Certain Western Roses
The original definition of Rosa gymnocarpa given by Nuttall, while loose enough easily to include a number of species is, on the other hand, such a diagnosis as effectually excludes a great number of gymnocarpous kinds which, obviously distinct, have found place in the herbaria under the name R. gymnocarpa, yet only so because of hasty and superficial glances at the fruits alone.
In proposing the following segregates, I have left untouched all the Columbia River region material. This is Nuttall's original locality; and all that is in those seaward parts of Oregon and Washington may or may not be referable to true R. gymnocarpa, but all the new segregates are from parts of eastern and arid regions where Nuttall never traveled, at least as regards Oregonian and Washingtonian shrubs, while the more considerable number of Californian segregates are, in another way, as completely isolated not only from the true Oregonian type but from each other; and they will be found invested with diagnostic characters more pronounced than most of the published species of Rosa have to show.
ROSA GLAUCODERMIS. Bark of old branches ashy gray, of the younger and growing ones green and glaucous, rather well armed with prickles not stout, and all ascending rather than spreading: leaves rather large for the group, and lax, leaflets very distinctly petiolulate, usually 7, rarely 9, oval to obovate, with a shortly cuneate tapering to the base, sharply and doubly serrate, deep-green above, pale beneath, neither face either notably venulose or at all reticulate, glabrous; rachis slender, with very few prickles, the glandular hairs also very sparse and short; stipules broad throughout except as to the rather narrow and very acute lobes: fruit acutish at both ends.
Shasta Springs, Shasta Co., Calif., collected in 1894, by W. L. Jepson, communicated to U. S. Herb., there occupying sheet 480045. One of the characteristically Californian group with green and glaucous branches instead of the glabrous red ones of R. gymnocarpa; this the only species yet seen with distinctly petiolulate leaflets.
ROSA CRENULATA. Bark of old branches red-brown, of the younger pale-green, the prickles very few and firm: leaves of middle size for the group; leaflets approximate, from almost meeting to fairly overlapping, not greatly unequal, all broadly obovate, obtuse, or the small lowest pair subtruncate, crenate rather than serrate, the margins of the crenatures beset with a few stipitate glands in place of secondary teeth, both faces softly but shortly villous-pubescent; rachis with here and there a rigid spine but everywhere pubescent, many of the soft hairs rather stiffer and gland-tipped; stipules very narrow below the middle, above that widened and ending in long divergent lobes, the marginal series of gland-tipped hairs both slender and short; peduncles with very few and short glandular prickles; fruit sub-globose.
Pine Ridge, Fresno County, California, at 5500 feet, collected by Hall & Chandler, June, 1900, their number 171 as in U. S. Herb. Noteworthy for the obtuse rounded indentation of the leaflets, and their soft pubescence.
ROSA PRIONOTA. Stems red-brown, glabrous except as beset with a few rather stout and hard spreading prickles: leaves very small, of 7 to 9 somewhat distant leaflets, these oval, obtuse, deeply and very acutely serrate, the primary serratures almost acuminate, the secondary much reduced, even obscure, both faces of a rather vivid green and glabrous, only the midvein conspicuous, its branches almost obsolete, but both faces under a lens notably reticulate; rachis quite strongly stipitate-glandular but without naked prickles; body of stipules broad, the lobes rather small, acuminate: peduncles short and shortly though somewhat densely glandular-hispid; fruit globose.
Lake County, California, on foot-hills south of Mt. Sanhedrin, 14 July, 1902, A. A. Heller, his n. 5858 as in U. S. Herb., sheet 416864. Remarkable for the deep sharp serrature of the quite extremely small leaflets.
ROSA PISCATORIA. Stems slender, upright, the bark green, very hispid with many short slender spreading or deflexed prickles and a few long stiff spreading ones, these commonly infrastipular in pairs: leaves long but open, the rachis almost filiform and the small leaflets somewhat remote, always 7, broadly somewhat obovate, all except the terminal one-and this also sometimes-obtuse, doubly serrate, of thin texture, glabrous on both faces, rachis with very few proper prickles and more numerous slender-stiped glands; stipules of the earliest leaves with broad obtusish lobes, those of the later showing lobes acute to subfalcate-acuminate, the margin subserrately glandular: peduncles naked at summit, otherwise sparsely and shortly glandular-bristly.
