Garden and Forest 4(150): 4-5 (Jan 7, 1891)
Notes on Some Hardy Wild Roses.—I.
J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum.

IN a standard work on Roses, by an eminent authority and pleasant and entertaining writer, the wild type of our Roses is spoken of as "fit only for the road-side." But this statement was made before the general introduction of that exceedingly hardy and handsome species, the Rosa rugosa, from Japan, and its still more beautiful white variety known as Rosa rugosa alba. A typical Wild Rose may be said to be any single flowered wild species which has not become much changed or modified by cultivation or artificial treatment at the hands of man. Semi-double forms and plants having unusual peculiarities are sometimes found growing wild, but they are exceptional, and, as a rule, abnormal. Although always admired and sought for and furnishing a theme for many a poem and homily, these single species remain comparatively rare in our gardens, being quite supplanted by the vast number of hybrids and other double Roses of artificial origin. But besides their chaste beauty of Mower, some of the single species have another recommendation in the bright colored fruit which they show in the autumn, whereas the double flowered garden varieties generally produce no hips.

The Wild Roses are all, apparently, easy of cultivation in good garden soil; but a few may seem more at home and give more satisfaction under exceptional conditions. As a rule, all of them may be safely and exactly reproduced or propagated, according to their kind, by seed. If, however, it is desirable to perpetuate a peculiarity of color, a free-flowering habit, large blossoms, or any other characteristic of any individual plant, it should be propagated by cuttings or layers and not by seed. Some species form new roots very readily, while others demand a little trouble and care in the production of new plants by division.

Grafting or budding of Wild Roses should be avoided as being of little utility and likely to perplex the amateur.

There has been much confusion and diversity of opinion among different botanists regarding the limitations and the number of natural species of the Roses of the world, some writers reducing the number of species to a score or two, while others have divided them into several hundred specifically distinct kinds. So many of these Wild Roses resemble one another so closely that there seems to be strong grounds for keeping only a limited number of specific names, many intermediate forms being referable to some typical characteristic species.

Some of the largest-blossomed and most beautiful of these single-flowered Roses are not hardy in such a rigorous climate as that of New England, but in our southern states they are or may be perfectly hardy and at home.

Among recent studies of Wild Roses by rhodologists certainly none are more thorough than those by Professor F. Crépin, of Brussels, who has devoted many years to a careful study of this genus. In his classification he divides all the species into a number of groups or sections, chiefly according to the characters and affinities of their flowers and fruit. As already stated, it is not always easy to determine the species of these plants. A student of the American Wild Roses, Dr. G. N. Best, very truly says: "Few plants are more strikingly modified by differences in environment than Roses. Even the younger growths appear quite different from the older, so much so indeed as to cause them to be taken for different species. A knowledge, therefore, of the value of characters is desirable. Quite contrary to what was once thought, the varying degrees of pubescence, glaucousness, glandulosity, and, to some extent, of prickles, possess little diagnostic value, and are to be considered most frequently as accidents of growth depending on peculiarities of soil and location for their development. Not that they are wholly devoid of value, but are so only when taken in connection with characters of the first order. ... In rank bushes the spines may be stout and curved, in depauperate and slender, straight, and yet belong to the same species. They are frequently absent from bushes to which they normally belong, and this from no known cause." Such variations are liable to become more marked under a long term of garden cultivation, especially in regard to the size and vigor of all the parts of the plants. Where a large number of species are grown together it would seem that foreign pollen must sometimes have an influence on some of the seedlings of an allied species and natural hybrids be the result. In botanic gardens, where pure seed of any good species is desired, it would be well to protect the blossoms from visitations by insects, some of which are industrious collectors of the pollen.

