The Gardeners Dictionary (1735)
Philip Miller

ROSA; The Rose-Tree.

The Characters are;
The Flower is compose'd of several Leaves, which are plac'd circularly, and do expand in a beautiful Order; whose leafy Flower-cup afterwards becomes a roundish or oblong fleshy Fruit, inclosing several angular hairy Seeds: To which may be added, It is a weak, pithy Shrub, for the most part beset with Prickles, and hath pinnated Leaves.

The Species are;

  1. ROSA; sylvestris, inodora, seu canina. Park. Theat. The Wild Briar, Dog Rose, or Hep Tree.
  2. ROSA; sylvestris, fructu majore, hispido. Raii Syn. Wild Briar or Dog Rose, with large prickly Heps.
  3. ROSA; sylvestris, pomifera major, nostras. Raii Syn. The greater English Apple-bearing Rose.
  4. ROSA; pumilla, spinosissima, foliis pimpinellae glabris, flore albo. J. B. The Dwarf Wild Burnet-leav'd Rose.
  5. ROSA; pumilla, spinosissima, foliis pimpinellae glabris, ex luteo & viridi eleganter variegatis. The Dwarf Wild Burnet-leav'd Rose, with variegated Leaves.
  6. ROSA; pimpinella minor, Scotica, floribus ex albo & carneo eleganter variegatis. Pluk. Alm. The strip'd Scotch Rose.
  7. ROSA; sylvestris, foliis odoratis. C. B. P. The Sweet-Briar or Eglantine.
  8. ROSA; sylvestris odora, sive Eglanteria, fore duplici. Park. Parad. Sweet-Briar, with a double Flower.
  9. ROSA; rubra, multiplex. C. B. P. The double Red Rose.
  10. ROSA; Damascena. Park. Parad. The Damask Rose.
  11. ROSA; Provincialis, sive Hollandica, Damascena. Park. Parad. The Damask Provence Rose,
  12. ROSA; Provincialis, major, flore pleno, ruberrimo. Boerh. Ind. Atl. The Red Provence Rose.
  13. ROSA; centifolia, Batavica. Clus H. The Dutch Hundred-leav'd Rose.
  14. ROSA; Provincialis spinosissima, pedunculo muscoso. The Moss Provence Rose.
  15. ROSA; Provincialis rubra. Park. Parad. The Common Provence Rose.
  16. ROSA; holosericea, simplex. Park. Parad. The single Velvet Rose.
  17. ROSA; holosericea, multiplex. Park. Parad. The double Velvet Rose.
  18. ROSA; odore Cinnamomi, flore pleno. C. B. P. The double Cinnamon Rose.
  19. ROSA; odore Cinnamomi, simplex. C. B. P. The single Cinnamon Rose.
  20. ROSA; lutea, simplex. C. B. P. The single Yellow Rose.
  21. ROSA; lutea, multiplex. C. B. P. The double Yellow Rose.
  22. ROSA; sylvestris, Austriaca, flore Phoenicio. Park. Theat. The Austrian Rose.
  23. ROSA; sylvestris, Austriaca, flore totum luteum. The Yellow Austrian Rose.
  24. ROSA; uno ramo luteos, caeteris pruniceos, flores gerens simplices. Boerh. Ind. Alt. The Austrian Rose, with yellow Flowers upon one Branch, and purple Flowers on the other.
  25. ROSA; alba, vulgaris major. C. B. P. The common White Rose.
  26. ROSA; alba, minor. C. B. P. The lesser White Rose.
  27. ROSA; Candida, semiplena. J. B. The semi-double White Rose.
  28. ROSA; incarnata. Park. Parad. The Blush Rose.
  29. ROSA; Praenestina, variegata, plena. Hort. Eyst. The York and Lancaster Rose.
  30. ROSA; rubro & albo variegata, Rosa Mundi, vulgo dicta. Raii Hist. The Rose of the World, or Rosa Mundi.
  31. ROSA; Francofurtensis. Park. Parad. The Frankfort Rose.
  32. ROSA; sempervirens. Park. Parad. The Ever-green Rose.
  33. ROSA; omnium Calendarum. H. R. Par. The Monthly Rose.
  34. ROSA; omnium Calendarum, flore variegato. The strip'd Monthly Rose.
  35. ROSA; sine spinis, flore minore. C. B. P. The Rose without Thorns.
  36. ROSA; sine spinis, flore majore ruberrimo. The Royal Virgin Rose.
  37. ROSA; sylvestris. Virginiensis. Raii Hist. The Wild Virginian Rose.
  38. ROSA; moschata, simplici flore. C. B. P. The single Musk Rose.
  39. ROSA; moschata, flore pleno. C. B. P. The double Musk Rose.
  40. ROSA; moschata sempervirens. C. B. P. The Ever-green Musk Rose.
  41. ROSA; Belgica, sive vitrea, flore rubro. Rea. Flor. The Red Belgick Rose.
  42. ROSA; Belgica, sive vitrea, flore rubicante. Rea. Flor. The Blush Belgick Rose.
  43. ROSA; marmorea. Rea. Flor. The marbled Rose.
  44. ROSA; Provincialis, flore simplici. The single Provence Rose.
  45. ROSA; Damascene, flore simplici. The single Damask Rose.
  46. ROSA; pimpinella minor, Scotica, flore livide rubente. The Dwarf Scotch Rose, with a blueish red Flower.

