The Gardeners and Florists Dictionary (1724)
Philip Miller

Various Kinds.

THERE is a greater Variety of Roses propagated by Gardeners than of any other flowering Tree or Shrub whatsoever.

Mr. Bradley says, the Gardeners distinguish them by the following Names. The Cinamon Rose, the Monthly Rose, the Cluster monthly Rose, the Damask Rose, the Rosa Mundi, the York and Lancaster Rose, the Centifol or Province Rose.

Mons. Liger reckons up the Sweet smelling Rose, and the Rose without Smell, the Dutch hundred leav'd Rose, the Damask Rose, the pale red Rose, the Province Rose, the Virginian Rose, the streaked Rose, the single Rose of a deep red Colour, the Monthly Rose, the Muscadine Rose, and the yellow Rose.

Mr. Mortimer distributes them into four Classes, or kinds; the English red Rose, of which Sort the Flowers of some are of far deeper red than others.

The Rosa Mundi, or Rose of the World, which only differs from the former in the Colour of its Leaves, which are of a pale blush colour, directly spotted through every Leaf of the double Flower, which is the most Beautiful of any; the red Belgick Rose, which is much taller than the common Dwarf, Red or Gilly Flower Rose, which grows lower than the ordinary Rose, whose Flowers are of pleasant Carnation Colour. The Hungarian Rose, which has green Shoots, and whose Flowers are of a paler red, as those of the red Province Rose are, whose Branches and Leaves are larger and greener, than those of the common red Rose.

The Frankfort Rose, that has strong reddish Shoots full of Thorns, thick Flowers, and the Button under the Rose bigger than ordinary. The Rose without Thorns; that has green and smooth Shoots, and Leaves without any Thorns at all, and the Flowers of a pale red, spreading their Leaves. The double Velvet Rose, whose young Shoots are of a sad reddish Colour, with very few or no Thorns; but this bears but a few Flowers. The Marble Rose, which in Growth is much like the former; but the Leaves are larger, and of a light red Colour, marbled and veined.

Under the second Class he ranks the Damask or pale coloured red Rose, which being, he says, the ancient Inhabitant of England; it needs no describing. The York and Lancaster or partly coloured red Rose, differs from the former, only in that its Flowers are parted and marked. The Chrystal Rose, that is like the last, excepting only that the Marks of the Flowers are much fairer, and better than those of the former. The elegant variegated Damask Rose, whose Shoots are redder and shorter than the Chrystal; its Leaves smaller, and its Flowers somewhat double. The Damask Province Rose, which has Shoots and Leaves longer than any of the preceeding, of a reddish green, and whose Flowers are very large. The Blush Belgick Rose, whose Branches are larger, and fuller of Thorns than any of the former; its Flowers grow thicker and are sweet scented, so that the Water distilled from them is almost as good as that of the Damask Rose. The Monthly Rose, which bears Flowers only three Months in England, viz. June, August and September.

Under the third Class he mentions the yellow Rose, of which Kind the single yellow Rose grows as high as the Damask, and the young Shoots of it are full of hairy Prickles of dark red small Leaves, the Flowers single, and of a pale yellow. The double yellow Rose, whose Shoots are small, and not so red as those of the single Kind: the Flowers composed of many small pale yellow Leaves, with a great Thrum in the Middle. The scarlet Rose of Austria, that is much like to the single yellow Rose, except that the Inside of the Leaves of the Flowers is a fine scarlet, and the outside of a pale Brimstone Colour.

Under the fourth Class are compriz'd the Common white Rose, which is well known; of which there are two Sorts, one much fairer and more double than the other.

The Double Musk Rose, which rises high, with many green Branches, and shining dark green Leaves, arm'd with great sharp Thorns, with Flowers which come forth in a Tuft not very double; there is also another of this Kind bearing single Roses; the Flowers of both of them have a musky Scent.

