(J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci.) 62(4): 857-866. 1994.
Flower Flavonoid Distribution in Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray and Interspecific Rose Hybrids.
Yuki Mikanagi1, Masato Yokoi2, Norio Saito3, Yoshihiro Ueda2, Hiroshi Hirabayashi4 and Seizo Susuki4

1Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Aoba-cho, Chiba 260
2Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271
3Cheuucat Laboratory, Meiji-gakuin University, Yokohama 244
4Keisei Rose Nursery, Inc., Yacloiyo, Chiba 276

Summary

Flower flavonoids of interspecific hybrids between Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray (section Rosa) and Rosa species under sect. Synstytae and sect. Pimpinellifoliae were analyzed to study the mode of flavonoid transmission from parental species to progenies.

  1. The major flavonoids in R. rugosa petals were kaempferol (K) and/or quercetin (Q) 3-sophorosides. These flavonols were present in the petals of all intersectional hybrids with sect. Synstytae and sect. Pimpinellifoliae.
  2. Large amounts of K and Q 3-glucosides were present in the Rosa species under sect. Synstylae as well as in all intersectional hybrids with sect. Rosa.
  3. Unique flavonols, K and Q 4'-glucosides were distributed in the Rosa species under sect. Pimpinellifoliae and were the major flavonols in the intersectional hybrids with sect. Rosa.

The mode of transmission of characteristic flavonoids from parental species to progenies in the three Rosa sections was established by this study. Although the parentage may be unknown, seedlings possessing K and Q 3-sophorosides in their petals can be considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa. Using flavonoid analysis to identify the parentage of R. rugosa hybrids is herein proposed.

Table 1. Flavonoid distribution in the flowers of intersectiosal hybrids between Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Morrsy and sect. Synstylae species.

Species or
hybrids
Parental sp Breeder
and
yearz
Flavonol spotsy Anthocyanin spotsy
3gl 3rh 3gr 3-monoglucosides 3ru 3so 7gl 4'gl 3,5gl 3gl
K Q K Q 1 2 3 4 5 K Q K Q K Q K Q Cy Pn Cy Pn
Rosa species  
*R. rugosa ( = rugosa)   +                   + 2 2       2 3   +
*R. rugosa var. alba ( = rug. alba)                       1 2   1            
Synstylae species  
*R. wichuraiana( = wichu.) 3 1 3 1         1         1              
*R. multiflora ( = multi) 3 1 1 1           1 1     1              
*R. phoenicia ( = phoen.) 3 2             1 1       2              
Hybrids  
seedling 1 rugosa x wichu. KRN1975 1 1               +   2 1 +              
2 " KRN1975 1 1               1     2 2              
3 " KRN1975   +   +             + 1 2 1       1 2    
4 rug. alba x wichu. KRN1975 2 1   1 1         1 1 2 2 1 1     1      
5 multi. x rug. alba KRN1975 1 1   1       +   + 1 2 2 1              
Natural hybrids  
R. x iwara 1 multi. x rugosa NAT---- 1 2         1     1 1 2 3   2     2 1    
2 " NAT---- 1 1     1 1 1 1   1 1 3 3 1 2     2 1    
3 " NAT---- 2 1 1 1     1 1   1 1 1 2   1     2 3    
Cultivars  
R. x kordesii rugosa x wichu. KOR1950 2 2 1 2 1       2 1 1 2 3 1 1     3     1
Lady Duncan wichu. x rugosa DAW1900 1 2     1             2 3   2     2 1    
Max Graf 1 rugosa x wichu. BOW1919 1 1   2 2 1         2 3 3 1 2     2 2    
Max Graf 2 " BOW1919 1 1   2 2 1   +   1 2 3 3 1 3     3 3 2  
Schneelicht rugosa x phoen. GES1994 2 2 1     1 1 1   2 2 3 2 1 1     3   2  
* = Mikanagi et al. 1990.
zBreeder abbreviations; KRN = Keisei Rose Nursery (Japan), NAT = natural hybrid, KOR = Kordes (Germany), DAW Dawson (U.S.A), BOW = Bowditch (U.S.A), GES = Geschwind (Hungary)
yPigment abbreviations; K = kaempferol, Q = quercetin, Cy = cyanidin, Pn = peonidin, 3gl = 3-glucoside, 3rh = 3-rhamnoside, 3gr = 3-glucuronide,
3-monoglycosides = flavonol 3-monoglycosides substituted with an unknown sugar,
3ru = 3-rutinoside, 3so = 3-sophoroside, 7gl = 7-glucoside, 4'gl = 4'-glucoside, and 3,5gl = 3,5-glucoside.
Spot intensity; 3 = heaviest spot. 2 = spot of average intensity. 1 = lightest spot. + = trace.