One of the largest groups of wild Roses is that to which the old-fashioned Cinnamon Rose belongs. The single-flowered type of the Cinnamon Rose (Rosa cinnamomea) is a native of Europe and northern Asia. It is perfectly hardy where the thermometer registers thirty degrees below zero. The blossoms are of good size, fragrant, and in color like the double-flowered form which has been grown in gardens for centuries. This form has been neglected since the advent of so many finer double garden Roses. In some places it has escaped from cultivation and is found away from any building, covering considerable patches of ground by gradual spreading from underground shoots. Rosa cinnamomea is an early flowering species; but one of the earliest, if not the very earliest, of wild Roses to bloom here is Rosa acicularis, a species common in northern Europe and Asia and also indigenous in America. This may be made to include the Rosa Engelmanni figured on p. 377 of the second volume of GARDEN AND FOREST, or the R. acicularis, var. Bourgeauiana, as it was first named by Crépin. Under cultivation Rosa acicularis is an erect, vigorous bush from six to eight feet high, with stems and branches usually quite thickly covered with rather slender prickles. In this region the first of the large rosy pink flowers often expand as early as the 15th or 20th of May, and the fruit which follows ripens and becomes bright red in the latter part of August. It is a very hardy plant and blooms freely. It does not appear to have given origin to any double garden forms or to have been used much in artificial cross-fertilizing.

Rosa alpina, from Europe, has much the same habit and stature as the last species, and its flowers are hardly distinguishable and seem almost equally early. It is, however, comparatively unarmed and bears very few prickles. A number of double varieties have been derived from this species, and it is said to have been one of the parents of the old climbing, double-flowering kinds known as the Boursault Roses.

Rosa Beggeriana is an Asiatic species, which, although hardy, has not yet shown great vigor or long life here. It attains a height of five or six feet, and is erect, with slender branches which seem insufficiently covered by the foliage. It has slender spines, and the flowering branches are quite smooth and without prickles. The delicate pearly white blossoms are not large, averaging about an inch and a half across, and they are pleasantly fragrant. The fruit is small, round, and dark red in color. The regular blooming of the plant begins about the second week of June, but a few flowers continue to appear throughout the summer, imitating the habit of Rosa rugosa. Although the few stray flowers do not make much of a show, the habit may be further developed by selection, and the species is one which may yield some interesting hybrids. Professor Crépin states that there is a double variety of this in cultivation in the gardens of Turkistan.

Garden and Forest 4(151): 18 (Jan 14, 1891)
Notes on Some Hardy Wild Roses.—II.
J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum.

Rosa blanda is a very hardy Wild Rose, belonging to the Cinnamon Rose group, which is found more or less commonly throughout the north-eastern part of North America. The type is a dwarf plant, rarely growing more than three feet in height, and probably hardly averaging over two feet, and it is particularly distinguished by having its stems wholly unarmed or bearing very few prickles. The leaflets are usually large, and the Mowers, which appear a week or ten days later than those of Rosa acicularis, are also above the average in size, fragrant and of a bright rosy color, and often borne singly. The large, roundish, dark-red colored fruit, with persistent sepals, is often brightly conspicuous as it hangs just above the snow along road-sides in its native habitat, notably in the valley of the St. Lawrence River. In its natural haunts it seems to prefer rich rocky soils.

Little seems to have been done to improve this plant from the gardener's point of view, but on account of its large blossoms and unarmed habit it may be made a parent of some useful hybrids. As this species extends westward it seems to become more variable, several varietal and specific names having been given, which are considered as simply forms or varieties of Rosa blanda by other authors. Some of these plants are characterized by having more numerous flowers, in corymbose clusters, and by their prickly stems.

Rosa Nutkana, a native of the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific slope from northern Utah to Alaska, appears in cultivation at the Arboretum as an exceedingly strong, stout-stemmed species, growing from six to eight feet in height. The stems bear a few strong recurved spines, which are often very broad at the base, so that they are almost triangular in shape. On many plants there are few or no prickles, and the flowering branchlets are perfectly smooth. The first flowers appear at about the same time as those of the last species. They are usually solitary, and average about two inches or more in diameter, and are of a delicate pale, pinkish red color.

The erect habit of this species, its thick, clean stems, which attain a height of three or four feet without branching, and its comparative freedom from spines, may make it a desirable plant to form tree-like or standard bushes upon which to bud or graft other garden varieties, as is often practiced upon the Dog Rose in Europe. Rosa Nutkana does not spread from suckers, and it is perfectly hardy in this latitude.

