dark red; cluster.
Tapis Blanc Unlisted Double, pure white, tinted cream at center; cluster.
Teschendorff Jubilaumsrose Orléans Rose sport Rosy crimson.
The Allies Unlisted Double, white suffused pale pink.
The Fairy Unlisted Small, double, pink; cluster.
Thelma Amling Mrs. R. M. Finch sport Small, semi-double, white.
Titania Mevr. Nathalie Nypels X unnamed seedling Double, fragrant, salmon-flesh to rosy white.
Triomphe Angevin Unlisted Semi-double, non-bluing cerise-red; glossy foliage.
Triomphe Orleanais Unlisted Semi-double, cherry-red; large cluster.
Verdun Unlisted Large, double, vivid carmine-red; cluster.
Victor Magnin Unlisted Double, bright red; large cluster.
Violinista Costa Unlisted Large, fragrant, red to deep rose-pink.
Vulcain Unlisted Double, deep cherry-red.
Wendy Barrie Unlisted Double, orange-salmon.
White Finch Mrs. R. M. Finch sport White.
White Forcer Jessie sport White; large flowers and trusses.
White Orléans Orléans Rose sport White.
White Seduction Seduction sport White.
Yvan Misson Jeanny Soupert X Katharina Zeimet Peach-blossom-pink; large cluster.
Zborov Corrie Koster sport Double, blood-red; large cluster. Glossy foliage.

TABLE II

Varieties and Parentage of Hybrid Polyanthas Resulting from Crossing of Polyanthas to Hybrid Teas
  Parentage  
Variety Polyantha Hybrid Tea Important Characters
Agnes Kruse Eblouissant X Mme. Edouard Herriot Large, fiery red.
Belvedere Eblouissant X Chateau de Clos Vougeot Large, double, dark red.
Cineraria Miss Edith Cavell X Tip-Top Large, semi-double, carmine-purple.
D. T. Poulsen Orléans Rose X Vesuvius Semi-double, bright blood-red.
Else Poulsen Orléans Rose X Red Star Bright rose-pink source of following sports.
    (a) Cherie Sport of Else Poulsen Small, cupped, fragrant, bright rose-pink.
    (b) Else's Rival Sport of Else Poulsen Carmine-red, bright carmine-red reverse.
    (c) Joyous Sport of Else Poulsen Rose-pink, outer petals darker.
    (d) Koralle Sport of Else Poulsen Light red.
    (e) May Robinson Sport of Else Poulsen Bright salmon-pink.
    (f) Mrs. Olive Sackett Sport of Else Poulsen Semi-double, bright red.
    (g) Nutzwedel Sport of Else Poulsen Light crimson.
    (h) Rosella Sport of Else Poulsen Ruffled, salmon-rose-pink.
    (i) Rote Else Sport of Else Poulsen Dark pink.
Poulsen Evaline Orléans Rose X Rayon d'Or Small, fragrant, light pink; cluster.
Fairy Cluster Ideal X Dainty Bess Single, rose-pink; cluster.
Fortschritt Gloria Mundi X Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont Very large, yellow-pink; cluster. Large glossy foliage.
Valuable for breeding yellow hybrid polyanthas.
Golden Poly Orange King X Angele Pernet Double, globular, pure yellow. Dwarf.
Goldene Gruss an Aachen Gloria Mundi X Mme. Butterfly Bud pointed, very large, high centered flower, golden orange, tea fragrance. Large glossy foliage.
Valuable for breeding greenhouse or outdoor polyanthas.
Improved Lafayette Seedling 72 X E. G. Hill Semi-double, deep glowing red.
Jolly Edith Cavell X Tip-Top Single, carmine-purple; cluster.
Kirsten Poulsen Orléans Rose X Red Star Single, bright scarlet; cluster.
Ruth Shamburger Sport of Kirsten Poulsen Light pink.
Little Sunshine R. multiflora nana X Soleil d'Or Double, small, creamy yellow; cluster.
Poulsen's Pink Golden Salmon X a yellow Pernetiana Semi-double, yellow-pink cluster. Everblooming.
Poulsen's Yellow Mrs. W. H. Cutbush X Gottfried Keller Semi-double, intensely fragrant, yellow; cluster. Glossy foliage; should be valuable in breeding.
Red Echo Echo X unnamed red HT Double, cupped, vermilion tinted crimson.
Rodhatte Mme. Norbert Levavasseur X Liberty Large, clear shining cherry-red; cluster.
J. F. Muller Sport of Rˇdhatte Large, dark red.
Salmon Spray Cl. Orléans Rose X Midnight Sun Fragrant, light salmon-pink, carmine reverse; cluster. Valuable for breeding.
Smiles Echo X Rev. F. Page-Roberts Pink, salmon overcast; cluster.
Snowbank Gloria Mundi X Mrs. E. P. Thom Semi-single, white, blush tint. Dwarf.
Toresky Perle d'Or X Antoine Rivoire Double, light pink, white eye; cluster.

