The Gardeners Dictionary (1768) vol. 3.
Philip Miller

ROSES
The Species are,

1. Rosa (Canina) germinibus ovatis pedunculisque glabris, caule petiolisque aculeatis. Lin. Sp. Plant. 704. Wild Rose with an oval fruit, having a smooth foot-stalk and prickly branches. Rosa sylvestris vulgaris, flore odorato incarnato. C.B.P. 483. Common wild Rose, with a flesh-coloured sweet flower, commonly called Briar, Dog Rose, or Hep-tree.
2. Rosa (Spinosissima) germinibus ovatis glabris, pedunculis caule petiolisque aculeatissimis. Lin. Sp. Plant. 705. Wild Rose with oval smooth fruit, but the stalks and foot stalks extremely armed with spines. Rosa campestris spinosissima, flore albo odorato. C. P. 483. Wild prickly Rose wiih a white sweet flower, commonly called the Burnet-leaved Rose.
3. Rosa (Villosa) germinibus globosis aculeatis, pedunculis hispidis, caule aculeis sparsis, petiolis aculeatis, foliis tomentosis. Lin. Sp. 704. Rose with a globular prickly fruit and foot-stalk, and woolly leaves whose foot-stalks are prickly . Rosa sylvestris pomifera major. C.B.P.484. The greater, wild, Apple-bearing Rose.
4. Rosa (Eglanteria) germinibus globosis pedunculisque glabris, caule aculeis sparsis rectis, petiolis scabris, foliolis acutis. Lin. Sp. 703. Rose with a globular fruit, a smooth foot-stalk, the stalk armed with erect spines, the leaves pointed, having rough foot-stalks. Rosa sylvestris, foliis odoratis. C.B.P. 483. Wild Rose with sweet-scented leaves, commonly called Sweet Briar.
5. Rosa (Scotica) caule petiolisque aculeatis, foliis pinnatis, foliolis apice incisis, fructu globoid. Rose with the stalk and foot-stalk armed with spines, winged leaves whose lobes are cut at their points, and a globular fruit . Rosa pimpinella minor Scotica, flore livide rubente. Edit, prior. Small, Scotch, Burnet-leaved Rose, with a livid red flower.
6. Rosa (Inermis) caule inermi, pedunculis hispidis, calycis foliolis indivisis, fructibus oblongis. Rose with a smooth stalk, a prickly foot-stalk to the flower, the small leaves of the empalement undivided, and oblong fruit. Rosa campestris, spinis carens, biflora. C.B.P. 484. Unarmed Rose having two flowers.
7. Rosa (Hispanica) foliis utrinque villosis, calycis foliolis acute serratis, fructu glabro. Rose with leaves which are hairy on both sides, the small leaves of the empalement sharply sawed, and a smooth fruit.
8. Rosa (Scandens) caule aculeato, foliis perennantibus lucidis, flore odorato. Climbing Rose with a prickly stalk, shining evergreen leaves, and a sweet flower. Rosa sylvestris dumetorum scandens sempervirens, myrti folio lucido, flore albo odorato, fructu parvo rotundo & hispido. Mich. Cat. Pl. Ag. Flor. Wild, woody, climbing Rose, with a shining evergreen Myrtle leaf, a white sweet-scented flower, and a small, round, prickly fruit.
9. Rosa (Sempervirens) germinibus ovatis pedunculisque hispidis, caule petiolisque aculeatis. Lin. Sp. Plant. 704. Evergreen Rose with an oval germina, whose foot-stalks are prickly. Rosa moschata sempervirens. C.B.P. 482. Evergreen Musk Rose.
10. Rosa (Virginiana) inermis, foliis pinnatis, foliolis ovatis serratis utrinque glabris, calycis foliolis indivisis. Rose without thorns, having winged leaves which are smooth on both sides, and the leaves of the empalement undivided. Rosa sylvestris Virginiana pimpinellae majoris foliis. Raii Hist. Wild Virginia Rose with greater Burnet leaves.