What has been classed as Rosa pisocarpa, a species from California and the Pacific coast region, appears very variable in habit under cultivation. Sometimes the plants are moderatelv tall and bushy, while others have stems as high as those of R. Nutkana, but not so coarse and stout. The spines are more abundant, though very much smaller, and prickles are numerous. The flowers are not so large, and are usually of a much deeper color than those of R. Nutkana, and the fruit is small and globose. There is some confusion as to the limitations of R. pisocarpa, as well as of a number of other western species of Rose which are too little known by botanists and in cultivation to give any idea of their value.

Rosa gymnocarpa, whose habitat is also the western side of the continent, is a slender, sometimes long stemmed, species, which, although it lives through our winters, does not yet appear to be sufficiently vigorous and enduring to be very satisfactory here. The flowers are rather small, of the usual pale rose color, though forms with white flowers are found. It seems to be more closely allied to the Asiatic R. Beggeriana than to any other species in cultivation.

Rosa rugosa also belongs to the Cinnamon group of Roses, with one or more species of which it appears in gardens to have exchanged pollen, which has produced forms intermediate between the two parents. Some of these have been sold as Rosa rugosa, a fact which is to be regretted, because these plants are generally much inferior and less beautiful in foliage and flower than the typical species. R. rugosa and its white variety easily rank among the most beautiful of the very hardy Roses in cultivation; and, either for its thick glossy foliage, or on account of its flowers, which, under good cultivation, expand four or even five inches across, or for the sake of its large rich red fruit of late summer and autumn, it is a desideratum for any garden. It is one of the hardiest species, and will stand twenty-five degrees or more below zero without any apparent injury. It may be called a perpetual blooming Rose, for although it has only one regular period of profuse flowering, it continues to bear blossoms as freely as a Hybrid Perpetual until checked by frosts. This species is now being used in hybridizing with others in the hope of obtaining even better Roses than any we now have.

So far, the double flowered forms have, as a rule, proved less interesting than the single blossomed type. There is much variation in the depth of color of the flowers of different plants, those having the deepest purplish red blossoms being the best. The white form is very desirable. The prickly character of the whole plant is objectionable, but it is exceeded by the dense and formidable covering of prickles which protect the stems of R. Kamtschatica, a species closely resembling R. rugosa and possibly only a variety of it.

It has been stated by some writers that the thick, rugged, dark green foliage of Rosa rugosa was not liable to attack by the usual Rose-injuring insects. This is not the case, however, for the Rose-slug {Selandria rosa), the Leg-Hopper (Typhlocyba rosa) and other insects sometimes attack it quite freely, but the thick, leathery character of the foliage serves to make equally serious invasions less noticeable than in other thinner leaved species. The flower-buds of this, and some other wild Roses in the Arboretum, are often destroyed by a well known and widely distributed red-colored snout-beetle (Rhynchites bicolor), which eats holes into the buds, and whose larvae live within and destroy the fruit.

Garden and Forest 4(152): 31 (Jan 11, 1891)
Notes on Some Hardy Wild Roses.—III.
J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum.

THE pretty little Burnet or Scotch Rose, the type of which is known to botanists as Rosa spinosissima (or R. pitnpinellifolia), has been so long and so much cultivated that innumerable forms and variations of it are now grown. It appears to hybridize naturally and easily with a number of species of Roses belonging to other groups, so that many of the forms classed under A', spinosissima in catalogues are in reality mixtures with other species. The erect, though dwarf, and much branched habit of the plant; the very numerous prickles of unequal length with which its branches are armed, and the generally small leaflets, serve as a rule to distinguish these Roses from any others in cultivation. As it grows wild in its native habitats in Europe and Asia, the Burnet Rose seldom exceeds a fool or a foot and a half in height, and its rather small flowers are borne singly, and are either white or pink in color. In cultivation the plants attain a height of from two to three feet. While many double flowered forms have been developed, those with single blossoms, of varying sizes and shades of color, are none the less beautiful. One of the prettiest of these in the Arboretum has flowers of a very delicate pinkish white color, which expand from two to two and a half inches across. The flowers of these Roses appear early in the season, and they continue to bloom for two or three weeks, and are followed in August and September by large, solitary, almost globular, and very firm hips, conspicuous by their purplish black, or sometimes deep red, color, which also extends down the somewhat thick and fleshy fruit-stalks. As the foliage of this species is good and persists late, it is often useful for massing in clumps in shrubberies.