Pescadero, San Mateo Co., Calif., May, 1903, A. D. E. Elmer. Extremely hispid as to stems, but foliage small and delicate.
ROSA CALVARIA. Shrub rather tall, slender and loosely leafy, the branches of the season only purplish under a coat of bloom, totally naked as to the usual armature of slender spines, these replaced by a pair of long stoutish basally flattened straight spreading infrastipular spines to every leaf: leaves uncommonly long-petioled and lax, of about 7 leaflets, the terminal one well separated from the others by a petiolule of 3/4 inch, all rather large, round-obovate, obtuse or even subtruncate, the primary serratures broad, the secondary ones very numerous, both faces of a pallid green as if glaucous, but both densely soft-pubescent ; the rachis sparsely hispid and densely puberulent; stipules small and narrow for the group, their lobes not large, triangular -lanceolate: flowers in threes, their peduncles naked, glaucous and even wholly glabrous: fruit not seen.
Collected by the writer, at the Calaveras Big Tree grove in June, 1889; type specimens on sheet 11192 of my herbarium. Leaves and leaflets excessively large for an ally of R. gymnocarpa.
ROSA ABIETORUM. Shrub apparently low and straggling, branches of all ages well armed with straight spreading prickles varying much in length: leaves large for the plant, commonly of 7 leaflets all broad and obtuse, the pairs very unequal, the lowest round-obovate and obtuse or even retuse, of one-third the size of the uppermost pair, these only broadly obovate, all doubly serrate-toothed, deep-green above, pale beneath, somewhat reticulate-venulose on both faces, conspicuously so beneath; stipules of the breadth, and the glandular margin usual in the group, but their lobes narrow and acute, triangular-lanceolate to broadly subulate; peduncles very short, less than 1 inch long, naked and glabrous; fruits ovoid.
Inhabits fir woods of Klamath County, southern Oregon, where it was collected about Lake of the Woods, 25 July, 1897, by Coville & Applegate; type on U. S. Herb. sheet 380319.
ROSA AMPLIFOLIA. Shrub evidently large, bark of branches a year old dull red-brown, very sparsely armed with a few slender ascending prickles, the flowering twigs of the season with similar very sparse armature, but augmented by 1 to 3 infra-stipular spines: leaves very large for the group, of 7 not very unequal leaflets, all thin, rather deep-green above, glaucous beneath, but the feather-veins neither at all elevated nor whitened, but branching to form a manifest though faint reticulation, the pairs quite approximate, the outline oval and oval-elliptic, doubly serrate, the serratures not deep but salient; rachis unusually naked, the prickles and stalked glands very sparse and small ; stipules small in proportion to the leaves: peduncles short, loosely glandular hispid: fruit not seen.
Margin of Fish Lake, in the mountains of Jackson County, southern Oregon, at an altitude of 5,000 ft., collected by E. I. Applegate, 18 June, 1898 ; type on sheet 381523, U. S. Herb. The leaves are so very large, and have so much of the color, texture and pattern of those of R. acicularis that but for the small solitary flowers this would have passed readily with many for that species.
ROSA LEUCOPSIS. Shrub not small, the bark of growths of two seasons equally pale-green, unarmed except as to the presence here and there, at the base of a stipule, of two small straight spines: leaves very large for the group, of commonly 5, as often 7 leaflets, these very thin, glabrous, pale glaucous green above and almost white beneath, here with rather elevated white feather-veins but no reticulation, the outline obovate or oval, not deeply yet somewhat doubly serrate-toothed; rachis slender, white, beset with here and there a small spine and more freely stipitate-glandular; stipules not very broad below, but the large triangular lobes of an area often equalling or exceeding that of the body: peduncles rather long, minutely but not sparsely glandular-hispid; fruit round-pyriform, orange-colored.
Sage plains of southeastern Oregon, in Lake County, collected 29 Sept., 1896, by H. E. Brown; type on U. S. Herb. sheet 283078, the collector's number being 99. Remarkable for the whitish pallor of both stems and foliage, as well as for the total absence of general armature.