11. Rosa (Lutea) caule aculeato, foliis pinnatis, foliolis ovatis serratis utrinque glabris, pedunculis brevissimis. Rose with a prickly stalk, winged leaves having oval sawed lobes which are smooth on both sides, and short foot-stalks to the flower. Rosa lutea simplex. C.B.P. 483. The single Yellow Rose.
12. Rosa (Punicea) caule aculeato, foliis pinnatis, foliolis rotundioribus serratis, petalis emarginatis bicoloribus. Rose with a prickly stalk, winged leaves having rounder sawed lobes, the petals of the flower indented at the top, and of two colours. Rosa punicea. Corn. Can. 11. The Austrian Rose.
13. Rosa (Moschata) caule aculeato scandente, foliis senis glabris, floribus umbellatis. Rose with a prickly climbing stalk, leaves having seven smooth lobes, and flowers growing in umbels. Rosa moschata major. J. B. 2. p. 45. Greater Musk Rose.
14. Rosa (Centifolia) germinibus ovatis pedunculisque hispidis, caule hispido aculeato, petiolis inermibus, Lin. Sp. 704. Rose with an oval germen, stinging foot-stalks, and the foot-stalks of the leaves smooth. Rosa centifolia Batavica. Clus. Hist. 1. p. 114 . The Dutch hundred-leaved Rose.
15. Rosa (Damascena) caule aculeato, pedunculis hispidis, calycibus pinnatifidis hirsutis. Rose with a prickly stalk, bristly footstalks to the flowers, and wing-pointed hairy empalements. Rosa Damascena. Lob. Icon. 206. Damask Rose.
16. Rosa (Alba) germinibus ovatis glabris, pedunculis hispidis, caule petiolisque aculeatis. Lin. Sp. 705. Rose with a smooth oval germen, whose foot-stalks are stinging and the branches prickly. Rosa alba vulgaris major. C.B.P. 48 2. Common great White Rose.
17. Rosa (Belgica) caule aculeate, foliis subtus hirsutis, calycibus semipinnatis villosis. Rose with a prickly stalk, leaves which are hairy on their under side, and half-winged hairy empalements to the flowers. Rosa Belgica sive vitrea flore rubicante. Rea. Flor. The Blush Belgick Rose.
18. Rosa (Provincialis) caule petiolisque aculeatis, foliis subtus viliosis, calycibus semipinnatis hispidis. Rose with prickly stalks and foot-stalks, leaves hairy on their under side, and bristly half-winged empalements. Rosa Provincialis major, flore pleno ruberrimo. Boerh. Ind. alt. 2. 252. Larger Provence Rose, with a very red double flower, commonly called Provence Rose.
19. Rosa (Incarnata) caule inermi pedunculis aculeatis, calycibus semipinnatis. Rose with an unarmed stalk, prickly foot-stalks, and half-winged empalements to the flowers. Rosa incarnata. Park. Par. The Blush Rose.
20. Rosa (Gallica) caule subinermi, foliis quinis subtus villosis, calycis foliolis indivisis. Rose with a stalk almost unarmed, leaves having five lobes, hairy on their under side, and the leaves of the empalement undivided. Rosa rubra. Ger. The Red Rose.
21. Rosa (Cinnamomea) germinibus globosis pedunculisque glabris, caule aculeis stipularibus, petiolis subinermibus. Lin, Sp. 703. Rose with a smooth globular fruit, prickly branches, and smooth foot-stalks to the leaves. Rosa odore cinnamomi, flore pleno. C.B.P. 483. The double Cinnamon Rose.
22. Rosa (Muscosa) caule petiolisque aculeatis, pedunculis calycibusque pilosissimis. Rose with armed stalks, the foot-stalks of the leaves and the empalements of the flower very hairy. Rosa rubra plena, spinosissima, pedunculo muscoso. Boerh. Ind. alt. 2. p. 252. The most thorny, double. Red Rose, with a mossy foot-stalk, commonly called Moss Provence Rose.

