Maréchal Niel (Noisette) [] A "found" rose of uncertain parentage. Both Lamarque and Isabella Gray have been suggested as the seed parent. Though commonly supposed to have been raised by Pradel, this is no doubt due to confusion with that breeder's 'Maréchale Niel', a pink Hybrid Perpetual.

A classic variety, richly fragrant, and parent of 'Virginia', 'Paul's Lemon Pillar', 'Souv. de Pierre Notting' and 'Diamond Jubilee'. There is some speculation that this fine old rose is actually 'Mignonette d'Alupka', bred by Hartwiss in the early 19th century. Other roses of similar ancestry are 'Comtesse de Woronzoff' and 'Belle de Nikita'.



Maréchal Niel Perfume

Grafted to Devoniensis

Helvetica Chimica Acta, 70(8): 1994-2002 (Dec 16, 1987)
10-Apolycopin-10-ol und 10-Apolycopin-10-säure aus Blüten der Rosenhybride Maréchal Niel. 6. Mitteilung über Farbstoffe aus Rosen
Edith Märki-Fischer, Peter Uebelhart, Conrad Hans Eugster
The novel 10-apolycopen-10-ol (1) and 10-apolycopen-10-oic acid (4) were isolated from the yellow petals of the once world-renowned rose hybrid Maréchal Niel. The relative amount of either 1 or 4 produced by the plant depends upon the climatic conditions. Both 1 and 4 together with related compounds were synthetisized and characterized by spectral data.

Roses: Their History, Development and Cultivation, p. 103 (1908)
Rev. Joseph H. Pemberton

*Cook (1912) makes similar observations about the leaves of
peaches and apricots being derived from compound leaves.

The special points of a Noisette Rose are (1) its scent, the perfume of the original parent, the Musk Rose, being very apparent, especially in the earlier varieties. (2) The manner in which the flowers are produced; it blooms in clusters, coming from one corymb—that is to say, the foot-stalks of all the flowers on a stem start from the same point, like the Banksia Rose, for example. To better understand the difference between a Tea and Noisette Rose, compare Madame Hoste, a Tea, with Caroline Kuster, a Noisette. These roses are much alike when staged as specimen blooms, but look at them growing on the plant. The former produces its flowers from different parts of the stem, the latter from a corymb. Compare also the growth and formation of the flowering stalks of Lamarque, L'Ideale, and Celine Forestier with that of the Tea, and observe how liable is the bloom of a Noisette—especially Maréchal Niel—to break off at the junction of the foot-stalk with the main stem.*

A study of the Noisette Rose will assist us in the matter of pruning. Like the Banksia, it usually flowers, not from the gross shoots as do the Teas, but from the smaller secondary wood of a previous year. This being the case, if the flowering wood is to be retained, the plant requires careful pruning. On the whole it is better not to prune at all, except to remove the old and, sometimes, the very young wood, doing so only for the purpose of admitting light and air.

L'Horticulteur français (1864) p. 326.
Rose Maréchal Niel (pl. XX).

Par sa vigueur et sa floraison, le Rosier maréchal Niel surpasse Chromatella, Solfatare, Isabella Gray, etc., variétés à fleurs jaunes comme lui. Son bois est vert olive foncé, nuancé de rouge brun sur la partie exposée au soleil; il est armé d'aiguillons rouge foncé, aplatis latéralement et à pointe recourbée en bec de perroquet. Les feuilles, amples, sont composées de 3 à 7 folioles d'un beau vert luisant en dessus, vert pâle en dessous, finement dentelées—les folioles latérales, à peine pétiolulées, sont obovales; aiguës ou brièvement acuminées; la foliole terminale est plus grande, longuement pétiolée et acuminée; le pétiole commun est poilu-glanduleux en dessus, et armé en dessous de très-fins aiguillons crochus; il est à peine ailé à sa base par les stipules qui, dans leur partie libre, sont subulées et forment un angle droit avec le pétiole.