ROSA HELLERI. Shrub stoutish, evidently tall, the dark red-brown bark softly prickly, the slender armature ascending: leaves rather ample yet compact, the commonly 9 leaflets approximate, even occasionally overlapping, of a pale glaucous-green, of oval to oval-elliptic outline, simply serrate toward the base, otherwise doubly so, both faces glabrous, neither one any more than very faintly reticulate; stipules large and broad; peduncles 1 inch long, shortly but rather densely glandular-hispid.
About Lake Waha, Nez Perces Co., Idaho, A. A. Heller, 25 June, 1896; type on U. S. Herb. sheet 267361. By the aspect of its foliage, with long pale almost crowded leaflets, this shrub at first glance seems more like the eastern so-called R. blanda than like R. gymnocarpa, and only a careful inspection with a lens brings the assurance that it is of this western small-flowered group.
ROSA APICULATA. Stems slender but rigid and upright, armed not sparsely with prickles partly long, stiff and ascending and partly short, slender and spreading or deflexed: leaves very small, the leaflets commonly 7, oval, obtuse, doubly serrate, glabrous on both faces and obscurely reticulate, rachis with here and there a stout prickle and many stipitate glands; stipules broad, ending in acutely triangular lobes, the whole margin beset closely with unusually long-stalked glands: peduncles short, stiff and straight under the fruits, densely beset with gland-tipped prickles or bristles which are of unequal length but none long: fruit elongated, fully twice as long as broad, and ending in a narrow necklike apiculation.
Collected on Whidbey Island, in Pugets Sound, near Coupeville, July, 1899, by De Alton Saunders; type on sheet 364810, U. S. Herb.
ROSA DASYPODA. Stems armed with long straight slender slightly ascending prickles: leaflets mostly 5, occasionally 7, the terminal one and the pair next it oval, obtuse, the small lowest pair nearly orbicular, all doubly serrate, both faces glabrous, the lower pale, not reticulate, the rachis of the leaf beset with very few prickles and many short-stipitate glands; stipules broad, ending in ovate acute lobes, glabrous except marginally, there closely beset with a series of shortly stipitate glands: fruit globose or depressed-globose, the fruiting peduncle straight, closely beset with stout straight prickles strongly gland-tipped.
Bear Creek, Wallowa Co., Oregon, at 3850 feet, E. P. Sheldon, 28 Aug., 1897, who reports that it is a bush three or four feet high, occurring in open woods along streams. Type sheet U. S. Herb. 528469.
ROSA ADENOCARPA. Dwarf and almost wholly herbaceous, simple and upright above the almost entirely subterranean woody part, only 4 to 7 inches high, with about 4 leaves and 1 to 3 terminal small flowers; stem slender, wholly glabrous and unarmed, or in a few with here and there a short stout straight prickle: leaflets 5, rarely 7, very unequal, very broadly obovate to nearly orbicular, petiolulate, coarsely, incisely and somewhat doubly serrate, apparently glabrous, but with a trace of clamminess; rachis and petiolules destitute of prickles, but quite densely glandular-villous; stipules not very broad, their lobes subulate and strongly glandular-serrulate: fruit quite strongly armed with gland-tipped prickles.
Singular species, despite all its peculiar characteristics, a genuine member of this gymnocarpous group, known only as collected on Mount Grayback in southwestern Oregon, 15 June, 1904, by C. V. Piper; type sheet of five specimens in U. S. Herb, n. 527765.
The roses allied closely to R. gymnocarpa are not all gymnocarpous. Among species showing persistent sepals are the next following:
ROSA BOLANDRI. Shrub evidently low and rather diffusely branched, the branches and even the branchlets strongly and even doubly armed, showing long stoutish spreading or even slightly infrastipular spines and plenty of intervening slender prickles of several sizes, most of these slightly ascending: leaves and leaflets small, the latter 5 to 7, from round-obovate in the very small lowest pair, to oval in the others, acutely and almost simply serrate all around; rachis with a few stout prickles and many short-stalked glands; stipules small for the group, but the margin bordered strongly with the usual gland-tipped ciliation: pedicels very short, sparsely glandular-hispid: mature fruit very large for the group, oval, crowned with all the sepals as persistent.