There are a great variety of double Roses now cultivated in the English gardens; most of them have been accidentally obtained from seeds, so that they must not be esteemed as distinct species, therefore I shall only insert their common names, by which they are known in the gardens, that those who are inclined to collect all the varieties, may be at no loss for their titles. The sorts before enumerated, I believe, are distinct species, as their specific characters are different, though it is difficult to determine which of them are really so; therefore I do not positively assert they are distinct species, though I have great reason to believe they are so.

The varieties of Garden Roses which are not before mentioned:

The Monthly Rose, these are all supposed to be varieties of the Damask Rose.
The striped Monthly Rose,
The York and Lancaster Rose,
Mrs. Hart's Rose,

The red Belgick Rose is supposed a variety of the Blush Belgick.

The single Velvet Rose, These three are all varieties; the last I raised from the seeds of the pale Provence Rose.
The double Velvet Rose,
The Royal Velvet,

The Childing Rose, These three have great affinity with each other.
The Marbled Rose,
The double Virgin Rose,

The Cabbage Provence is only a variety of the Common Provence.

The Blush or Pale Provence is a variety of the Red Provence.

The white Monthly are varieties of the Damask Rose.
The white Damask

The Frankfort Rose may be a distinct species, but is of little value; the flowers rarely open fair, and, have no odour.

The double Sweet Briar are varieties of the common sort.
The evergreen Sweet Briar
The double blush Sweet Briar,

The Austrian Rose with red and yellow flowers is only an accidental variety.

The double Yellow Rose is a variety of the single yellow.

The Rosa Mundi is a variety of the Red Rose.

The small, white, and semidouble white, are varieties of the common white.

The first here enumerated is very common in hedges in most parts of England, so is not cultivated in gardens. The Heps of this are used in medicine for making a conserve. The Bedeguar, which is a hairy spongy excrescence occasioned by the bite of small. ichneumon flies, grows upon the stalks and branches of this plant, and sometimes upon other sorts of Roses. There are two or three varieties of this Rose commonly met with in hedges, one with a white, another with a red flower, and one with smooth leaves; the two first are evidently varieties, but I doubt if the last is not a distinct species.

The second sort grows naturally in many parts, of England; this seldom rises above three feet high. The stalks are slender, and closely armed with small spines; the leaves are small, and are composed of three pair of roundish lobes terminated by an odd one; the flowers are white, and have an agreeable musky scent. This propagates fast by its creeping roots.

The third sort grows naturally in the northern counties in England; this rises with strong stalks to the height of seven or eight feet. The young branches are covered with a smooth brown bark; the spines are but few, and are very strong; the leaves are large, and hairy on both sides; they are composed of three pair of oblong oval lobes terminated by an odd one; these are deeply flawed on their edges; the flowers are large, single, and of a red colour; they appear the beginning of June, and are succeeded by large roundish Heps or fruit, which are set with soft prickles; they have a pleasant acid pulp surrounding the seeds, therefore are by some persons preserved, and made into a sweetmeat, which is served up in deserts to the table.

The fourth sort is the common Sweet Briar, which is so well known as to need no description; this is found growing naturally in some parts of Kent.

The fifth sort is the Dwarf Burnet-leaved Scotch Rose, of which there are two varieties, one with a variegated flower, and the flowers of the other are of a livid red colour; the latter is the same with the Rosa Alpina, pumila, montis Rosarum, pimpinellte foliis minoribus ac rotundioribus flore minimo livide rubente. Hort. Cath. for I have dried specimens of this which were sent me from Italy, and by comparing them with the Scotch Rose, I find they are the same. This sort seldom rises more than a foot high. The stalks are covered with a brown bark, and are closely armed with small spines; the leaves are very small, and have a resemblance to those of Burnet; the flowers are small, and sit close to the branches; the fruit is round, and of a deep purple colour, inclining to black when ripe.

The sixth sort rises to the height of six or seven feet. The stalks and branches have no spines, but are covered with a smooth red dish bark; the leaves are composed of three pair of thin oval lobes, terminated by an odd one; they are very smooth, of a bright green, and very slightly sawed on their edges, Handing pretty far asunder upon the midrib; the foot-stalks of the flowers are armed with bristly hairs; the five leaves of the empalement are long, slender in the middle, but terminate in an oval leafy point; the flowers are single, of a bright red Colour, and appear the beginning of May-; these are succeeded by long spear-shaped Heps, which are smooth. The plants produce a second crop of flowers about the end of August, but these fall off, and are not succeeded by Heps.

The seeds of the seventh sort were sent me by Robert More, Esq; from Spain, where he found the plants growing naturally; this rises with strong upright stalks about four feet high, armed with strong thorns. The leaves are hairy on both sides; the lobes are roundish, and sawed on their edges; the small leaves of the empalement are acutely sawed; the flowers are single, of a bright red. colour, and appear early in May; these are succeeded by large, smooth, roundish Heps, which ripen the end of August.

The eighth sort was discovered by Signior Micheli, growing naturally in the woods near Florence, who sent it to Dr. Boerhaave of Leyden, in whole curious garden I saw it growing in the year 1727: this hath slender stalks which trail upon the ground, unless they are supported, and, if trained up to a pole or the stem of a tree, will rise twelve or fourteen feet high; they are armed with crooked reddish spines, and garnished with small leaves, composed of three pair of oval acute-pointed lobes, terminated by an odd one; they are of a lucid green, and are sawed on their edges; they continue green all the year; the flowers are small, single, white, and have a musky odour; these in their natural place of growth continue in succession great part of the year, but their time of flowering in England is in June.