The Gardeners’ Monthly and Horticulturist 18: 199 (July 1876)
How Marechal Niel Rose Grows

Mr. Harrison, of Darlington, mentions in the Gardeners' Magazine, that a plant of the Marechal Niel Rose in his nursery "has attained the immense growth of 500 yards, and is now (Feb. 22) making nearly 2 yards of wood per day." Mr. Harrison continues: "We have people coming from all parts to see it. It is now beginning to bloom, which will stay its growth. Splendid blooms have gone to Covent Garden to-day at 1s 6d. each. What a pity to have to destroy such a plant! as I must because the place has been sold over my head, and I shall have to move this spring to Caiterick."

The Gardeners’ Monthly and Horticulturist 18: 266 (Sept. 1876)

Pink Marechal Niel Rose.—A pink Marechal Niel rose appears to have been secured by our excellent coadjutor Mr. Thomas Trussler, of Edmonton, and should it prove to bear the test of criticism it will add to the series of illustrations recorded of the reciprocal influence of stock and graft. A bud of John Hopper was entered on a brier in the usual way, and afterwards a bud of Marechal Niel was entered on John Hopper. The result is apparently a pink Marechal Niel. The flower before us is smaller than the type; it is pale lemon-yellow without, with a diaphonous tint of pink within, very pleasing, and in some degree resembling Devoniensis. Should it prove permanent it will be peculiarly interesting.— Gardener's Magazine.

Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Country Gentleman, September 26, 1867 p. 236
Marechal Niel Rose
Adolphus H. Kent

Much dissatisfaction has been expressed, and still more felt, at the very unfavourable results obtained by the numerous cultivators of this variety of yellow Rose. On the other hand, there are many who have been more successful, and who are, therefore, not without reason ready to affirm that the causes of discontent are groundless. This has till lately been inexplicable.

When this Rose was first announced in the glowing and rather exaggerated way in which the French growers are acaeoustomed to put forth their novelties, hopes were entertained that it might prove a really valuable addition to our yellow Roses, a colour so very popular with us among Roses, as much, perhaps, from the very distinct character it adds to the exhibition-stand and to the bouquet, as from its own peculiar merits combined with form, as seen in Triomphe de Bennes and Celine Forestier. But when the first glorious blooms of it were seen, as exhibited by Mr. Mitchell, Messrs. Paul & Son, Mr. Keynes, and others, it was received with admiration, such as has never before been accorded to any single Rose. As a matter of course, not only rosarians and Rose growers, but the horticultural world generally, were in a fever of anxiety to possess it, and the propagation of it was, and is still, an important business with nurserymen. Thousands of plants have been distributed, and pleasure and disappointment have both followed.

The Marechal Niel is really a very beautiful yellow Rose, now so well known as not to need description; nevertheless, to the Rose critic it has a slight defect in form which a thorough-going Rosarian must acknowledge, and hope that before long another kind will appear that will yield symmetry of shape with the glorious colour of the Marechal. Whence have arisen the discrepancies that now perplex the possessors of this fine Rose? It has for some time been suspected that there are in commerce two Roses under the name of Marechal Niel; and comparison of plants, or even foliage, leaves not only no doubt, but even leads to conviction, that there are really two different Roses that have been sent out under this name, and that difference in results arises from this fact. Nor is it in England alone that these circumstances have been noted, for I hear that in France disappointments on the one hand, and favourable accounts on the other, have also been expressed; and there also it is asserted that there are two Marechal Niels in commerce. It is furthermore accounted for in this way. I give the statement as I received it, without being able to vouch for its correctness further than that it came from an authority who would not give it currency without sufficient foundation.

Marechal Niel Rose was raised by a young gardener named Pradel, somewhere in the south of France. M. Eugene Verdier, of Paris, became the possessor of the stock, or original plant. It is said that Pradel sent to M. Verdier two seedlings without distinguishing them. In the belief that both of these plants were of the same kind, propagation was proceeded with from them indiscriminately; hence arose the confusion, for which M. Verdier is responsible, if not to blame. Be it as it may, great annoyance has been felt, and it is but due to the public that some explanation should be offered to clear away the uncertainty at present existing. Should this statement be even an approximation to the truth, it will be quite evident that our nurserymen are quite free from any blame attached to the distribution of the wrong kind. It will also be remembered that the manner in which Marechal Niel was first sent out was not altogether unobjectionable.