Table 2. Flavonoid distribution in the flowers of intersectional hybrids between Rosa rugosa Thaeb. ex Murray and sect. Pimpinellifoliae species.

Species or
hybrids
Parental sp Breeder
and
yearz
Flavonol spotsy Anthocyanin spotsy
3gl 3rh 3gr 3-monoglucosides 3ru 3so 7gl 4'gl 3,5gl 3gl
K Q K Q 1 2 3 4 5 K Q K Q K Q K Q Cy Pn Cy Pn
Rosa species  
*R. rugosa ( = rugosa)   +                   + 2 2       2 3   +
*R. rugosa var. alba ( = rug. alba)                       1 2   1            
Pimpinellifoliae species  
*R. xanthina (xanth.) + 1   2 + 2 1 +   + +     + 1 3 3        
*R. foetida var persiana (foeti.) 1 2   2   1   1           + 1 3 1        
Hybrids  
seedling 1 rugosa x xanth. KRN1975   1   1 1 1       1 2 1 3 + 2 3 3 1      
2 " KRN1975   1     1 1       1 2 2 3 + 1 3 3 2      
3 " KRN1975   1     1 1         2 2 3 + 1 3 3 2   1  
4 rug. alba x xanth. KRN1975 + +   1   +         1 1 2 + 1 2 3        
5 " KRN1975   1   2 +           2 1 2 +   3 3        
6 " KRN1975   1   + 1         1 2 1 2 +   3 3        
7 " KRN1975   1   2 +         1 2 1 2 +   3 3        
8 " KRN1975   +   2 +           2 1 2 +   3 2        
9 " KRN1975   1   2 1   1 1   + 2 1 3 +   3 3        
10 " KRN1975   1   1 1           1 1 2 +   3 2        
Cultivars  
Agnes rugosa x foeti. SAU 1922 2 1   2     1 1 1 +   3 3 + 1 2 3   +    
* = Mikanagi et al. 1990.
zBreeder abbreviations; KRN = Keisei Rose Nursery (Japan), SAU = Saunders (Canada)
yPigment abbreviations; K = kaempferol, Q = quercetin, Cy = cyanidin, Pn = peonidin, 3gl = 3-glucoside, 3rh = 3-rhamnoside, 3gr = 3-glucuronide,
3-monoglycosides = flavonol 3-monoglycosides substituted with an unknown sugar,
3ru = 3-rutinoside, 3so = 3-sophoroside, 7gl = 7-glucoside, 4'gl = 4'-glucoside, and 3,5gl = 3,5-glucoside.
Spot intensity; 3 = heaviest spot. 2 = spot of average intensity. 1 = lightest spot. + = trace.

Table 3. Flavonoid distribution in the flowers of intrasectional hybrids between Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray and sect. Rosa species.

