IAC Bulletin 32: 486-489 (1896)

Some of Our Advances in Breeding Fruits and Shrubs.
J. L. BUDD, N. E. HANSEN

ROSES.

In Bulletin No. 22 we gave in detail our work in crossing the Russian Rosa rugosa with pollen of a number of the best garden roses. The crossing was done in the summer of 1892, and the seed planted the following spring. In the fall of 1893 the plants were potted and wintered in the cellar, the following spring they were planted out in nursery rows where they now stand. In the fall of 1894 the tops were cut back to mere stubs which were covered with earth. During the past season (1895,) they have made a rampant growth which has been unfavorable for the blossoming of such young plants. As a rule, the hybrids showing most variation from the Rosa rugosa mother have not bloomed, while those following more nearly the mother in leaf and habit have given more bloom. At this time we will only report two of the wide variations which have blossomed quite freely at this tender age.

I. A. C. ROSE.

This is our No. 1 of the many seedlings produced by fertilizing the Russian Rosa rugosa with pollen of the Gen. Jacquiminot. The bush is a rampant grower, now four and one [half] feet in height with many branches. It is less thorny and its leaves are thicker, more leathery, and glossy than those of either parent So far it seems a model of health, and able to endure the extremes of summer heat and drouth.


I. A. C. ROSE.

The first flowers opened July 22nd. The flowers average larger than those of Gen. Jacquiminot, are much more perfectly double, containing as high as sixty‑six petals of a beautiful dark crimson color much like the Russian Rosa rugosa, and delightfully fragrant. As the mother has but five petals and the male parent but about forty, the perfect doubling of the hybrid is remarkable. Possibly it has bred back to some ancestor of the Gen. Jacquiminot.


"ROSA RUGOSA. GEN. JACQUIMINOT NO. 2. ROSE."

This is also a rampant grower, now four and one half feet in height. The thorns are stronger and more numerous than those of either parent. The leaves are larger, thicker, firmer, and more glossy than those of the parents, but are less rugose than those of the mother. This hybrid developed its first flowers June 21st, and has blossomed profusely up to the present time, September 5th, and still shows young blossom buds. The petals number about twenty‑five, peculiarly fragrant, and of the same brilliant crimson as the Gen. Jacquiminot. The profuse and continued blooming habit and vivid color of blossom make it very promising.

Other hybrids have blossomed that show the beautiful color of Gen. Jacquiminot, Duchesse de Brabant' and other choice varieties which show a tendency to doubling; and other plants not yet in bloom indicate their hybrid character in color of wood and modified foliage. From these we hope to secure valuable results as the plants attain age.

None of our hybrids will be propagated for distribution until we have watched their behavior two or three years longer.

We have reason to expect far more valuable results from these crosses with the Russia Rosa rugosa than have been reached with the type of the Rosa rugosa imported from Japan which has been mainly used in the eastern United States and west Europe as a mother stock. The Russian Rosa rugosa now known as Rosa rugosa Regeliana is far handsomer in habit, in leaf and color of flower, and is hardier and much better able to endure drouth than the Japan type.

The two parents of I. A. C. and No. 2 are shown in the following cuts.


THE RUSSIAN ROSA RUGOSA.


GEN. JACQUIMINOT.