The pseudo Marechal Niel may be distinguished from the true one by its habit, foliage, and flowers. The habit is less robust and more straggling; the foliage of a deeper green, resembling that of Isabella Gray; the leaves smaller and more pointed; the flowers are smaller, hard in opening, but when open of a deeper yellow, but in no point so good as the right variety.

Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Country Gentleman, November 21, 1867 p. 397
Marechal Niel Rose (G. B.).

"The specimen sent I believe to be the true Marechal Niel. There is no other Rose, except Isabella Gray, that could possibly represent Marechal Niel. The bloom and truss sent appear to be the same as produced by Marechal Niel sent to me by M.E. Verdier and Mr. Keynes. If 'G. S.' would send a truss early next season I could better determine the case. I have bloomed contemporaneously and beautifully Marechal Niel and Isabella Gray. The points of difference seemed to me to be—Marechal Niel is larger, thicker in petal, easier to unfold, larger in foliage, and apt, late in the season, to rot at the neck of the stalk. Isabella Gray is a little smaller, fuller, more golden, narrower in the leaf, longer in opening, and hardier late in the season at the neck. An amateur, seeing them side by side here, told me that he could see no difference. A critical eye would see that the above distinctions were the difference. They were both lovely Roses, and I have bought twenty-five more of Marechal Niel on its own roots, and three more of Isabella Gray. Both were bloomed here in the open garden.—W. P. Radclyffe."