Any peculiar form of this Rose must necessarily be propagated by cuttings or layers or other modes of division; seeds cannot be depended on to come true to the character desired.

Although the single-flowered Yellow Eglantine Rose (Rosa lutea) has been in cultivation for centuries, it still appears to be one of the rarest of wild Roses in northern American gardens. This may be partly accounted for by the fact that it does not seem sufficiently hardy and enduring under ordinary circumstances to make it popular. Nevertheless it will do well in sheltered situations, and its large single yellow flowers are quite as interesting and beautiful as those of any double yellow Rose we ordinarily meet with. Besides the deep color of this Rose there are the variations, which are of a deep coppery, lurid red or scarlet hue on the upper side of the petals and yellowish beneath, giving to them an unusual or unique place in the genus. Although the flowers are less enduring than those of the double Yellow Harrison, or the handsome, but troublesome and generally unsatisfactory, Persian Yellow, they are quite as attractive as either of these double Roses when growing side by side with them in the garden, and are well worth a little space in any collection. While the little Scotch Rose is generally noted for its more or less rounded or compact habit under cultivation, the Yellow Eglantine is disposed to become straggling, and requires to be carefully trained, and judiciously, but not too severely, pruned. Plenty of warmth and sunlight and moisture are essentials to its successful cultivation. As there is little likelihood of confusing the foliage and Mowers of this with other species, it may sometimes be budded or grafted to advantage upon other kinds suitable as stocks.

The Sweet Briar Rose (Rosa rubiginosa), or Eglantine, as it is also sometimes called, is one of the few examples where a single or primitive Rose has taken and held a place in gardens, although its popularity has, no doubt, been partly owing to the peculiar sweet-scented and agreeable fragrance given off by the foliage when rubbed or bruised. This odor originates in the rusty-colored glands which cover the leaves and buds and which suggested the name of the Rusty-leaved Rose for this plant. It is one of those species in which long cultivation and selection have produced many modifications and well established variations. Around it may be grouped a number of others generally described as distinct, but which are hardly separable as species from the horticulturist's point of view. Some of them are deficient in the true Sweet Briar fragrance, and relationship to the Dog Rose (R. canina) and other species may sometimes be indicated. R. micrantha hardly differs from the Sweet Briar except in the size of its flowers and fruit; and others closely allied go under such names as R. graveolens, R. Belgradensis, R. Caballicensis and R. agrestis. The flowers of some of these are white, others are rose colored; and they are generally, although not always, followed by an abundance of bright red fruit, which remains conspicuous throughout most of the winter. R. rubiginosa, var. echinocarpa, as it grows in the Arboretum is a very robust plant with flowers of a bright rose color, which expand over two and a half inches across, and some of whose stamens become transformed into petals, showing the tendency toward the double forms which have already been evolved from this species. The Sweet Briar has escaped from gardens and become naturalized in many of the older settled localities in America, from Nova Scotia and the St. Lawrence Valley to the southern states. Gardeners have occasionally found it of value as a stock upon which to bud some kinds of our garden Roses.

The Sweet Briar appears to be, more than any other species, subject to large mossy-looking deformations or excrescences on its stems and branches. These are caused by a gall-making insect (Rhodites rosae), of which a considerable number, occupying separate cells, are to be found in each mossy cluster. They naturally interfere somewhat with the free growth of the plant, and where they occur in such abundance as to be annoying the galls maybe cut from the bushes in winter and burned, for the insects do not leave them until the following spring or early summer.

The Dog Rose (R. canina) has also become spontaneous in some parts of this country. There are a large number of plants, mostly found in Europe, to which varietal or specific names have been given, but which bear more or less affinity to the typical Dog Rose. The principal use which has been found for this Rose is as a stock upon which to bud or graft many of our finest garden kinds, as thus treated they give better satisfaction than when grown on their own roots or upon other stocks.

