The whole art of husbandry (1708) 474-479
By John Mortimer


Rose-Tree is of divers kinds, and one of the chiefest Ornaments of our English Garden, but it's more particularly distinguished into four kinds. First, The Red, whereof there are several sorts, as the English Red Rose, only observe that the Flowers of some are of a far deeper Red than others. The Rose of the World, which differs not from the former but in the colour of its Leaves, which are of a pale Blush colour, directly spotted thro' every Leaf of the double Flower of the same red colour which is in the Rose, and is the most beautiful of any. The Hungarian Rose whose shoots are green, and Flowers of a paler red Colour, as are those of the Red Provence Rose, whose Branches and Leaves are bigger and greener than those of the common Red Rose; the Red Belgick Rose that is much taller than the common dwarf Red or Gilliflower Rose, which grows lower than the ordinary Rose, whose Flowers are of a pleasant Carnation colour. The Double Velvet Rose that hath young shoots of a sad reddish green Colour, with few or no Thorns thereon, it seldom bears any store of Roses. The Marbled Rose, much like the last in growths but its Leaves are larger, of a light red Colour marbled and vein'd. The Rose without Thorns, that has green and smoother Shoots and Leaves than the Marble one, without any Thorns at all, and the Flowers of a pale red, spreading their Leaves. The Frankford Rose, that hath strong reddish Shoots full of Thorns, thick Flowers, and the Button under the Rose bigger than ordinary. Secondly, The Damask or pale coloured Rose, whereof the common Damask Rose is the ancient Inhabitant of England, and well known without describing. The Parti coloured Damask Rose, York and Lancaster, only differing from the other in its parted and marked Flowers. The Crystal Rose, like the last, only the Marks of the Flowers are much fairer and better than those of the other. The Elegant variegated Danish Rose has shorter and reddish shoots than the former, Leaves smaller, and Flowers something double. The Damask Provence Rose, whose Shoots and Leaves are longer than any of the rest, and of a reddish green with very large Roses. The Monthly Rose bearing Flowers only three Months in England, viz. June, August and September. The Blush Belgick Rose that hath larger Branches, and is fuller of Thorns than any of the former, the Flowers growing very thick, sweet-scented, and the Water distilled therefrom is almost as good as that of the Damask. Thirdly, The Yellow Rose, whereof the single Yellow Rose grows as high as the Damask, and whose young Shoots are full of small hairy Prickles of dark red Leaves, small, and Flowers single, and pale yellow. The Scarlet Rose of Austria, like unto the other, only the inside of the Leaves of the Flowers is a fine Scarlet, and the outside of a pale Brimstone Colour. The Double yellow Rose, whose Shoots are small, and not so red as those of the single kind, the Flowers, contain very many small pale yellow Leaves with a great Thrum in the Middle. Fourthly, The White Rose, whereof the common one is well known; bat there are two sorts thereof, the one being much doubler and fairer than the other. The Blush Rose that differs in nothing from the other, but in the Colour of the Flowers, that at first opening are of a fine pleasant Blush Colour, and then grow somewhat white. The Double Musk Rose that rises high with many green Branches, and dark green shining Leaves armed with great sharp Thorns, the Flowers come forth together in a Tuft not very double; but there is another of the kind that beareth single Roses, the scent of both Flowers is sweet like Musk. The Damask Rose or the white Cinnamon Rose grows not so high as the last, but the Leaves are larger and of a whiter green, and the Flowers bigger, whiter and more double, but not quite so sweet. The Double Dog Rose, that is in Leaves and Branches like the lesser White Rose. The Ever-green Rose, that grows like wild Eglantine, whose Leaves fall not away in Winter, as those of other Roses, from whence it took its Name; and Flowers containing but five Leaves of a pure white Colour, stand four or five together at the end of the Branches. The Spanish Musk Rose, that hath great green Branches and bigger green Leaves than the last, and single Flowers. The great Apple Rose, that hath a great Stock and reddish Branches with green sharp Thorns and single small Flowers standing on prickly Buttons. The Double Eglantine, whose Flowers are double made up of two or three rows of Leaves of a prety red Colour.