TABLE III

Varieties and Parentage of Hybrid Polyanthas Resulting from Backcross of F1 Polyantha X Hybrid Tea to Hybrid Tea
Variety Parentage Important Characters
Polyantha X Hybrid Tea Parent X Hybrid Tea Parent
Betty Prior Kirsten Poulsen X unnamed seedling Small, single, fragrant, carmine-pink; cluster.
Helgoland Else Poulsen X dark crimson HT seedling Very large, semi-double, crimson to carmine; cluster.
Ingar Olsson Else Poulsen X HT seedling Semi-double, brilliant cerise-red; cluster.
Jill (Else Poulsen X seedling) X (single red seedling X Etoile de Hollande
X "Daily Mail" Scented Rose)
Semi-double, cerise-scarlet; cluster.
Karen Poulsen Kirsten Poulsen X Vesuvius Single, brilliant scarlet; continuous bloom.
Kronprinsesse Ingrid Else Poulsen X Dainty Bess Bud long-pointed, semidouble, deep rose-pink.
Lafayette R÷dhatte X Richmond Very large flower, semi-double, bright cherry-crimson;
glossy foliage; valuable for breeding.
    (a) Ami Leon Chenault Sport of Lafayette Dark garnet, striated white.
    (b) Dagmar Spath Sport of Lafayette Alabaster-white, pink flush.
    (c) Distinction Sport of Lafayette Rose Neyron-pink to deep rose-pink.
    (d) Feuerschein Sport of Lafayette Full, brilliant red. Does not blue, so should be valuable in breeding.
    (e) Frau Astrid Spath Sport of Lafayette Clear carmine-rose.
    (f) Fuchsine Guy Sport of Lafayette Lilac-purple.
    (g) Kluis Scarlet Sport of Lafayette Brilliant red.
    (h) Krause's Rote Joseph Guy Sport of Lafayette Brilliant fiery red.
    (i) Nilsson Guy Sport of Lafayette Deep rose-pink.
    (j) Pink Lafayette Sport of Lafayette Clear rose-pink.
Little Miss Muffet Else Poulsen X Etoile de Hollande Pointed buds, large semi-double flower, bright rose pink; cluster habit.
Musette Ingar Olsson X Johanniszauber Large, single, glowing crimson; cluster.
Red Camellia Folkestone X Baby Chateau (Listed as hybrid poly
but really hybrid tea.)
Very double, orange-scarlet.
Rosenelfe Else Poulsen X Sir Basil McFarland Bud long-pointed, very large, double, high-centered. La France-pink;
foliage glossy; should be valuable for breeding.
White Sweetheart Sport of Rosenelfe Small, double, white flushed blush-pink.

TABLE IV

Hybrid Polyantha-Wichuraiana Varieties
Variety Parentage Important Characters
   Polyantha
Parent
R. Wichuraiana
Parent
  
Ellen Poulsen Mme. Norbert Levavasseur X Dorothy Perkins Large, double, cherry-pink; cluster. Dark glossy foliage.
    (a) Frau Hedwig Koschel Sport of Ellen Poulsen Full, fragrant, white, shaded yellow.
    (b) Lady Reading Sport of Ellen Poulsen Small, globular, clear red.
    (c) M. A. Keessen Sport of Ellen Poulsen Darker than Ellen Poulsen.
    (d) Rudolph Kluis Sport of Ellen Poulsen Globular bud, fragrant, vermilion-red; cluster.
Gartendirektor O. Linne Robin Hood X Rudolph Kluis Dark carmine-pink; very large cluster. Foliage leathery, glossy, disease resistant.
Mrs. Dudley Fulton Wichuraiana pol. hybrid but parentage not listed Large, single, white, evergreen; glossy foliage.
Paulette Paul Meynier X Leontine Gervais Very fragrant, saffron yellow; leathery, glossy foliage.
Peach Blossom Wichuraiana pol. hybrid but parentage not listed Large, semi-double, soft carmine-rose; cluster.
Perfecta Merveille des Rouges X Ellen Poulsen Large, double, scarletcrimson; cluster.
Yvonne Rabier Unlisted polyantha X R. Wichuraiana Double, pure white; cluster. Very rich green, glossy foliage.