The Red-leaved Rose (R. rubrifolia, a name which Professor Crépin now replaces by the older R. ferruginea), a native of some parts of Europe, is perhaps more curious and odd than really beautiful, the dark pinkish or purplish red leaves contrasting strongly with the foliage of other species. The plant grows five or six feet in height, and produces numerous rather small flowers, which are hardly distinguishable from the leaves in color. When not too freely used this Rose may be so planted among other green-foliaged plants in shrubberies that it will give a pleasing effect and variety. It is still uncommon in this country; but it will be found perfectly hardy in exposed situations, even where the temperature falls to twenty or thirty degrees below zero.

Garden and Forest 4(153): 44-45 (Jan 28, 1891)
Notes on Some Hardy Wild Roses.—IV.
J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum.

* Bulletin de la Société royale de botanique de Belgique, tome XXV , 2, pp. 189-192.

IN 1887 Professor Crépin described,* under the name of Rosa Wichuraiana, an interesting Rose from Japan and China, which gives promise of becoming a very valuable addition to our list of desirable hardy species. Siebold and Zuccarini appear to have previously referred it to Rosa sempervirens, a verv different species, which is a native of southern Europe and northern Africa. Later it was included by Franchet and Rochebrune with their Rosa Luciae, also indigenous to Japan and China. Although it does not appear that this Rose has ever been put on the market under the name so recently given to it by Professor Crépin, yet as Rosa braeteata it is found in the catalogues of some German nurseries, and plants have been received so labeled at the Arboretum.

But in this again we have a very misleading name, because the true Rosa braeteata is a very different plant, a native of the more southern portions of China, and so far not known to be hardy here, although it has become naturalized in the far southern states. The name has also been applied to a climbing hybrid with double flowers.

R. Wichuraiana is a low trailing species, and it differs from any other Rose of similar habit in this latitude by the unusually prostrate character of its stems. Other species of trailing or climbing Roses usually grow upward for a toot or two at least before they bend over and trail on the ground, but R. Wichuraiana rests on the earth almost as closely as an Ivy, and it has a habit of throwing out little rootlets at various points along its creeping stems if the soil is sufficiently moist. It makes a rampant growth, and will produce stems ten or fifteen feet or more in length in a season. The leaves are composed of one, three, five, seven or nine thick, smooth, shining, stiff, small green leaflets. These are serrate, and generally short, obovate, or almost round and blunt at the apex. Generally more or less scattered along the stems are short, stout, recurved spines, which are easily removed from the young shoots. On the flowering branches the spines are small, few or absent. There are no prickles. The flowers are borne in much profusion in short, broad, somewhat pyramidal clusters on the ends of short branches and branchlets. They expand from one and a half to fully two inches across, and the petals are of a pure white color, the stamens being yellow. They possess a strong fragrance, resembling that of the Banksian Rose more than any other familiar species. The period of general flowering here appears to be from about the end of the first week in July until the end of the month. A few blossoms, however, are occasionally produced throughout the rest of the season. The ovate, deep dull red fruit does not mature until quite late in the autumn, but the seeds are generally ripened without injury from severe frosts.

Rosa Wichuraiana is quite hardy here, and probably its low trailing habit is of advantage to it in withstanding our winters. The terminal portions of the long new shoots frequently do not ripen sufficiently to withstand the cold, and they are consequently destroyed; but, in any case, enough of the stems remain to blossom freely the following summer. On account of its handsome evergreen -looking foliage, its beautiful white flowers, which appear after most other single Roses have done blooming, and for its peculiar habit of growth, this species is likely to prove valuable for planting on rockeries, covering slopes or embankments and the ground among open shrubbery. A little further south it will probably prove to be quite distinctly evergreen, as under some circumstances it retains its leaves throughout the winter here. The plant is one of those which may be propagated by cuttings with the greatest ease.