The ninth sort grows naturally in Spain; the seeds of this were sent me by Robert More, Esq; who found the plants growing there naturally. This rises with crept stalks four or five feet high, which are covered with a green bark, and armed with strong crooked white spines. The leaves are composed of five oval lobes ending in acute points; they are smooth, of a lucid green, and are slightly sawed on their edges; these continue all the year, and make a goodly appearance in winter. The flowers grow in large bunches or umbels at the end of the branches; they are single, white, and have a strong musky odour; they appear in August, and if the autumn proves favourable, will continue in succession till October.

The tenth sort grows naturally in Virginia and other parts of North America; this rises with several smooth stalks to the height of five or fix feet. The young branches are covered with a smooth purple bark; the leaves are composed of four or five pair of spear-shaped lobes, terminated by an odd one; they are smooth on both sides, of a lucid green on their upper side, but pale on their under, and are deeply sawed on their edges; the flowers are single, of a livid red colour, and appear in July; the empalement is divided into five long narrow segments which are entire. This is kept in gardens for the sake of variety, but the flowers have little scent.

The eleventh sort is the single Yellow Rose; this hath weak stalks which send out many slender branches, closely armed with short, crooked, brown spines. The leaves are composed of two or three pair of oval thin lobes, terminated by an odd one; they are smooth, of a light green, and are sharply sawed on their edges; the flowers grow upon short foot-stalks; they are single, and of a bright yellow colour, but have no scent.

The twelfth sort is commonly called the Austrian Rose. The stalks, branches, and leaves are like those of the last, but the leaves are rounder; the flowers are larger; the petals have deep indentures at their points; they are of a bright yellow within, and of a purplish copper colour on the outside; they are single, have no scent, and soon fall away. There is frequently a variety of this with yellow flowers upon one branch, and copper colour upon another. This sort of Rose loves an open free air and a northern aspect.

The thirteenth sort is the Musk Rose; this rises with weak stalks to the height of ten or twelve feet, covered with a smooth greenish bark, and armed with short strong spines. The leaves are smooth, and composed of three pair of oval spear-shaped lobes, terminating in points ending with an odd one; they are of a light green colour, and sawed on their edges; the flowers are produced in large bunches, in form of umbels, at the end of the branches; these appear in August, and continue in succession till the frost stops them; they are white, and have a fine murky odour. There is one with single, and another with double flowers of this sort. The stalks of these plants are too weak to support themselves, so the plants should be placed where they may have support.

The fourteenth sort is the Dutch hundred-leaved Rose; this rises with prickly stalks about three feet high. The leaves have sometimes three, and at others five lobes; the lobes are large, oval, smooth, and of a dark green with purple edges; the foot-stalk of the flower is set with brown bristly hairs; the empalement of the flower is smooth, and half winged; the flowers are very double, and of a deep red colour, but have little scent.

The fifteenth is the Damask Rose; this rises with prickly stalks eight or ten feet high, covered with a greenish bark, and armed with short spines. The leaves are composed of two pair of oval lobes, terminated by an odd one; they are of a dark green on their tipper side, but pale on their under; the borders frequently turn brown, and are slightly sawed; the foot-stalks of the flowers are set with prickly hairs; the empalement of the flower is. wing-pointed and hairy: the flowers are of a soft pale red, and not very double, but have an agreeable odour; the Heps are long and smooth.

The sixteenth is the common large White Rose, so well known as to need no description. Of this there are two varieties, one with a half double flower, having but two or three rows of petals, and the other has a smaller flower, and the shrub is of lower growth.

The seventeenth sort is called the Blush Belgick Rose; this rises about three feet high, with- prickly stalks. The leaves are composed either of five or seven lobes, which are oval, hairy on their under side, and slightly sawed on their edges; the foot-stalks of the flowers and the empalements are hairy, and without spines; the empalements are large and half-winged; the flowers are very double, of a pale flesh colour, and have but little scent. It generally produces great quantities of flowers. The red Belgick Rose differs from this only in the colour of the flower, which is of a deep red.

The eighteenth sort is the common Provence Rose, which is well known in the English gardens, being cultivated in great plenty in the nurseries, and is one of the molt beautiful sorts yet known. The flowers of this sort are sometimes very large, and the petals are closely folded over each other like Cabbages, from whence it is called the Cabbage Rose. The flowers of this sort of Rose have the most fragrant odour of all the sorts, therefore is better worth propagating.