The first Sort of Rose grows wild in the Hedges in most Parts of England: The Fruit of this Tree is made into a conserve for Medicinal Use; but this is seldom cultivated in Gardens.

The second, third and fourth Sorts do also grow wild in divers Parts of England, and are rarely preserved in Gardens, unless for Variety Sake:

The fifth Sort is a Variety of the fourth, and is preserved by some for the Beauty of its strip'd Leaves.

The sixth Sort is found wild in Scotland, and has been by many supposed to be the same as the fourth Sort, but only differing therefrom in having variegated Flowers: which is a great Mistake, for I have observ'd, where the two Sorts were cultivated on the same Soil for many Years, and yet retained a considerable Difference in the size of the Plants, the Scotch Sort being not half so large as the other, yet the Flowers were much larger, the Leaves were less, and the Branches much weaker than those of the fourth Sort.

The last Sort here mention'd, was rais'd from the Seeds of the Scotch Rose; and altho' the Flowers were plain colour'd, yet the whole Appearance of the Plant continues the same as the original Kind, which is a plain Proof of its being different from the fourth Sort.

The Sweet-Briar, although wild in some Parts of England, yet is preserv'd in most curious Gardens for the extreme sweetness of its Leaves, which perfumes the circumambient Air in the Spring or the Year, especially after a Shower of Rain. The Flowers of this Sort being single, are not valued, but the Branches of the Shrubs are cut to intermix with Flowers to place in Basons to adorn Halls, Parlours, &c. in the Spring of the Year, the Scent of this Plant being agreeable to most persons.

The Double-flower'd Sweet-Briar is preserved on the Account of its beautiful Flowers, as well as for the sweetness of its green Leaves.

All the other Sorts of Roses are originally of foreign Growth, but are hardy enough to endure the Cold of our Climate in the open Air, and produce the most beautiful and fragrant Flowers of any kind of Shrubs yet known: This, together with their long Continuance in Flowers has fully render'd them the most valuable of all the Sorts of flowering Shrubs; besides the great Variety of different Sorts of Roses, do make a Collection of Flowers, either for Basons or in the Garden, without any other additional Mixture; and their Scent being the most inoffensive Sweet, is generally esteemed by most Persons.

But in order to continue these Beauties longer than they are naturally disposed to last, it is proper to plant some of the monthly Roses near a warm Wall, which will occasion their Budding at least three Weeks or a Month before those in the open Air; and if you give them the Help of a Glass before them, it will bring their Flowers much forwarder, especially where Dung is plac'd to the Backside of the Wall (as is practis'd in raising Early Fruits:) By this Method I have, seen, fair Roses of this Kind, blown in February, and they may be brought much sooner, where People are curious this Way.

You should also cut off the Tops of such Shoots which have been produc'd the same Spring, early in May, from some of these Sorts of Roses which are planted in the open Air, and upon a strong Soil: This will, cause them to make new Shoots, which will flower late in Autumn; as will also the late removing the Plants in Spring, provided they do not suffer by Drought, as I have several times experienc'd; but particularly in the Year 1718, when I had occasion to remove a large Parcel of these Plants in May, just as they were beginning to flower: In doing of which, I cur off all the Flower-buds, and after having open'd a Trench in the Place where they were to be planted, I poured a large Quantity of Water, so as to render the Ground like a Pap; then I took up the Plants, and plac'd them therein as soon as possible, that their Roots might not dry; and after planting them I water'd the Ground well again, and Cover'd the Surface over with Mulch, to prevent its drying; after this I repeated watering the Plants all over two or three times a Week in the Evening, until they had taken Root: In about three Weeks time, the Plants shot out again, and produc'd a great Quantity of Flowers in August and September, which were as fair as those produced in June. This is the only Sort of Rose for this Purpose, there being no other Sort which will flower both early and late except this.