Through some mistake of German nurserymen this species was sent (under the name of R. bracteata) to the Park Department of Boston instead of another kind of Rose which was ordered. In this case, however, the mistake proved not entirely at the expense of the purchaser, for the plants are considered to be quite, an acquisition. The experienced superintendent of the planting of parks says of it: "I have planted it on very exposed situations in the Franklin Park; for instance, on the top of the Overlook; and also on the slopes of the Back Bay. It stood the last winter exceedingly well; only some of the softest, latest shoots suffered a little on the tops. The six original plants in the nursery made shoots from ten to fifteen feet long the first season. I covered part of them with leaves the first winter, but there was no difference noticed in the condition of the covered and the uncovered plants in the following spring. This is the third winter I have had them." R. Wichuraiana is reported as found in nearly all parts of Japan, where it is said to grow on sandy or gravelly soils, often being met with on the sands near the sea-shore, and having steins which attain a length of thirty or forty feet.

The closely allied R. Lucia has not yet been grown here. In the European Field Rose (R. arvensis) we have the nearest approach to R. Wichuraiana, in habit of growth, among the hardy white-flowered species. But the Field Rose is not always fully hardy here, its hardiness apparently varying according to the climate of the region from which it was sent. Plants of it, received under the name of R. repens, from one of the gardens of central Germany, have proved nearly as hardy as could be wished. It is a desirable plant for rockeries, banks, and for training on walls and similar situations. As is well known, it is a form of this which is cultivated as the Ayrshire Rose.

Although possessing an interest and charm of blossom peculiar to itself, the Field Rose has a formidable competitor for popular favor in the true R. multiflora from Japan, which was so recently described and figured in GARDEN AND FOREST (vol. iii., pp. 404-405). This may be trained to a post or pillar, where it will attain a height of fifteen or twenty feet, making a beautiful show when its panicles of small white flowers are in their fullest bloom. It has been used in hybridizing with other species, and some interesting and valuable variations have resulted from these mixtures.

To the professional Rose-grower, however, R. multiflora (or R. polyantha, as many insist upon calling it) promises to be a great acquisition as a stock upon which to bud our choice cultivated Hybrid and Tea Roses. At the Arboretum it has been found quite equal or superior to the Dog Rose as a stock, and it has been extensively tried by some French propagators, apparently with much success. Among the advantages claimed for it is the fact that stocks are more easily propagated either by cuttings or seeds, the latter germinating within a few weeks from the time of sowing. The roots are not as inclined to be tap-rooted as the Dog Rose, and they are finer and more fibrous, which especially adapts it for forcing in small pots. Plants budded on R. multiflora are more easily forced and come into bloom sooner, the earliness not being at the expense of quality. The record of an experiment, on a large scale, with stocks of R. multiflora and the Dog Rose (R. canina), given exactly the same treatment and budded with one variety of Rose (Etoile de Lyon), showed that the average was twice as many blooms on the R. multiflora stocks, and the tlowers were fifteen days earlier.

The only known hardy climbing Rose of our own country, the Michigan or Prairie Rose (R. setigera), is not surpassed by any other in showy character of blossom. It has also an added value in the fact that it blooms so late, the flowers being contemporary with those of R. Wichuraiana, or at a time when the flowers of nearly all other species have faded. It is unfortunate that, although so handsome, the flowers of the Prairie Rose are not fragrant, a fact which is against its value and popularity. Hybrids have been produced with this Rose, but none of them appear to have much perfume. It seems singular that no fruit ever appears to be formed or matured on the Prairie Rose in cultivation in this part of the country.

Garden and Forest 4(155): 66-67 (Feb 11, 1891)
Notes on Some Hardy Wild Roses.—V.
J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum.

WE have, indigenous to America, a little group of several species of hardy wild Roses which are not surpassed for beauty and general effectiveness by any introduced species which possess similar characteristics in habit and in color of flowers. So far it appears that few variations from the natural types have been derived from them. One of the most common and familiar wild Roses, which is found on the rocky soils in many places along the sea-coast of New England, is Rosa lucida, the so-called Dwarf Wild Rose of Gray's "Manual." This popular name, however, is not to be relied upon as indicating its habit or stature, because, although it is generally rather a dwarf plant in exposed situations, under more favorable conditions it commonly attains a height of from four to five feet.