The Blush Rose that differs little from the last but one, but in the Colour of its Flowers, which at the first opening are of a fine pleasant Blush Colour, which afterwards grow whitish. The Damask Rose, or the white Cinnamon Rose, has larger Leaves than the double Musk Rose, but the Leaves are of a whiter green, the Flowers larger, whiter and more double than the other, but not quite so sweet. The Spanish Musk Rose, whose Branches are green, bigger than the following, and the Flowers single. The Evergreen Rose, growing like wild Eglantine, the Leaves fall not off in the Winter, as those of other Roses do; the Flowers consist but of five Leaves, of a pure white Colour, and stand four or five together, at the End of the Branches. The double Eglantine which bears double Flowers, made up of two or three Rows of Leaves of a very pretty red Colour. The Great Apple Rose, which has a large Stock; its Branches are reddish, its Thorns green, and its single small Flowers stand on prickly Bottoms.

After having given us this long Catalogue of Roses, he tells us; that among all these Varieties the following are esteemed the best.

Among the red Roses; the Rosa Mundi, the red Belgick, the red Marble, the red Province Rose, and the Rose with Thorns.

Among the Damask, the Crystal Rose, the Blush Belgick, the Monthly and Damask Province Rose, and the elegant variegated Damask Rose.

Among the yellow Roses, the scarlet Austrian Rose, and the double Yellow.

Among the white Roses, the Damask Rose and the Blush Rose.

Mr. Bradley says, beside the Roses that he has mentioned there are several Sorts which he has never seen, and that the Dutches of Beauford told him of sixteen different Sorts which she had cultivated in her Garden at Badminton; but altho' the several Sorts of Roses differ in their Times of flowering, yet they are all propagated after the same Manner, and love a strong holding Soil, and delight so much in moist Places, that they will even grow in Water.

They are to be increased by Layers, which are to be laid down in September, or by Suckers which may be taken from the old Roots either in March or September, and transplanted immediately before their Roots grow dry, for they have but few Fibres; but if Necessity obliges to keep them out of the Ground for some Time, he advises to lay them six Hours in Water, before planting.

Mr. Mortimer says, Roses are multiplied either by laying down the Branches in the Earth, or by inoculating the Buds of them into other Shoots.

He advises, in the Spring, to prick a great many Holes with an Awl, about a joint, that will lie in the Earth, and then to cover it with good Mould, to peg it down; and if the Seasons are dry, to water it now and then, and by Autumn it will so have taken Root as to be fit to be removed, and cut from its other Part, behind the Root, and be remov'd, and become a natural Tree. Such a Tree, he says, will be worth two that are budded or grafted, because a great many Suckers that come from them will be of the same Kind.

As for inoculating: the best Stocks, he says, to inoculate upon, are the Damask, the white Frankfort, and the wild Eglantine, and that this Work is to be performed about Midsummer.

*CybeRose note: Mortimer (1708) has "Launce".

He advises to take care to keep all Stocks of budded Roses from Suckers, and that the Buds be inoculated as near the Ground as may be, that the budded Luance* may be laid in the Earth to Root after one Years Growth.

But Roses of all Kinds being apt to yield Suckers plentifully, the best Way to increase them is gently to bind down either Part or all the Tree in the Spring, and to lay all the Branches in the Ground; and to lay old rotted Dung about the Places where they are laid, which will cause them to take Root the sooner, so that by Autumn you will have as many rooted Trees as you laid down Branches and all of the same Kind, and that too without injuring the old one, which when the Branches laid down are cut off may be very easily reduced to its Place again, and will bear as plentifully the next Year as it did before.

He adds, that this laying down the Branches prevents not the Tree from bearing Flowers that Year, for the Branches which are laid will be as plentifully stored with Flowers, as if they were erect.

Mons. Liger says, the Dutch hundred leafed Rose, both with and without Smell are multiplied by Slips and Roots, set a Span deep in the Ground, and are to be planted in October, November or February, in good Kitchen Garden Soil, in a Place much exposed to the Sun. In March you may prune it.


THE Monthly Rose, called also the Rosa omnium Calendarum, or Italian double everlasting Rose, is multiplied by Layers, and also by Slips cut off from the Branches in Autumn, in October or November, and thrust into the Ground, leaving not above two Inches of it out, and in a sandy Soil and sunny Exposure.

