Pittonia 4(20): 10-14 (31 Jan. 1899)
New Western Species of Rosa
Edward L. Greene
R. MELINA. Stout and much branched, 3 or 4 feet high, the stem and branches red, glabrous, glaucescent, sparingly armed with short prickles, some stout and longer, others slender and smaller, but all strongly recurved: stipules finely glandular-serrulate, with also some subsessile glands extending to the rachis of the leaf, but leaflets glabrous and glandless, these about 7, ovate or oval, acute or obtuse simply and sharply serrate: peduncles of the solitary flowers short and stout, woody and not in the least curved or bent in age by the weight of the very large fruit; this broadly somewhat inverse-pyriform, smooth and glabrous, nearly 1 1/2 inches in diameter: sepals smooth and glabrous except on the margin, this closely beset with short-stipitate glands, the foliaceous terminal part commonly nearly as large as the basal portion and perfectly glabrous, either simple or with a few large teeth or lobes.
Apparently common at middle elevations in the mountains of Southern Colorado; the best specimens (in fruit only) collected by myself at Cerro Summit above Cimarron, 30 Aug., 1896; but the species has a northwesterly extension apparently to Montana, and has passed for R. Nutkana with some; though it is extremely different from that by its small glabrous foliage, short and hooked prickles, short woody peduncles never shrinking and curving in fruit; and the sepals are neither long-attenuate nor gland-bearing on the back as in those Northwest Coast roses which form the R. Nutkana aggregate.
R. MACOUNII. Low shrub of compact growth, the growing branches and short flowering branchlets densely leafy, the older armed with numerous prickles of various sizes, all stoutish and rather deflexed than recurved; leaves wholly glandless, glabrous except a slight soft pubescence on the stipules, rachis and lower face of leaflets; stipules short, ample for the size of the leaves, and plane, obtusish or short-pointed; leaflets mostly 9 or 11, somewhat cuneate-obovate, obtuse, sharply serrate from the middle, otherwise entire: flowers solitary and short-peduncled, small, rather pale; sepals broad, woolly-ciliate, bearing very short and inconspicuous foliaceous tips: fruits large for the plant, depressed-globose, of a light red (between scarlet and orange).
This rather common rose of the middle and northern Rocky Mountains has often been taken for a stunted and subalpine R. blanda, though it is more commonly labelled in the herbaria as R. Woodsii; but to this latter it bears no intimate relationship at all; for that is a shrub with perfectly straight prickles, glandular-edged very narrow and acute stipules, ovate fruit and shining foliage.
My best herbarium specimens are those collected by Mr. John Macoun in Assiniboia (Canad. Surv. numbers 10532 and 10533), and by myself near Cheyenne, Wyoming. It belongs to the region of dry elevated plains, and is subalpine as to elevation.
R. MANCA. Dwarf subalpine shrub, sometimes a foot high or more, rather freely branching, the glabrous and smooth red stem and branches armed with few and stoutish compressed and very strongly recurved prickles: leaves small, the leaflets about 7, from somewhat obovate to elliptic, thin, sharply but not deeply serrate, the serratures callous-tipped and the larger with one secondary tooth, all smooth and glabrous on both faces; stipules extremely narrow, glandular, the long and narrow though prominent auricles more herbaceous: flowers solitary at the ends of short leafy branchlets: receptacle and back of sepals glabrous and glaucescent; sepals finely woolly-margined and with notable scattered sessile black glands among the wool, usually also appendaged on one side by a pair of long spreading linear lobes, the foliaceous tips narrowly oblong, entire, glabrous and glandless: corollas small: fruit not seen.
Collected by Messrs. Baker, Earle and Tracy, on dry hillsides at about 10,000 feet altitude in West Mancos Cañon, southern Colorado, July, 1898, and distributed for R. Arkansana. The name assigned this excellent new rose is taken from the geographical name Mancos, which is Spanish and also Latin for "the cripples."