TABLE V

Hybrid Polyantha-Rugosa Varieties
Variety Parentage Important Characters
Bouquet Ingar Ollson X Heidekind Double, cerise-red; large leathery leaves.
Erna Grootendorst Gloria Mundi X Bergers Erfolg Solid deep velvety crimson; dark, glossy foliage.
Heidekind Mevr. Nathalie Nypels X R. rugosa seedling Large, double, brilliant pink; thick, wrinkled foliage.
Heidegruss Ophelia X Heidekind Large, salmon-flesh; leathery foliage.
Heidezauber Johanniszauber X Heidekind Large, dark red; dark, leathery foliage.
Signe Relander Orléans Rose X R. rugosa Bright red; cluster. Foliage not described.

TABLE VI

List of pseudo-polyantha varieties actually having no R. multiflora X chinensis ancestry at all.
Large and small flowered cluster roses.
Variety Parentage Polyantha-like Characters
Aschenbrodel Petite Leonie X R. foetida bicolor Small flower; dwarf, bushy habit.
Baby Chateau Aroma X (Eva X Ami Quinard) Flowers in cluster; bushy habit.
Butterflies of Gold Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James seedling None listed.
Carl Kempkes Dance of Joy X Mary Hart Cluster habit and bushy.
Dance of Joy Paul's Scarlet Climber X seedling None listed.
Erich Frahm Dance of Joy X Mary Hart Large cluster habit.
Eutin Eva X Solarium Very large cluster; continuous bloom.
Floradora Baby Chateau X R. roxburghii Cluster habit.
Freude Dance of Joy X Geheimrat Duisberg Cluster habit.
Gruppenkonigen Gruss an Aachen X Mme. Edouard Herriot None listed.
Gruss an Aachen Frau Karl Druschki X Franz Deegen Continuous bloom; cluster.
    (a) Jean Muraour Sport of Gruss an Aachen Continuous bloom; cluster.
    (b) Minna Sport of Gruss an Aachen Continuous bloom; cluster.
    (c) Pink Gruss an Aachen Sport of Gruss an Aachen Continuous bloom; cluster.
    (d) White Aachen Sport of Gruss an Aachen Continuous bloom; cluster.
Jean Mermez R. wichuraiana X a hybrid tea Small flower, large cluster; recurrent bloom.
Johanna Tantau Dorothy Perkins X Ophelia Cluster habit; dwarf, bushy.
Pinocchio Eva X Geheimrat Duisberg Small flower; cluster. Everblooming, pink-salmon.
Marionette Sport of Pinocchio Cream-yellow.
Scarlet Queen Paul's Scarlet X seedling HT Climber Cluster, continuous bloom.
Swantje Johanna Tantau X (Prof. Gnau X Joanna Hill) Cluster.
Tip-Top Trier X R. foetida bicolor Continuous bloom.
Tomkins Red (Dr. W. Van Fleet X General Jacqueminot) X Nigrette Cluster on long stems.
Topaz Johanna Tantau X (Prof. Gnau X Jules Potin) Small flower; dwarf, spreading habit.
World's Fair (Minna Kordes) Dance of Joy X Crimson Glory Cluster habit.

TABLE VII

List of varieties which cannot be classified because of incomplete parentage records.
Large and small-flowered cluster roses.
Variety Parentage as Far as Given Polyantha-like Character
Alice Amos Tip-Top X unnamed seedling Cluster habit.
Anne Mette Poulsen Parentage not given Cluster habit.
Cecile Brunner Polyantha X Mme. de Tartas Small flower; cluster. Everblooming habit.
Cheerio Parentage not given Cluster habit.
Dainty Maid D. T. Poulsen X unknown variety Cluster habit.
Donald Prior D. T. Poulsen X unnamed seedling Recurrent bloom.
D. T. Poulsen Improved Parentage not given Small flower; compact, bushy habit.
Elfin Parentage not given Cluster.
Fluffy Ruffles Miss Rowena Thom X Seedling 72 Cluster; everblooming.
Folkestone Parentage not given Dwarf, bushy.
Gwyneth Sport X (Trier X Rayon d'Or) X
Sport
X (Gottfried Keller X Entente Cordiale)
Cluster.
Holstein Else Poulsen X Dance of Joy seedling Cluster.
Pasadena Tournament Cecile Brunner X unnamed seedling. Small flower.
Permanent Wave Parentage not given Cluster.
Pink Charm Parentage not given Profuse bloom; dwarf, bushy.
Pink Jewel Parentage not given None listed.
Poulsen's Scarlet Parentage not given Cluster habit.
Red Sweetheart Intercrossing Cecile Brunner seedlings Small flower.
Red Velvet Parentage not given Compact, dwarf habit.
Rudolph Kluis Superior Parentage not given Compact habit.
Springtime Miss Rowena Thom X unnamed seedling Dwarf, bushy.
Sunmist Parentage not given None listed.
Tiny Tim Golden Glow X Shades of Autumn Small flower; dwarf habit.
Valerie Parentage not given Large cluster; bushy habit.