American Rose Quarterly (1930)
STUDIES IN ROSE-BREEDING
By STEPHEN F. HAMBLIM, Lexington, Mass.
I. GENERAL JACQUEMINOT. HP. (Roussel, 1852.)
This fine old rose is still the best red of its group. It is really a Hybrid Bourbon, being Rosa chinensis, Gloire des Rosomanes (Ragged Robin) X R. gallica, and both parents are still in cultivation. For its deep red color, fragrance, and willing growth it has long been an ideal parent for red roses.
How many named Hybrid Perpetuals are its seedlings is not known, for no records were kept in the old days. The older Géant des Batailles (Giant of Battles), originated by Nérard in 1846, is a sister form, of the same parentage, and the two were often confused. Together, their seedlings furnished a large part of the red Hybrid Perpetuals, and Baron de Bonstetten (1871) is a cross of the two. Credited to the General there are at least forty sorts, not including second generations. Particularly notable are: Triomphe des Beaux Arts (1857), Oriflamme de St. Louis (1858), Sénateur Vaisse (1859), Prince Camille de Rohan (1861), Beauty of Waltham (1862), Charles Lefèbvre (1862) with many seedlings, Marie Baumann (1863), Camille Bernardin (1865), Alfred Colomb (1865), Horace Vernet (1866), Baron de Bonstetten (1871), and its sport Eugene Fürst (1875), Duke of Edinburgh (1868), *Marshall P. Wilder (1884), Triomphe de Pernet Père (1890) and Triomphe d'Orleans (1901). Caroline Goodrich is a half-climbing form, and there was a Climbing Charles Lefèbvre, while Bardou Job (1887) is a single blackish red climber from pollen on Gloire des Rosomanes.
The Hybrid Tea group is represented by its child Liberty (1900), which begat, in turn, about twenty red Hybrid Teas, including Lady Battersea (1901), *Cardinal (1904), *Richmond (1905), *Wellesley (1905), Lieut. Chauré (1910), Commandeur Jules Gravereaux (1908), a Hybrid Perpetual out of Frau Karl Druschki, *Crimson Queen (1912), *Hadley (1914), etc. Lady Battersea produced *Defiance (1907); Cardinal was the mother of *Radiance (1908) and grandparent of the six or more Radiance children: *Francis Scott Key (1913), *Red Radiance (1916), *Mrs Charles Bell (1918), etc. Richmond, in turn, has some ten pedigree children; Hadley has several children, of which *Legion (1920) is best known. In spite of faulty records, it is easy to prove that a large part of the glowing red and rose Hybrid Teas of sturdy growth are to be traced back to the old Général Jacqueminot. Many of the American Hybrid Teas, as those of John Cook, E. G. Hill, and Montgomery, are of this group. *Tillicum (1924) is a cross with Old-Gold.
Many climbing roses are a cross with this old General. About 1890 began the Dawson climbers, the work of Jackson Dawson, using pollen of this rose on R. multiflora—*Dawson, *Apple Blossom, *Ida, *Minnie Dawson, *White Dawson, a sport, and *Royal Cluster (1899), most of which are still grown, and Thalia and Euphrosyne (1895) in Europe. A cross with R. wichuraiana gave *William C. Egan (1900) one of the oldest Hybrid Wichuraianas. Its oldest climber is the tender Reine Marie Henriette (1878), a cross on a Climbing Tea; Mme. Driout (1902) is a sport; and lately the grandchild, Noella Nabonnand (1901) came from the pollen of the cousin Bardou Job. Black Boy (1919) comes also from the pollen of Bardou Job on Etoile de France. There is also a Climbing Liberty, Cl. Red Radiance, Cl. Legion, Cl. Hadley, etc. Glory of Cheshunt is a climbing Hybrid Tea seedling of Charles Lefêbvre. Many of our best red Hybrid Tea climbers are in the General's family. Souv. de Claudius Denoyel (1920) is Château de Clos Vougeot (HT.) X Commandeur Jules Gravereaux (HP.), a Liberty child. The two wonderful but tender Gigantea hybrids, Belle of Portugal and Etoile du Portugal are from Reine Marie Henriette.