This species may generally be distinguished from its congeners, by persons who are not botanists, by its rather thick, dark-green leaflets, which are smooth and shining above.

The foliage often assumes brilliant reddish or orange colors in the autumn, and for this reason it is often effective when growing in masses in shrubberies and similar places. The plants have more or less of a tendency to spread over the ground by underground shoots. This characteristic, however, is not nearly so highly developed in this species as it is in R. nitida, which spreads very freely and thickly over the surface of the ground by means of surculose stems from the parent plant. R. nitida may generally be readily distinguished from the last species by its smaller, narrower leaves, and especially by having its stems densely covered with straight slender prickles, which are of a reddish color. The plant is much more slender than R. lucida, and rarely grows more than two or three feet high in cultivation.

The flowers of both species are in best condition in the latter part of June and they are of a bright rose color. Although equally beautiful, those of R. nitida often seem slightly more attractive, an effect which may be due to its smaller bright green leaves and slender stems. This species generally grows best in moist situations, and the bright color of its foliage in autumn is often quite striking. The fruit of this and of R. lucida often remains bright and fresh-looking throughout the winter; but in this region, owing to the attacks of the beetle, Rhynchites bicolor, the hips are generally imperfect.

The surculose habit of R. nitida is imitated by the little Prairie Rose, Rosa foliolosa, which was figured on page 101 of the last volume of GARDEN AND FOREST. R. foliolosa, however, is a very much more slender and more dwarf plant, with very few branches; and, moreover, it differs in having its stems, which are of a light green color, entirely free from prickles, and only possessing straight, geminate, intrastipular spines, which are often weak and slender. On the flowering branches, indeed, the spines are either absent or so little noticeable when handled that the species might almost be called a thornless Rose. The stems of this Rose are peculiar from the fact that they do not live more than two or three years. The new shoots branch and flower the second season, after which they wholly or partially die and are replaced by new stems arising from or from near the ground. In this habit it is like some of our Raspberries.

Although naturally only native to regions so far south as Arkansas, New Mexico and Texas, R. foliolosa seems perfectly hardy at the Arboretum, where it grows from eight or ten inches to a foot and a half in height, and spreads freely by underground stems or suckers, by which it may be very easily propagated. The sweetly fragrant flowers are two inches in diameter, and usually solitary on the ends of the shoots. The earliest of them do not open in this latitude until the first or second week of July. There is no profusion of bloom at any time, but a few flowers continue to be produced throughout the rest of the summer, so that the species appears to have more or less of the character of the ever-blooming Roses.

It is a curious fact that, although it has been collected by many botanists, there do not appear to be any definite observations or statements on record regarding the color of the flowers of this Rose. In the original description of Nuttall's specimens in Torrey & Gray's "Flora of North America," p. 460, the flowers are described as "apparently rose- colored," and the description accompanying the illustration in Garden And Forest states that they are "bright pink." Berlandier, who collected it in Texas, notes that the color of the flowers is "pallide rosei"—pale rose color; and in the only nurseryman's catalogue where I have seen it advertised it is described as from Texas and producing "pinkish-white, very fragrant flowers all the season." The plants in the Arboretum, however, originally grown from seed collected by Dr. George Engelmann in New Mexico, have flowers of a very pale lemon-yellow or creamy- white color, and there is not the slightest appearance which would give the suspicion that the blossoms were ever rose-colored or pink, unless it is that a slightly rosy tinge may be detected on the outer edge of the petals when they are about to fall. It may be that the color in these plants is abnormal, but it hardly seems probable.

The fruit ripens in late autumn, it is light red in color and is rather sparingly produced here. On account of its white flowers and continuous blooming habit this Rose may prove to be of much interest and value to hybridizers as soon as it becomes well known and disseminated.

Of the hardy wild Roses indigenous to the eastern part of North America the species known as the Swamp Rose (R. Carolina) is one of the most familiar.

It is the tallest-growing of our local species, as well as the latest to flower, the rather small blossoms not appearing until the first or second week of July, or after the beauty of most other wild Roses is past. In the shrubbery the flowers usually appear in large corymbose clusters, and they are followed by a profusion of bright red fruit, which retains its color throughout the winter.