R. SUFFULTA. Stems low, simple, corymbosely floriferous at the summit, the bark green and glaucescent, rather densely armed with comparatively short straight spreading or ascending prickles: leaflets about 9, obovate, acute, serrate, finely pubescent on both faces but most so beneath, the rachis short-prickly and with a few short-stalked glands: stipules well developed, sparsely glandular on the margin, their auricles with entire inner margin, the outer strongly and evenly glandular-serrate: receptacle smooth and glabrous; sepals with woolly-ciliate margins, the back bearing scattered subsessile glands, their foliaceous tips small and entire: fruit not seen.
Of this southern Rocky Mountain rose I have seen but one specimen, and that was communicated to me some years since by the late Dr. Geo. Vasey, from the meadows of the Rio Grande at Las Vegas, New Mexico. It was labelled "R. blanda var. setigera, Crepin," which is now taken by Crepin for R. Arkansana.
The name R. suffulta is suggested by a circumstance which I have not mentioned in my diagnosis, because I fear it may be accidental or occasional; though it may possibly prove to be a real character. Between the two auricles of the stipules there arises a leaflet, or a pair of them, well developed and conspicuous, though of only one-fifth or one-fourth the size of the proper leaflets; and these are not like the ordinary leaflets, in that they hold an upright rather than a pinnate-spreading posture. They are parallel to the lobes or auricles of the stipule, not at right angles with them as the true leaflets are.
R. PRATINCOLA. Almost herbaceous, and never more than suffrutescent, I or 2 feet high, usually flowering terminally and corymbosely from upright shoots of the season; bark of the stem green and glaucescent, the prickles dark purplish, all rather slender and weak, but some larger and less slender than others, all straight, spreading or slightly deflexed: leaves very ample for the plant; leaflets 7 to 11, obovate and oblong-obovate, sharply serrate, somewhat cuspidately acute, pubescent on both faces when young, the upper face glabrate in age; stipules very narrow and entire, soft-pubescent, but neither glandular nor prickly, the rachis often setose-prickly; receptacle smooth and glabrous, the sepals very woolly within and also marginally, the tips villous on both sides, the back of the basal part glandular hispid: achenes nearly smooth, but more or less hirsute on certain of the angles and about the base or summit.
I thus designate unhesitatingly as a new species one of the commonest of North American roses, and one most abundantly inhabiting a very extensive range in the United States and Canada; a denizen of the prairie regions of the West and Northwest, from Illinois and Missouri to the Dakotas and Manitoba. It has passed for R. Arkansana, and to that extent that probably almost all the so-called R. Arkansana of the herbaria of the country is of this species. It is found in eastern Kansas and Nebraska, but does not occur in Colorado, or anywhere very near its borders, in so far as we can ascertain. It is the peculiar rose of the rich grassy prairies of the upper Mississippi Valley; and, though passing usually for R. Arkansana, has been distributed by Sandberg, from Minnesota, as R. humilis. It is, of course, a part of R. blanda of the earlier American authors, and of local botanists residing in the prairie regions.
Probably no botanist knowing, as I know, both the Illinois and Wisconsin prairies, and the valley of the Arkansas in Colorado, could be brought to entertain the notion that any species of rose could be common to the two. The latter is an arid and subsaline half-desert country, a region of cactaceous and salicorniaceous plants, probably about as different from the region of Rosa pratincola as Arabia is from England; a consideration which does not seem to have entered the minds of our American rhodologists—if we have any—much less those of the European students of the genus.
Rosa Arkansana, has not, I think, been collected a second time; and as I spent many a week in arduous collecting about Cañon City, in different years between 1873 and 1896, without having seen original R. Arkansana, I entertain a suspicion that it may have been founded on some corymbose-flowering precocious shoot from the root of the so-called R. blanda of that region, or perhaps of R. Fendleri. But, apart from the antecedent improbability of this our eastern prairie species being also an inhabitant of a cactus desert, the western and xerophilous rose, the real R. Arkansana, is glabrous, while ours is pubescent; it has stipules both glandular and prickly, while ours has them softly pubescent only; it has sepals reflexed in fruit, while in ours these are erect.