The Garden May 12, 1883 pp. 426-427

    I REMEMBER the time when the beautiful, because truthful, picture which appears in this number of The Garden would have created a great perturbation among those who love the Rose. Some would have denounced it as an imposition, and, resenting it as an insult, would have protested indignantly—"preposterous, absurd, impossible!" Some of less irascible temperament would have sighed, "How cruel to mock us with a vision of loveliness which can never be realised." Others more sanguine might have hoped "it may be a veritable fact. We have heard of Cloth of Gold, and we have grown Solfaterre. Io triumphe. We have got a grand, hardy, yellow Rose at last, and we will have it if we pawn our boots."
    Well, I can assure the younger brethren who have been brought up to it, and have always grown it as a matter of course, that it did make a grand sensation when it first came to us in all its golden glory. Never since we first smelt Devoniensis or cut our first Charles Lefebvre (about the size of the five-guinea cup which it helped us to win) had we been so thrilled, jubilant, inebriate. And though well-nigh twenty years have passed since M. Pradel saw the first bloom of it among his seedlings (I wonder whether he cried or danced, for without some such relief to his excitement he must have lost his reason there and then, and I should not be surprised to hear that he is crying or dancing still), it ever reminds, with each returning spring, of our first love, and charms us with almost all its pristine power.
    No Rose, I think, brings so much satisfaction to the eyes and noses of Her Majesty's subjects, contributes so largely to the decoration of boudoir, bouquet, and button-hole as this magnificent Marechal Niel. Wherever grown under glass, it is the first to cheer the ungenial days of March and April, and it is not only reliable and constant, never declining to open, like Dickens's fractious Periwinkle, always fulfilling in efflorescence the promise of its buds, but it is as ample and generous as it is sweet and fair. I have known several instances in which rosarians of limited means, or who resembled good Mrs. Gilpin in their economical habits, "for though on pleasure she was bent, she had a frugal mind,'' have paid the yearly amount of coal consumed in their greenhouse (cobbles, of course) with Roses cut from Marechal Niel.
    There must be glass to secure this early abundance, for this Marshal is no more frost-proof than were the marshals of Napoleon in that disastrous Russian campaign; and the Rose, on its own roots or budded so low on the Brier that it may make them in the soil surrounding, should be planted out (not kept in pots) and trained up wall, pillar, or rafter; or it may be grown like the Vine from an outside border and brought into the house. However this may be, it should have an amplitude of fertile soil, and this should be continually enriched with manure, liquid and solid.
    At the same time, though the Marechal is not quite hardy, it may be successfully grown, with a little care, out of doors; and though I have once or twice been rebuked for my temerity, I have only failed for one season in producing its grand Roses on my walls. I believe the best plan to be this, to bring the upper growth from the walls and arrange it underneath, so that you may the more readily protect it from the frost. This may be done best with glazed frames, if you have them to spare, because they do not exclude the light, and are easily moved to and from the wall (in the latter position resting against stakes set some 2 feet from the wall), or, if these are not available, with garden mats. In April or May, according to the thermometer, the protective duties may be removed, and there may be free trade in wind and sunshine. The finest blooms I have ever seen have been grown upon walls having an eastward or southward aspect; and there is this further advantage for exhibitors, that they may with umbrageous ingenuities, or by cutting a few days before the show, be enabled to include in their collection a Rose which is not only so beautiful in itself, but which educes by contrast the beauty of those around it.
    When in its full vigour the Marechal only requires the removal of thin and weakly shoots, but if the plant appears to be deteriorating close and low pruning must be tried. This Rose is somewhat capricious, and liable to sudden and mysterious decay, so that it is best to have a young plant coming on and to keep up a sure succession.
    As to Roses generally, I have a good hope that, though much injury has been done, "there's life in the old dog (Rose) yet," and I see strong signs already of its recuperative power. Should we have the phenomenon of that genial May, which "never is, but always to be," we may have a happy Rose-tide after all. As with other weakly invalids, they will require good support in their convalescence; and as I am not a member of the Blue Ribbon brigade, I propose to administer a gentle stimulant.
    Of novelties, I only know that Merveille do Lyon promises to be a marvel and a lion also—a white lion, "larger, fuller than the Baroness, 4 inches in diameter." What can mortals wish for more? The raiser says that it is undoubtedly the finest Rose ever sent out; and who knows its qualities so well as he? " Do yer think," said one rustic to another, who was somewhat incredulous at a fair, "that the gentleman 'ud say as the giant wor ten foot high if he worn't ten foot high —spooney?" S. R. H.

The Gardeners' Chronicle 5: 782-783 (June 22, 1889)
A. D.

"Rosa" seems to have grave doubts as to the merit of double working, as I advocated, for Maréchal Niel, which has long been practised in our great nurseries. Very interesting and valuable results have flowed from the working of some strong grower on to a stock first, and then working a weaker grower of the same kind on to that; indeed, it is doubtful whether we have made half so much of the practice as it deserves. No doubt it requires the keeping of stocks a year longer in the nurseries, as the first scion must have a full year's growth upon it ere that can be budded or grafted as the stock was before; but that objection by no means vitiates the practice, which is, without doubt, a good one. It may seem odd that the insertion of a germinator stem of some strong-growing variety should so materially influence both stock and graft or bud, but such is the case. In my own practice with Maréchal Niel, those which I have worked direct on to the briar, and on to the briar also through the intervention as primary stocks of Madame Berard and Lamartine, it should be understood that these strong growers had created the stock, practically long before they were budded with Maréchal Niel, and so far from these presenting a mere disc of wood in the stocks, they have stout branches of some 1, 2, or 3 feet in length, on to which the Maréchal is worked. Now, whilst in the case of the MaréchaI worked direct on to the briar, the stock has been but little swollen; the branch of the Maréchal, just above the junction, is treble the size, and very cracked or gouty. In the case of the double worked Maréchals, upon which the growth is always very robust, the original budded kinds swelled up the stocks thoroughly, and the whole growth, from stock to top, has grown simultaneously without cankering since the secondary budding of Maréchal Niel took place.