The Monthly Rose and the Cluster Monthly Rose, Mr. Bradley says, if they be planted against a warm Wall, begin to blow about the latter End of March, or the Beginning of April, and continue blowing for almost three Months; and if after they have done blowing you prune off the Tops of their Branches, you may expect them to blow again in Autumn, and continue blowing almost till Christmass, if the Weather be open.

Mr. Liger says, that to make these Trees bear Flowers in every Month in the Year, or at least in most of them, they must be pruned two or three Times. The first Time is to be in November, when they are to be cut almost down to the Ground, because the new Shoots that sprout out will produce Flowers more plentifully; the second is to be at the latter End of March, or Beginning of April, which is to be performed on the new Branches pruning them to an Eye or two of the Trunk; then you must open its Root, and put in Earth new instead of the old, adding a third Part of Mould half consumed, and water it immediately, and also frequently. Thirdly, When the first Flowers are past, prune the Branches below the Knot where the Flowers grow; the same is to be done after every Bearing: but you must not water them for fifteen Days after pruning. By this Method he says, it will be in Blossom for three Months in the Year.

If these Rose-Trees are in open Ground they must be covered with long Straw or Straw Mats; or if in Pots or Boxes, housed in the Green-house, or they will not shoot forth new Branches.

He says another Way to make them bear a great many Flowers every Month, is to bind the Branches and to tie them to a Pallisade, or Stick stuck in the Ground, if they are planted in Cases.

Mr. Bradley relates, That Mr. Millet, an ingenious Gardener, who us'd to bring several Fruits to Perfection some Months before Nature alone would do it, gave no other Reason for his Practice, but that the Heat he laid at the Back of his Frames did push the Trees nail'd against them into Blossom, within a few Weeks after he had apply'd the Heat: But he being conversant with him, took Notice, that he prun'd his Trees out of the common Season.

He had Monthly Rose-Trees nail'd against the Frames where his forward Fruit-Trees grew, which Rose-Trees were commonly in Blossom soon after Christmass.

The Management of these was as follows: He prun'd off all the Flowers, whether Rose, Bud, or open Flowers, which he found upon them about the End of July or Beginning of August; and at the same Time he cut off the Top of those Shoots, which had produc'd Flowers that Summer; as well as those that had produc'd none; but his chief Dependance was upon those Shoots which had born Flowers the same Summer. And he said, that every close Bud would spring and shoot about six Weeks after Pruning; and when the Hear comes to the Trees every one of the new Shoots Would produce Flowers at their Ends.

He likewise adds, That he has observ'd often, That the close Buds he speaks of, will lie dormant all the Winter, altho' they have not this Sort of Pruning; and would not stir 'till the Advancing of the Spring. And that he has also made this Observation, concerning Fruit-Trees, in those Gardens, where the Gardener has had no extraordinary Skill in Pruning, That when Fruit-Trees have been cut too early, or the Bud-Shoots of the same Summer have been topp'd; the Buds, which were left upon those Shoots, sprouted on a sudden before their natural Time; and have blossomed at a wrong Season. See the Articles Pruning and Pear-Tree.

32. The Double yellow ROSE.

THESE Roses, Mr. Mortimer says, will not bear so well when they are planted in the Sun, as other Roses will: Therefore he advises, that they be set in the Shade; and in Order that they may have the fairer Flowers and bear the better, first to put a Bud of a single Rose into the Stock of a Frankfort Rose, and near the Ground; and then it will quickly shoot a good Length: Also to put a Bud of the double yellow Rose of the best into that Sprout about a Foot higher, to keep the Root clear from Suckers; and to rub off all Buds but those of the desired Kind.

When it is grown big enough to bear, he advises, the preceeding Winter to prune it very near, and cut off all the small Shoots, leaving on none but the bigger, and to cut off the Tops of them too as far as they are small. In the Spring, when it buds for Leaves, you must rub off the smallest of them; and when it buds for Flowers, if there be too many, wipe off the smallest, leaving on no more than the Strength of the Tree will bring to Perfection.