The nineteenth sort is the Blush Rose. The stalks of this rise from three to four feet high, and are not armed with spines; the leaves are hairy on their under side; the foot-stalks of the flowers are armed with some small spines; the empalement of the flower is half-winged; the flowers have five or fix rows of petals which are large, and spread open; they are of a pale blush colour, and have a musky scent.

The twentieth sort is the common Red Rose, which is used in medicine. The stalks of this sort grow erect, and have scarce any spines; they rise from three to four feet high; the leaves are composed of three or five large oval lobes, which are hairy on their under side; the small leaves of the empalement are undivided; the flowers are large, but not very double, spread open wide, and decay soon; they are of a deep red colour, and have an agreeable scent. The Rosa Mundi is a variety of this with striped flowers.

The twenty-first sort is the double Cinnamon Rose; this is one of the smallest flowers, and the earliest of all the kinds. The stalks rise about four feet high, are covered with a purplish smooth bark, and have no spines, but at the joints immediately under the leaves, where they are placed by pairs; they are short and crooked. The leaves are composed of three pair of oval lobes terminated by an odd one; they are hairy on their under side, and are sawed on their edges; the leaves of the empalement of the flower are narrow and entire; the flower is small, double, and has a scent like Cinnamon, from whence it had the title of Cinnamon Rose.

The twenty-second sort is called the Moss Provence Rose, from the resemblance which the flowers of this have to those of the common Provence Rose, yet it is undoubtedly a distinct species; for although the stalks ;and shoots of this are very like those of the common, yet the plants are difficult to propagate, which the common sort is not. This very rarely sends up suckers from the root, and when the branches are layed down, they are long before they put out roots, so that this sort has been frequently propagated by budding it upon stocks of other sorts of Roses, but the plants so raised are not so durable as those which are propagated by layers.

The stalks and branches of this sort are closely armed with brown spines; the foot-stalks of the flowers and the empalements are covered with long hair like Moss; the flowers are of an elegant crimson colour, and have a most agreeable odour.

Most of the sorts of Roses are of foreign growth, and have been at various times introduced into the English gardens, but they are generally natives of northern countries, or grow upon the cold mountains in the warmer parts of Europe, so they are very hardy in respect to cold, but love an open free air, especially the Yellow Rose, the Austrian Rose, and the Monthly Rose. The two former will not flower in a warm soil and situation, nor near the smoke of London, and the Monthly Rose will flower much better in a free open air, than within the reach of the smoke of London.

The usual time of these shrubs producing their flowers is from the middle, or latter end of May, till the middle of July. But in order to continue these beauties longer than they are naturally disposed to lad, it is proper to plant some of the Monthly Roses near a warm wall, which will occasion their budding at lead three weeks or a month before those in the open air; and, if you give them the help of a glass before them, it will bring their flowers much forwarder, especially where dung is placed to the back side of the wall (as is practised in railing early fruits;) by this method I have seen fair Roses of this kind blown in February, and they may be brought much sooner against hot walls or in stoves, where people are curious this way.

You may also cut off the tops of such shoots which have been produced the same spring early in May, from some of these sorts of Roses which are planted in the open air, and upon a strong soil; this will cause them to make new shoots, which will flower late in autumn, as will also the late removing the plants in spring, provided they do not differ by drought, as I have several times experienced; but particularly in the year 1718, when I had occasion to remove a large parcel of these plants in May, just as they were beginning to flower; in doing of which I cut off all the flower-buds, and, after having opened a trench where they were to be planted, I poured a large quantity of water, so as to render the ground like a pap; then I took up the plants, and placed them therein as soon as possible, that their roots might not dry; and, after planting them, I watered the ground well again, and covered the surface over with mulch to prevent the drying; after this I repeated watering the plants all over two or three times a week, in the evening, until they had taken root. In three weeks or a month after, the plants shot out again, and produced a great Quantity of flowers in August and September, which were as fair as those produced in June. The Monthly Rose is the best sort for this purpose, there being no other sort which will flower both early and late so well as this.

The next sort of Rose which flowers in the open air, is the Cinnamon, which is immediately followed by the Damask Rose, then the Blush, York and Lancaster come; after which, the Provence, Dutch, Hundred-leaved, 'White, and most other sorts or Roses follow; and the latest sorts are the Virginia and Musk Roses, which, if planted in a shady situation, seldom flower until September; and, if the autumn proves mild, will continue often till the middle of October.