Popular Gardening August 1891
Stephen Hoyt's Sons, New Canaan, Conn.

You are right that the man who doesn't know a Persian Yellow from a Gen. Jacqueminot does not deserve to have them, and you may be pretty sure such don't have them. I am an advocate of budding, and some of the finest Roses I have are budded. Marechal Niel in particular is far superior when budded on a strong stock for out-door culture, than on its own roots. In fact I have never seen it in perfection on its own roots out-doors; and then it is very difficult to keep over winter. Mine is budded three foot from the ground, the tree easily bent down and the top covered in winter. It has been for a few weeks past and still is giving us some of the noblest flowers the world can produce. To give a list of some of my varieties, will mention the Marechal Niel, Etoile de Lyon, Perle des Jardlns, Gen. Jacqueminot, American Beauty, Gen. Washington, Paul Neyron (this is a superb one, measuring four and five-eighths inches in diameter), Madame Clinot, Baron de Bonstetten, La Reine, Caroline de Sansall, Triumph of Luxenburg, Agrippina. Sanguiniana. Pink Daily, Vick's Caprice, etc. But I must not omit Morgan, a new Rose that some day will have a name in the land, and of which I have perhaps the only plant in existence. One of the most famous horticulturists in the land said that if it were pure white instead of a pale pink, he would give a thousand dollars for it. I omitted Meteor and Dinsmore, two more of the new ones.

Gardening 5: 11 (September 15, 1896)
Thos. Manton, Toronto.

A few of our people grow Marechal Niel and Gloire de Dijon out of doors successfully; they are grown both as standards and bush plants, and when carefully laid down and buried in soil in the fall and not lifted in spring until all danger of frost is over they do very well and flower freely. We have planted out several varieties of tea roses and when they have been properly covered with soil in the fall we have always found them all right in the spring.

American Rose Annual 1943 p. 103
This Matter of Regional Adaptation
Maurice H. Merrill, Normal,[sic] OK

In my garden the Brownell and the Horvath productions, bred for resistance to winter cold in northern latitudes, so far, with the exception of Mabell Stearns, have displayed a susceptibility to severe, and often fatal, winter injury. In contrast, the hardiest, least winter-harmed bushes I have today are Old Blush, a China which is close to a Tea, and a nameless waif I acquired on our farm, where it had been brought by the tenant's wife who found it at a roadside filling station. Federation shows much more damage from this last winter than do three young Marechal Niel plants, not yet fully established. All this leads me to the none-too-profound suggestion that the qualities which make for hardiness in the long, severe northern winters, in which a rosebush can hibernate like a bear, may not facilitate survival in the open winters of the Upper South, particularly our western portion, punctuated with occasional periods of severe weather.

Canadian Horticulturist 18(7) (1895)

Gardeners Chronicle, ser. 3, 26: 261 (Sept 30, 1899)
F. V. Hadlow, Buxted, Sussex.

Referring to remarks on the above Rose, by "J. K., Wimborne," I have two trees that I budded many years ago on a Rosa Banksia stock; they are growing in a cold house, and have never shown any sign of canker. It appears that Rose Devoniensis, or any other stock will do that yields a good flow of sap. I do not know if fruit-trees obey the same law, but clearly the stock in every case should yield sap as fast as worked Rose or fruit requires it.

Gardeners Chronicle, ser. 3, 26: 283-284 (Oct 7, 1899)
D. T. Fish.