Such a Tree should be a Standard, and not too much exposed to the Sun, but shaded, and in a dry Season sometimes watered: And by this Management, you may expect fair and beautiful Flowers.

He adds, That shearing off the Buds when they are put forth, in Order to the retarding the Blowing of the Flowers, is very practicable; and so by shearing them a second Time, you may cause them to be still later; so that by this Means you may have Roses when there are no other Flowers: But then you must be sure to shear the whole Tree; for if one Part be shear'd and the other unshear'd, the Part unshear'd will spend the Strength and Sap, which you expected would have put forth new Buds; and so disappoint your Expectation.

Mons. Liger says, yellow flower'd Rose-Trees are multiply'd by Shoots that sprout out at their Feet, planted in the Spring: They love a strong Soil, and the open Air; and that Pruning does not at all agree with them, because they bear their Flowers at the End of their Branches: But yet ill-plac'd Boughs, or such as are worn out, and to, useless, you must prune, and the last even to the Quick.

The Leaves of these Flowers, he says, are so delicate, that the least Rain that falls upon them will make them perish; and therefore when they are just ready to blow, you must prune the Branches short, and cover them with Straw-Mats, or some such Covering. In February March, you may force this Shrub to bear Flowers every Year.

33. The White Double ROSE.

THIS Plant is multiply'd by Slips split, with the Roots set four Inches into the Ground. It loves a strong Soil, a sunny Exposition, and frequent Waterings.

It will not admit of Pruning, unless it be to clear it from old useless Wood, or that which is withered.

34. The Muscadine, or Damask ROSE.

THIS Shrub is perpetuated by Suckers, which grow out of it, planted in new Earth; it requires a good Kitchin-Garden Soil, much Sun, and frequent Waterings. It stands in no Fear of the Cold. The old Branches are to be prun'd every Autumn, within half a Foot of the Ground; and from the Buds that remain, new Branches may sprout our, which will produce the greater Quantity of Flowers.

34. The Muscadine, or Damask-ROSE.

THIS Shrub is perpetuated by Suckers, which grow out of it, planted in new Earth; it requires a good Kitchin-Garden-Soil, much Sun, and frequent Waterings. It stands in no Fear of the Cold. The old Branches are to be prun'd every Autumn, within half a Foot of the Ground; and from the Buds that remain, new Branches may sprout out, which will produce the greater Quantity of Flowers.




THE strip'd Rose is a Shrub that does not grow very tall; and may be planted either in the open Ground or Boxes: It requires a Kitchen-Garden Soil, strong and well sifted. It is to be encreas'd Scutcheon-wise, either by Inoculating or Budding. Those that are grafted Scutcheon-wise, never fail to blossom the next Year; and those that are budded, blow in Autumn the same Year: Whereas strip'd Rose-Trees that are increas'd by Plants with Roots, bear no Flowers in less than two or three Years.

Mr. Carpenter says, This Rose is call'd Rosa Munda, and is a Species of the Dwarf red Rose. It spawns much at the Root; and the Colours are apt to run. And that we have two other Sorts of Roses, equally valuable, one of which is call'd the York and Lancaster-Rose, and the other the Apple-Rose.

Mons. Liger says, All the other Sorts of Roses; viz. The Carnation-Rose, the pale Rose, the Virginan-Rose, and the single Rose, of a deep red Colour; require a good, strong Earth and much Sun; are to be planted either in November, February or the Beginning of March, to the Depth of four Inches; and are to be prun'd in the Spring. The Roots are to be bared, to refresh them with new Earth, which will make them bear finer Branches and Flowers.

Mr. Mortimer advises, That as soon as Roses have done Blowing, to clip them with Shears, pretty close to the Wood; and near the Spring, to cut each Branch again with the Pruning-Knife close to the Leaf; and to take away Bud and all, to bring the Tree into a handsome Form. That none of them be suffer'd to grow higher than a Yard and half, except the Musk-Roses, which will not bear well, except against a Wall, Pale, or House-Side; and must be suffered to grow to eight or nine Foot high.

Rose lists