The plants of the two sorts of Musk Roses, should be placed against a wall, pale, or other building, that their branches may be supported, otherwise they are so slender and weak as to trail upon the ground. These plants should not be pruned until spring, because their branches are somewhat tender; so that when they are cut in winter, they often die after the knife; these produce their flowers at the extremity of the same year's shoots in large bunches, so that their branches must not be shortened in the summer, lest thereby the flowers should be cut off. The shrubs will grow to be ten or twelve feet high, and mud not be checked in their growth, if you intend they should flower well, so that they should be placed where they may be allowed room.

The lowest shrub of all the sorts here mentioned is the Scotch Rose, which rarely grows above a foot high, so that this must be placed among other shrubs of the same growth, which should have a mold soil and a shady siltuation. The Red Rose, and the Rosa Mundi, commonly grow from three to four feet high, but seldom exceed that; but the Damask, Provence, and Frankfort Roses grow to the height of seven or eight feet; so that in planting them, great care should be taken to place their several kinds, according to their various growth, amongst other shrubs, that they may appear beautiful to the eye.

The Yellow Rose, as also the Austrian Rose, are both natives of America; these were originally brought from Canada by the French; the other varieties, which are now in the gardens, of these sorts, have been accidentally obtained, and are preserved by budding them on the other sorts. The shrubs of these Roses seldom shoot so strong as most of the other sorts, especially in the light land near London, where they seldom produce their flowers. these are esteemed for their colour, being very different from all the other sorts of Roses; but as their flowers have no scent, and are of short duration, they do not merit the price they are generally sold at.

The Frankfort Rose is of little value, except for a dock to bud the more tender sorts of Roses upon, for the flowers seldom open fair, and have no scent; but it being a vigorous shooter, renders it proper for docks to bud the yellow and Austrian Roses, which will render them stronger than upon their own docks; but the Yellow Roses seldom blow fair within eight or ten miles of London, though in the northern parts of Great-Britain they flower extremely well. This sort mud have a northern exposure, for if it is planted too warm, it will not flower.

The Damask and Monthly Rose seldom flower well in small confined gardens, nor in the smoke of London, therefore are not proper to plant in such places, tho' they frequently grow very vigorously there. These always begin to shoot the first of any of the sorts in the spring, therefore frequently suffer from frosts in April, which often destroys all their flowers.

All the sorts of Roses may be propagated either from suckers, layers, or by budding them upon docks of other sorts of Roses; which latter method is only practised for some peculiar sorts, which do not grow very vigorous upon their own docks, and send forth suckers very sparingly, or where a person is willing to have more sorts than one upon the same plant; but where this is designed, it must be observed to bud only such sorts upon the same stock as are nearly equal in their manner of growth; for if there be a bud of a vigorous growing sort, and others of weak growth budded in the same stock, the strong one will draw all the nourishment from the weaker, and entirely starve them.

If these plants are propagated by suckers, they should be taken off annually in October, and transplanted out either into a nursery in rows (as hath been directed for several other sorts of flowering-shrubs) or into the places where they are to remain; for if they are permitted to stand upon the roots of the old plants more than one year, they grow woody, and do not form so good roots as if planted out the first year, so there is more danger of their not succeeding. But the belt method to obtain good-rooted plants is to lay down the young branches in autumn, which will take good root by the autumn following (especially if they are watered in very dry weather,) when they may be taken from the old plants, and transplanted where they are to remain. The plants, which are propagated by layers, are not so apt to send out suckers from their roots as those which are from suckers, therefore Should be preferred before them; because they may be much easier kept within compass, and these will also flower much stronger. These plants may be transplanted any time from October to April; but when they are designed to flower strong the first year after planting, they should be planted early; though, as I laid before, if they are planted late in the spring, it will cause them to flower in autumn, provided they do not suffer by drought.

Most of these sorts delight in a rich moist soil and an open situation, in which they will produce a greater quantity of flowers, and those much fairer, than when they are upon a dry soil or in a shady situation. The pruning which they require, is only to cut out their dead wood, and take off all the suckers, which should be done every autumn; and if there are any very luxuriant branches, which draw the nourishment from the other parts of the plant, they should be taken out, or shortened, to cause them to produce more branches, if there be occasion for them to supply a vacancy; but you must avoid crowding them with branches, which is as injurious to these plants as to fruit-trees; for, if the branches have not equal benefit from the sun and air, they will not produce their flowers so strong, nor in so great plenty, as when they are more open, and better exposed to the sun, so that the air may circulate the more freely between them.

Rose lists