Known only as by H. N. Bolander, at some unrecorded station among the Oakland Hills, this more than fifty years since, and evidently not distributed; probably an unique specimen. This has been in the hands of M. Crépin, whose remark (in sched.) is that it may be abnormal. He has not observed those other characters by which this would claim specific rank even were it gymnocarpous.
ROSA BREWERI. Low, rigidly branching, the bark green on old twigs as on young, the armature diversified, some prickles very stout, short, recurved, others as stout, long, straight, slender-pointed, smaller and more bristly ones numerous: leaflets 5 to 7, smallish, obovate, obtuse, doubly serrate, densely and somewhat strigosely pubescent on both faces; rachis with one or more stout straight prickles and numerous short-stalked glands; stipules neither large nor notably glandular: peduncles solitary, short, stout, glandular-hispid: fruit very large, round-ovoid, glaucescent, crowned with sepals externally glandular-hispid and strigulose.
Collected on the Calif. Geol. Survey fifty years since, by W. H. Brewer, near San José, 30 August, in very ripe fruit.
ROSA GRANULATA. Low, slender, the bark green, the scattered larger spines long, rather slender, more or less curved or deflexed, the smallest straight, spreading, often glandtipped: leaves not small, of 5 leaflets, these oval or obovate, acutely and doubly serrate, almost alike green on both faces, with a trace of pubescence as well as a pronounced roughness that is between muriculate and granular, on younger leaves rather granular than otherwise, this indument chiefly of the lower face; rachis very rough with small subsessile glands: flowers solitary, their short pedicels and also the ovaries glandular-prickly: fruit not known.
Like the last, collected by Brewer, somewhere near San Luis Obispo, Calif., in April, 1861. Perhaps akin to R. gratissima.
ROSA COVILLEI. Evidently low, perhaps seldom a foot high; bark rather pale, glaucescent, beset with rather slender spines of several lengths but all spreading and straight: leaflets quite constantly 7, very unequal, all obovate, or the odd one oval, acutely and simply serrate, deep-green and glabrous above, beneath paler and puberulent without glands; rachis destitute of prickles and with very few small glands, but pubescent; stipules not large, loosely glandular-ciliate: flowers solitary, peduncle short, glabrous; fruit very large for the group, round-ovoid, retaining to the last its crown of sepals.
Yellow pine forests, south of Naylor, Klamath Co., Oregon, 22 Sept., 1902, F. V. Coville.
ROSA MYRIADENA. Apparently low, the branches not slender, rigid, divergent, unarmed except by quite constant, usually paired, infrastipular spines, these long, stout, manifestly curved: leaflets constantly 5, oval, obtuse or acutish, doubly serrulate, green, glabrous and smooth above, very pale beneath as if glaucous, but this face, under a lens, reticulate-venulose, puberulent, the rather prominent midvein and veinlets beset with many small subsessile reddish glands; rachis with a few short gland-tipped prickles, also dark with the multitude of red glands; stipules, as in the group, large, strongly glandular not only marginally but superficially on the outside: flowers 1 to 3 terminating the branchiets; peduncles naked and glabrous; sepals glandular-prickly both marginally and on the outside: young fruits globose.
Huckleberry Mountain, Jackson Co., Oregon, 2 Aug., 1897, Coville and Applegate; type on U. S. Herb. sheet 380588. No fruits are mature, yet doubtless the calyx leaves are persistent.
ROSA MURICULATA. Stout, probably tall, the bark green, glabrous, bearing a pair of stout but not long spreading or ascending infrastipular prickles only, the flowering twigs wholly unarmed: leaves rather small, of 5 or 7 leaflets, these broadly ovate, the terminal rather obovate, none acute, the serrature mostly double, both faces almost equally green, the upper glabrous, the lower sparsely muriculate with callous white points which at first bear a small pellucid gland, this deciduous; rachis with a number of rather strong prickles and many small glands mostly subsessile; stipules broad and large, but the lobes rather short and blunt, the whole margin very glandular: flowers in threes, or solitary; peduncles stout, rather softly somewhat glandular-prickly; fruits of medium size, rather depressed-globose, the persistent sepals glandular-muricate.