I was pleased to read the remarks on p. 250 by "J. K.;" and still more so, that we are promised more of them. With all its faults, Marechal Niel is still our best yellow Rose, and could we only prevent or cure the swelling or canker, and strengthen its flower-stalks, it would be as near perfection as possible. I have tried a great variety of stocks in order to cure the first two maladies—budding it on the climbing Devoniensis or climbing Niphetos on their own roots, with more or less success but have not tried treble budding, first on the Briar, second with Devoniensis, and finally with Maréchal Niel. How the Briar stock, budded with the normal Devoniensis, which is by no means very robust, should have fostered such strong growth as in this case, is rather mysterious. It must be to a remarkable experience to grow a shoot of the Devoniensis Rose 17 feet long, and strong enough to receive buds. Surely, "J. K." has got hold of the Climbing Devoniensis. By the way, Maréchal Niel Rose lived longer, and did well on the Devoniensis stock on its own roots, although it did not wholly escape its special malady. And this is the great boon your correspondent promises through double grafting! As to blooming a second time, when worked on W. A. Richardson, a second or more frequent blooming is more a matter of cultivation and of site than of double or multiple budding or grafting. For years I was seldom without Maréchal Niel Roses on their own roots, or on the Dog Rose stock and a great variety of other stocks, growing them on walls and in the open quarters and beds, and in all aspects, besides pruning the plants at different seasons. But I intended only to thank "J. K.," and to say how eagerly many of us will await his further revelations, and how gladly we will double or treble bud, graft, or inarch to rid our favourite Rose of the disease that shortens its life in so many gardens can be kept at bay. Perhaps "J. K." would state the age of his oldest double-worked Maréchal Niel in his next—as even the length of their life and their freedom from disease is a very variable matter when on their own roots. The alternating of other vigorous Roses such as Gloire de Dijon. Réve d'Or, and W. A. Richardson, with Maréchal Niel, may enable these stocks to be better nourished, and as a consequence, better fortified against the disease. At all events, it is a charming method of giving interest and variety to Roses, and Rose-growers who may not be able to afford space for monstrous plants of Maréchal Niels, either under glass or out-of-doors, carrying five-hundred or one-thousand blooms. By inoculating the sap of Maréchal Niel itself with that of canker-proof Roses, we may, it frequently seems as if we did, enable it the better, and the longer to resist the plague of canker.

American Gardening 14(9): 519 (1893)
Influence of Different Stocks on Marechal Niel Rose
JOHN DALLAS, Connecticut

1 Chromatella
2 Ophirie?

Some years ago, in experimenting with different stocks in an endeavor to find the most suitable whereon to bud Marechal Niel, I was surprised at the different results attained, showing conclusively that the stock influences the color of the flowers. The stocks used were roses, America, Cloth of Gold1, Lamarque and Ophier.2 The stocks were planted at wide intervals in a span-roofed house, in two rows six feet apart, running north and south. All were budded at the same height, and trained horizontally on a wire trellis, forming an arbor 162 feet long by 6 feet wide. All made rapid growth and filled their allotted space. America is a buff or apricot-colored rose, and in many respects a good, serviceable running rose. An old Connecticut rose grower made the assertion that this rose stood in the same relation to the family of roses that America does to the family of nations. Although I am unable to endorse his sentiment regarding the rose, I can fully recommend it as an excellent stock for Marechal Niel. The union was so complete that years after it was impossible to tell where it had been budded. The flowers of Marechal Niel were lighter in color on this stock than on Cloth of Gold, which, but for one fault, is much the best stock of those under consideration. This fault is the inability of the stock to keep pace in growth with the Marechal Niel, causing a protuberance at the point of union, and finally resulting in a cankerous disease. The flowers from this stock were a very deep yellow, remarkably so when placed beside those from the Lamarque stock. The Lamarque, besides producing very light-colored flowers, has the same fault as Cloth of Gold, and in a few years showed signs of canker where budded. Ophier is an old rose of a tan or copper color, short dumpy buds, but a fine cup shape when nearly open. We have in this rose the most convincing proof of the influence of the stock on the color of the flowers, and not only the color but also the form. The petals of the Marechal Niel were deeply tinted with copper color half their length, the base of the flower a deep yellow, and the form of the flower was almost identical with Ophier. All the stocks under consideration had the same soil, equal light advantages, but yet produced decidedly different shades of yellow, and each retained these characteristics until they were destroyed.

Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener 20: 469 (June 5, 1890)
Maréchal Niel Rose

THERE has been so much said and by so many respecting the cultivation of this ever lovely Rose that I scarcely know where or how to begin. A few remarks, however, may not be out of place in reference to a house here. In the early part of 1884 we did away with one of our vineries (30 feet by 18 feet), and in January, 1885, we planted five Maréchal Niels and one Fortune's Yellow; the former were budded on Briars, the buds being then in a dormant state. That season each bud produced 60 to 80 feet of wood, the result being we cut nearly 700 blooms from them. After they had finished flowering I cut them back to one eye. So well did this system act I have ever since adopted this plan, with such marked results that I shall ever continue it. We have this year cut over 2000 blooms. They are trained and tied to wire 14 inches from the glass; the annual shoots make from 20 to 25 feet, and 3 or 4 inches apart; the size of wood vary from 1 to 2 inches in circumference. One and all who grow this Rose are over afraid of the appearance of the canker that so often fatally destroys the best of plants. Most growers are aware also that it is the overflow of sap that is the cause of the ever regretful disease. Prevention is better than cure. Now, nine times out of ten this Rose is pruned when full of sap, and consequently the buds where pruned back to are unable to receive the amount of sap that is flowing; the result is the sap has nowhere to go; the earth cannot again receive it, therefore it must have vent somewhere. Subsequently we find the bark in various places splitting from it, and there is the canker brought about by our own hands. It is a fatal mistake to treat them thus in my opinion.

The Roses here never receive any water after we commence cutting, which lasts about a month. At the expiration of this period they are cut back to one eye as above stated. By this time the sap in a thorough declining stage, syringing is immediately commenced in order to prepare the eyes (cut back to) to receive the sap as it gently flows. In ten or twelve days watering is commenced, with clear tepid water, and not too much of it until the small shoots appear, when a most liberal supply must be given. This is often continued. If the plants break weakly we give liquid manure, or, what is better, a good sprinkling of native guano forked in the border. If fairly good growths are made, no more liquid or native guano is applied until just before the flower buds appear. A good supply is then given with excellent results, and a sure prevention of the canker. I am of opinion that if this method be strictly carried out there will be no necessity for cutting and scoring the trees described by some writers—at least that is my experience of our sixteen years' standing with this Rose. As to air-giving, we seldom give bottom air unless very hot, and in winter none at all only on bright days, then just for one or two hours' duration. Fumigating is occasionally done, after which we syringe with a half-pint of paraffin to four gallons of softsoap water, hence they are kept clean, and always have a healthy appearance. I send you a photograph. Although a bad one, it shows last year's growths. If any advantage, I will send one of the house when the Roses are cut down, which then undergoes a thorough cleansing.

Kindly return photograph. If any of the above remarks are of any use to you they can be utilised as you may think fit.—J. B. JONES, The Grange, Ellesmere, Salop.

[We have seen the Roses, which are much better than the photograph, and Mr. Jones is to be congratulated on his excellent work.]

The Gardeners’ Monthly and Horticulturist, p. 360 (December 1882)

I wish to say a few words on the cultivation of the Marechal Niel Rose "under glass," and thinking that to enter into all the minute details would take up too much space in your valuable paper, I will confine myself to a few of the most important parts.

To succeed with the Marechal Niel I prefer plants budded on the Banksia or Solfatarre, as they tend to check too rampant growth for the first two or three years, and induce more freedom to bloom by producing wood that ripens well. Also, the budded plant will grow and bloom for years, where, on the other hand, plants on their own roots make a strong watery growth, which it is almost impossible to ripen, (unless the wood of the Niel is thoroughly ripe we get but few flowers), and after a few years the plant begins to decay, and is gone before we have had a full crop of bloom from it. We must always bear in mind that the Niel wants age before it will flower freely.

Another thing we must consider—the Niel must either be grown in a house devoted to its requirements, or in pots or tubs.