The next Sort, of Rose which flowers in, the open Air, is the Cinnamon, which is immediately followed by the Damask Rose; then the Blush, and, York, and Lancaster comes after which, the Provence,

A Dutch Hundred-leav'd White, and most other Sorts of Roses do follow; and the latest Sorts are the two Musk Roses, which, if planted in a shady Situation, do seldom flower until September; and if the Autumn proves mild, will continue often till the Middle of October.

The Plants of these two Sorts should be placed against a Wall, Pale, or other Building, that their Branches may be supported; other wise, they are for, slender and weak as to trail upon the Ground; these Plants should not be pruned until Spring, because their Branches are somewhat tender, se that when they are cut in Winter they often die after the Knife. These produce their Flowers at the Extremity of the fame Year's Shoots, in large Bunches, so that their Branches must not be shortened in the Summer, lest hereby the Flowers should be cut off. These Shrubs will grow to be eight or nine Feet high, and must not be checked in their Growth, if you intend they should flower well, so that they should be placed where they may be allowed Room.

The lowest Shrub of all the Sorts here-mention'd, is the Scotch Rose, which rarely grows above two Feet high, so that this must be placed among other Shrubs of the fame Growth. The Red Rose and the Rosa Mundi do commonly grow from three to four Feet high, but seldom exceed that; but the Damask, Provence, and Frankfort Roses grow to the Height of seven or eight Feet; so that in Planting of them, great Care should be taken, to place their several Kinds, according to their various Growths, amongst other Shrubs, that they may appear beautiful to the Eye.

The Frankfort Rose is of little Value, except for a Stock, to bud the more tender Sorts of Roses upon, for the Flowers do seldom open fair, and have no Scent; but it being a vigorous Shooter, renders it proper for Stocks to bud the Yellow and Austrian Roses, which will render them stronger than upon their own Stocks; but the Yellow Roses do seldom blow fair within eight or ten Miles of London, tho' in the Northern Parts of Great-Britain, they do flower extremely well. This Sort must have a Northern Exposure, for if it is planted too warm, it will not flower.

All the Sorts of Roses may be propagated either from Suckers, Layers, or by budding them upon Stocks of other Sorts of Roses, which latter Method is only practis'd for some peculiar Sorts, which do not grow very vigorous upon their own Stocks, and fend forth Suckers very sparingly; or where a Person is willing to have more Sorts than one upon the fame Plant; but then it must be observed, to bud such Sorts upon the fame Stock as are nearly equal in their manner of Growth; for if there be a Bud of a vigorous growing Sort, and some others of weak Growth, the strong one will draw all the Nourishment from the weaker, and entirely starve them.

The best Sort for Stocks is the Frankfort Rose, which is a vigorous Grower, and produces strong, clean Shoots, which will take the Buds much better than any other Sort of Rose; but you must be very careful to keep the Stock after Budding entirely clear from Suckers or Shoots at the Bottom, for if they are permitted to remain on, they will, in a short time, starve the Buds. The best Season for budding of Roses is in June; the Manner of doing it, being the same as for Fruit-Trees, need not be repeated here.

If you would propagate them from Suckers, they should be taken off annually in October, and transplanted out either into a Nursery in Rows (as hath been directed for several other Sorts of flowering Shrubs) or into the Places Where they are to remain; for if they are permitted to stand upon the Roots or the old Plants more than one Year, they grow woody, and do not form so good Roots as if planted out the first Year, and so there is more Danger of their not succeeding.

But the best method to obtain good rooted Plants, is to lay down the young Branches in Autumn, which will take good Root by the Autumn following (especially if they are watered in very dry Weather;) when they may be taken from the old Plants, and transplanted where they are to remain. These plants may be transplanted any time from October to April) but when they are design'd to flower strong the first Year after planting, they should be planted early; though, as I said before, if they are planted late in the Spring, it will cause them to flower in Autumn, provided they do not suffer by Drought.

Most of these Sorts do delight in a rich moist Soil, and an open Situation, in which they will produce a greater Quantity of Flowers, and those much fairer than when they are upon a dry Soil, or in a shady Situation. The pruning which they require, is only to have their dead wood cut out, and the Suckers clear'd off, which should be done every Autumn; and if there are any very luxuriant Branches which draw the Nourishment from the other Parts of the Plant, they should be taken out or shorten'd, to cause it to produce more Branches, if there be Occasion for them to supply a vacancy; but you must avoid crowding them with Branches, which is as injurious to these Plants as to Fruit-Trees; for if the Branches have not an equal Benefit of the Sun and Air, they will not produce their Flowers so strong, nor in so great Plenty as when they are more open and better expos'd to the Sun, so that the Air may circulate the more freely between, them.

Rose lists