But of all these varieties of Roses, the best and most estemed amongst the Red, are those called the Rose of the World, the Red Belgick, the Red Marble, the Rose without Thorns, and the Red Provence Rose. Among the Damask are the Crystal Rose, the Elegant variegated Danish Rose, the Blush Belgick, the Monthly and the Damask Provence Rose. The Scarlet Austrian, and Double Yellow among the Yellow Roses; and of the White Roses, the Blush and Damask Musk Rose.

Now Roses are increased either by inoculating the Bud of them in other Shoots, or by laying down the Branches in the Earth; the best Stocks to inoculate upon, which must be done about Midsummer, are the Damask, the White, the Frankfort, and wild Eglantine; care must be had that all Stocks of budded Roses be kept from Suckers, and the Buds to be inoculated as near the Ground as may be, that the budded Launce may be laid in the Earth to Root after one Years growth. You may likewise prick many holes with an Awl about a Joint that will lie in the Earth, and then cover the same with good Mould; this do in the Spring, and peg it down that it rise not again, and if watered now and then in dry Seasons, it will be so rooted by Autumn, as to be removed and cue from its other part behind the Root, and becomes a natural Tree; one whereof is more valuable, than two of the other that are only budded or ingrafted, because very many Suckers that come from them will be of the same kind. But all Roses being apt to yield Suckers, the fairest way to encrease them is gently to bend down part of the Tree, or the whole in the Spring, to lay all the Branches in the Ground, and to apply unto them old and well rotted Dung about the places where they are laid, which will make them root the sooner, and by Autumn there will be thereby as many rooted Trees of the same kind as Branches laid in the Earth, without prejudice to the old one, which when the new ones are cut off, may be easily reduced to its place again, and the next Year bear as plentifully as ever: neither will it prevent the bearing of Flowers, for the laid Branches will be as plentifully stored, as if the Tree were erect, and not laid; so that neither the profit nor pleasure of that Year is lost thereby.

The Double yellow Roses bear not so well when planted in the Sun as other Roses, but must be placed in the shade; and for its better bearing, and having of the fairest Flowers, first, in the Stock of a Frankford Rose, put in the Bud of a Single Yellow Rose near the Ground, that will quickly shoot a good length, put into it a Bud of Double yellow Rose of the best kind at about a Foot higher in that Sprout; keep Suckers from the Root, as in all other inoculated Roses, and rub off all Buds but of the desired kind. When big enough to bear, prune it very near the preceding Winter, cutting off all the small Shoots, only leaving the bigger, whose tops are also to be cut off as far as they are small. When it Buds for Leaves in the Spring, rub off the smallest of them; and when for Flowers, if too many, let the smallest be wiped off, leaving as many of the fairest as you think the strength of the Tree may bring to perfection, which should be a Standard, and rather shaded than planted in too much heat of the Sun, and watered sometimes in-dry weather, whereby fair and beautiful Flowers may be expected.

Shearing off the Buds when they are put forth, for the retarding of the blowing of Roses, is practicable enough; and a second shearing of them may cause them to be still later, and so Roses may be had when no other Flowers are in being; but then care must be taken that the whole Tree be served so: for if one part of it be only sheared, the part unsheared will spend that Strength and Sap which you expected would have put forth new Buds in the places of those cut off, and frustrate your design.

As soon as the Roses have done blowing, they must be cut with Shears pretty close to the Wood, and each Branch ought to be cut again with the pruning Knife near the Spring, and that close to the Leaf; Bud, and all that is superfluous take away to bring theTree into a handsome form; they are hardy and endure the severest Winters well enough; and they may be dispersed up and down the Garden in Bushes, or to the Walls among the Fruit; or else set in Rows and Hedges, intermixing the several Colours in such a manner as to have no two alike. The well placing of them much advances their Prospect to the Eye. None of the Rose Trees mould be left to grow too high; lower than a Yard and half in height is best; except the Musk Roses which will not bear well, except against a Wall, Pale or House-side, and must be suffered to grow eight or nine Foot, which is their usual height.

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