I prefer the latter mode. Take good thrifty plants about March 1st. Pot them into six inch pots, give moderate heat and moisture, say 55° by night, 70° by day, shift into larger pots as they require it; in this way keep them growing until the first or middle of September. Then place outside, first plunging the pots into the ground up to the rim; tie the top up to a trellis or let it rest on some old brushwood, or some kind of support, so that the air will have a free circulation all around the shoots. Never allow the plants to get dry so as to wilt. But be careful not to water so as to induce growth.

The plants may remain in this position until after the first sharp frost, or until about the 20th or last of October. Then take up the plants, loosen the soil on the top of the pots with a hand fork or pointed stick, to the depth of two or three inches, remove the soil and replace with a top dressing, one half loam and one‑half rotten manure. Prune away all useless wood, place in a greenhouse, which keep at a temperature of 45° to 50° by night, 65° to 70° by day, for about a fortnight, then gradually raise the temperature to 55° by night, 75° to 85° by day, the latter temperature with bright sun. I do not like a night temperature of more than 55°, as I find it spoils the color and size of the buds.

The Garden pp. 100-101 (Feb. 17, 1906)
S. C.

Of its colour, without a rival, this Rose possesses traits quite its own, and must be treated in matters cultural not as a true Tea-scented kind, nor as a Noisette. In all respects it stands alone. To obtain it in its glory it should be grown under glass. Still I can call to mind the first perfect flowers I saw, which were on a tree growing against a cottage in Sussex. Now, to those who contemplate making a start with Maréchal Niel, the first consideration will be what kind of tree is the best to procure. I recommend one budded as a standard on the common Brier, those worked as dwarf plants being found more liable to canker, and those on their own roots less vigorous in growth. All Roses delight in a soil that is known as yellow loam. Mix with this some charcoal and make a border, not large (say a yard square for one tree), but well drained. Plant the tree at once and cut back all growths to about 3 inches, for blooms must not be expected the first year. This Rose is not perpetual flowering, as the greater portion of Teas and Noisettes are. It gives one crop and an occasional bloom during the season. What is required are long, strong shoots, made one year, to flower at every joint the next, and close pruning must be practised to secure these. It matters not how old the tree may be; after the flowers have been gathered, which would be (under glass) about May, all growths should be cut back.

I have watched the progress of many fine specimens of the Maréchal Niel in various parts of the country, and, without exception, those showing health and vigour have been thus annually pruned; therefore cut back close in the first place, and one item towards success is secured. Others hardly less important, such as air-giving and watering, must also be mastered.

One of the pests to Roses is mildew. Cold draughts and changes in temperature assist its spreading. Ventilate, then, from the top of the house only. When the Rose is in a house of mixed subjects this is, of course, a difficulty, but then even the front ventilators near the tree need not be opened. I have a greenhouse in which Roses are chiefly grown, and seldom when growing do I allow any air to pass through the front lights. The foliage, path, and walls are kept in a semi-saturated condition till autumn; then, and, of course, while in bloom, the ventilators are thrown open to ripen the wood. At the resting period in winter and after pruning, the trees should be kept dry at the root, but when growing freely it is hardly possible to overwater the Maréchal Niel, nor should something in the way of stimulants be forgotten when the bloom-buds are swelling. The deep colour cannot be obtained, at least under glass, from any but strong healthy shoots, which should be allowed ample room between trellis and glass—the same conditions as are applicable to the production of finely-coloured Grapes, Peaches, and so on.

Those who require this Rose for exhibition in July must, however, have it outside, and there is no reason why, in the great majority of the counties of Britain, it should not succeed. I have recollections of many fine trees in the South, and oftentimes envy the excellent positions the warm sides of outhouses of farms afford when visiting country places. A high wall for its long shoots is requisite, and close pruning back after blooming may be practised. As a standard, too, where the growth may be loosely trained by driving stakes into the ground to tie to, is another form. It has been budded on established trees of the Gloire de Dijon with marked success. That worst of all ills this fine Rose is heir to—canker—seldom visits the outdoor plants, but under glass it is always with us. It strikes a standard tree less often than the dwarf budded. The moment it appears my plan has been to root out the tree and begin afresh. S. C.