Near Woodland, Cowlitz County, Washington, F. V. Coville, 15 July, 1898. The shrub has every appearance and character of this R. Sonomensis section of the gymnocarpous group.
ROSA WALPOLEANA. Shrub probably large, but only flowering twigs known, these with green bark and short stout strongly curved prickles, these 2 to each internode, well separated and neither evidently quite infrastipular, the upper part of the twig and next the peduncles bristly-hispid: leaves large, of 7 to 11 large approximate round-obovate leaflets, these very obtuse, sharply serrate, the secondary serratures nearly obsolete, represented by small stalked glands, both faces of a vivid green, the upper with a trace of setulose hairiness, the lower conspicuously glandular-muriculate: rachis with quite an array of whitish curved prickles and many small gland-tipped bristles; stipules very large, with large acute lobes and the usual ciliation: flowers in threes, large, their short stout peduncles and also the ovaries very hispid: fruits large, subglobose to short-oval, very hispid, likewise the exterior of the persistent sepals.
Ashland, Oregon, 9 Sept., 1899, F. A. Walpole; specimens in U. S. Herb., sheets 401173 and 401286.
The following belong to groups of roses far removed from that of the gymnocarps.
ROSA COPELANDI. Shrub tall, the stems slender, glabrous, reddish and unarmed except by pairs of infrastipular spines, but these stout, not long, slightly recurved, whitish throughout, the greatly elongated and narrow base equalling the length of the spine: leaves of a vivid green, wholly glabrous, mostly of 5 leaflets, sometimes 7; leaflets mostly elliptic-oval, acutish, simply and sharply serrate; rachis with here and there a stout spine each one as if stipular to a pair of leaflets; stipules remarkably ample for the foliage, the large lobes often equalling and sometimes quite surpassing the area of the body, the whole organ glabrous, glandless, entire: flowers 1, 2 or 3 terminating the twigs: fruits subglobose, in maturity retaining the calyx upright.
Mount Eddy, Siskiyon Co., Calif., at 4800 ft., collected 8 Sept., 1903, by E. B. Copeland, distributed by C. F. Baker (n. 3875); type in my herbarium, n. 11152.
ROSA DELITESCENS. Size of the last, the red of the stems and branches obscured by a coat of bluish bloom, the green of the foliage similarly pallid; armature infrastipular only, as often of a solitary spine as of a pair of them, these both stout and long as well as with downward curvature: leaves of 7, rarely 5 or 9 leaflets, these oval, obtuse, somewhat doubly serrate, glabrous above, beneath showing a distinct muriculation along the veinlets and elsewhere; rachis with not a few short prickles and many small not sessile glands; stipules small and narrow, glandular marginally: mature fruits large, short-ovoid or subglobose, the persistent sepals strongly glandular-hispidulous, some longer gland-tipped spines scattered over the summit of the fruit.
Collected only by the writer, on the Siskiyon Mountains, but within the Oregon boundary, 3 Sept., 1889; type specimens Herb. Propr. 11146.
ROSA ANACANTHA. All parts of the shrub, even the most vigorous shoots, unarmed; bark red or purplish, rendered pale by a coat of bloom while young, older branches devoid of it, and with the bark of the cinnamon roses: leaves of 5 to 7 leaflets, the pairs approximate, texture firm, outline oval, margin crenate rather than serrate, both faces pale and dull, the upper sparsely puberulent, the lower cinereously puberulent between the veins, more densely and villously so on the veins; rachis with the same indument, showing here and there a small stout prickle near the insertion of the leaflets; stipules small, velvety-puberulent, glandless and entire marginally: fruits corymbose, subglobose, glabrous, glaucous, crowned with the persistent villous sepals, these erect and even connivent.
This also is known to me only as collected by myself while on my extensive journeyings in the Northwest in the summer and autumn of 1889. On the whole journey I gave close attention to the roses, making specimens as perfect as possible. R. anacantha was obtained at Takoma, Washington, 24 Aug., 1889. Its habitat was along the borders of thickets near the salt marshes, at a point not then far out of town. Type sheet Herb. Propr. 11113.