Now consider the hybrids with R. rugosa, particularly the good reds (three rose-colored hybrids seem lost), as Mme. Anthony Waterer (1898), Rose a Parfum de l'flay (1903), Amélie Gravereaux (1903) from Eugene Fürst, *Arnold (1914) and *Yuhla (1927); and lastly *Ruskin (1928) which comes from Victor Hugo, a grandchild of the General through Charles Lefèbvre. These are red roses indeed, and from future union of such as Richmond, Hadley and Radiance with Rugosa we shall probably have hardy everblooming roses.
[Mr. Hamblin promises more of these studies in later issues of the Quarterly.—EDITOR.]
* Indicates American origin.
II. FRAU KARL DRUSCHKI. HP. (Lambert, 1901.)
OF THE white Hybrid Perpetuals, the best by far is our universal Druschki, a recent corner in this group, and really a Hybrid Tea, for the parentage is Merveille de Lyon (HP.) X Mme. Caroline Testout (HT.), but in habit it is truly Hybrid Perpetual. The enormous white, though odorless, blooms have a wide appeal, and it has been crossed with many types to carry over this flower.
Of the Hybrid Perpetual group there are many seedlings, about ten white and the same number of rose or pink, nearly all in the trade, usually Frau Karl Druschki being the seed-parent. Barbarossa (1906), red; Commandeur Jules Gravereaux (1908), red; Georg Arends (1910), rose; Mme. Malpass (1912), white; Candeur Lyonnaise (1913), white; Ludwig Möller (1914), white; Louise Cretté (1915), white, thornless; Marguerite Guillard (1915), white, thorniess; Friedenrose (1917), white; *Bloomfield Perpetual (1920), white; Ruhm von Steinfurth (1920), red; Bischof Dr. Korum (1921), rose; Sweet Seventeen (1923), pink; *Arrillaga (1923), pink; *Pittsburgh (1923), pink; Suzanne Carrol of Carrolton (1924), rose; Mme. Albert Barbier (1925), white; Surprise (1925), rose; Mme. André Saint (1926), white; St. Ingebert (1926), white; Druschki Rubra (1929), red; and Felbergs Rosa Druschki (1929), pink.
The Hybrid Tea forms of this rose are endless, from red to white. There are at least forty of these, and no attempt has been made to list the second generation. Not more than five are American seedlings, for this rose has been much more used in Europe than in America. The best-known are: *Indiana (1907); Lemon Queen (1912); *Yosemite (1912); Mrs. Andrew Carnegie (1913); Léonie Lambert (1914); *Glorified La France (1916); Mr. Joh. M. Jolles (1916); Natalie Böttner (1917); Mrs. Elisha Hicks (1919); Ida Münch (1919); Marcia Stanhope 1922); and *Bloomfield Ivory (1929).
This rose has entered into several of the Pernetiana group, at least fifteen to date, particularly Deutschland (1910); Rembrandt (1914); *Mrs S. K. Rindge (1919); Eugene Barbier (1920); Von Scharnhorst (1921), semi-climbing; Golden City (1922); Souv. de Mme. H. Thuret (1922); and O. Junyent (1924).
In the Rugosa hybrids there are: Hildenbrandseck (1909), rose; and *Fern Kemp (1915), pink, not yet introduced. In this group there are great possibilities.
Even the climbers have felt the influence of this rose. Two recent climbers are: *Junior Van Fleet, HW. (1926), and *Horden Hall, HW. (1928), single, white; and similar are Sunday Best (1924), single, red; and *Bloomfield Simplicity (1924), single, white, but properly Climbing Hybrid Tea. There is the climbing sport, Cl. Frau Karl Druschki (1906), and some ten other Hybrid Tea climbers, as Marguerite Carels (1922) and S. M. Gustave V. (1922). Particularly notable are Paul's Lemon Pillar (1915), which is the largest of all climbing white roses, from pollen of Maréchal Niel, blooming in June only; the much-advertised Mme. Gregoire Staechelin (1927), a cross with Château de Clos Vougeot and *Bloomfield Experiment (1929), out of Frau Karl Druschki and Ida Munch, HT., itself a seedling of Frau Karl Druschki X Billard et Barré, Cl.T.
A wit in our gardening fraternity has said that she will shriek if the name of Frau Karl Druschki is again proposed in public rose-lectures. Let us hope that the many good children of this rose will not wear out their welcome.
* Indicates American origin.