Arbustrum Americanum 135-136 (1785)
Humphrey Marshall

1. Rosa carolinensis. Wild Virginian Rose.
This rises with several stalks to the height of five or six feet, somewhat prickly, as are also the foot-stalks of the leaves and flowers. The leaves are composed of four or five pair of lobes terminated with an odd one, which are somewhat spear-shaped and sawed on their edges. The flowers are single, of a red colour and late coming.

2. Rosa palustris. Swamp Pennsylvanian Rose.
This grows generally in swamps; rising to the height of four or five feet, with erect, and very prickly stems, branching out at top in a regular head. The leaves are composed of three pair of lobes, terminated by an odd one, of an oblong, oval shape and slightly serrated, joined to a common footstalk with a few spines underneath. The flowers re single and of a damask colour; the hips or seed-vessels are of a dark red, roundish, depressed, prickly or bristly, and very clammy to the touch.

3. Rosa humilis. Dwarf Pennsylvanian Rose.
This rises with several slender stems to the height of two or three feet; covered with a brownish green bark, and armed with a few sharp spines. I'he leaves are composed of. three or four pair of lobes, and an odd one, of an oblong egg-shape and sharply sawed on their edges. The leaves of the flower cup have often linear, leaffy elongations. The flowers are single and of a pale reddish colour.

4. Rosa pennsylvanica plena. Double Pennsylvanian Rose.
This very much resembles the last described in growth and appearance, except in having a double flower.

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