Species or
hybrids
Parental sp Breeder
and
yearz
Flavonol spotsy Anthocyanin spotsy
3gl 3rh 3gr 3-monoglucosides 3ru 3so 7gl 4'gl 3,5gl 3gl
K Q K Q 1 2 3 4 5 K Q K Q K Q K Q Cy Pn Cy Pn
Rosa species  
*R. rugosa ( = rugosa)   +                   + 2 2       2 3   +
*R. rugosa var. alba ( = rug. alba)                       1 2   1            
*R. davurica ( = davur.) 2 2 1 1           1 1 2 3 1 1     2 3    
*R. marretii (marre.) 2 1 + 1         + 1 2 2 3 1 1     1 3    
Hybrids  
seedling 1 rugosa x rug. alba KRN1975                   1   1 2 3 2       3   1
2 " KRN1975                   1   1 2 3 2       2    
3 " KRN1975                   1   1 3 3 2     1 3   1
4 " KRN1975                   1   2 2 3 2     1 3   1
5 " KRN1975                       2 3 2 2     2 3    
6 " KRN1975                   1   1 2 2 2     1 3   1
7 " KRN1975                       2 3 2 2     2 3    
Natural hybrids  
R. rugosa var
kamtchatica
rugosa x davur. NAT----   1   1     1 1     1 1 2   1       3    
seedling 1 rugosa x marre. NAT---- 1 1   1   1 2 1   1 1 3 3   2     1 2   2
2 " NAT---- 1 1   1 + 1 2 1   1 1 2 3 3 1     2 2   2
3 " NAT---- 1 +   1 + + 2 1   1 2 2 3 1 1     1 2    
4 " NAT---- 1 1     1 1 1       2 3 3 2 2     3 3    
* = Mikanagi et al. 1990.
zBreeder abbreviations; KRN = Keisei Rose Nursery (Japan), NAT = natural hybrid.
yPigment abbreviations; K = kaempferol, Q = quercetin, Cy = cyanidin, Pn = peonidin, 3gl = 3-glucoside, 3rh = 3-rhamnoside, 3gr = 3-glucuronide,
3-monoglycosides = flavonol 3-monoglycosides substituted with an unknown sugar,
3ru = 3-rutinoside, 3so = 3-sophoroside, 7gl = 7-glucoside, 4'gl = 4'-glucoside, and 3,5gl = 3,5-glucoside.
Spot intensity; 3 = heaviest spot. 2 = spot of average intensity. 1 = lightest spot. + = trace.

Fig. 1. TLC patterns of flavonoids detected in petals of Rosa rugosa hybrids and their parental species.

F1-F6 flavonol [FI =  kaempferol (K) -3-sophoroside. F2 = quercetin (Q) -3-sophoroside.
F3 =  K-3-glucoside, F4 = Q-3-glucoside. F5 = K-4'-glucoside. F6 =  Q-4'-glucoside],
A1-A2: anthocyanin [A1 = cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside. A2 = peonidin-3,5-diglucoside].
Black spots: flavonoids in petals of R. rugosa.
White spots: flavonoids in petals of R. wichuraiana, R. foetida var. persiana, R. davurica and R. multiflora.
First solvent; BAW 4:1:5, second solvent; 15% HOAc.

Table 4. Flavonoid distribution in the flowers of Hybrid Rugosa cultivars (parentage unknown).

Cultivars Breeder
and
yearz
Flavonol spotsy Anthocyanin spotsy
3gl 3rh 3gr 3-monoglucosides 3ru 3so 7gl 4'gl 3,5gl 3gl
K Q K Q 1 2 3 4 5 K Q K Q K Q K Q Cy Pn Cy Pn
R. rugusa flavonoid type  
Fru Dagmar Harttop HAS1914                     1 1 2 1 1     1 3    
Hansa SCH1905                         1 1 1     2 3    
Maikai UNK----                         3 1 1     3 3 1 1
Rugspin UNK---- +                       2 2 2     3 3    
R. x iwara flavonoid type  
Gladde Boskoop UNK 1 1               2 2 3 3 1 1     2 3    
Scherp Boskoop UNK 1 1               2 2 3 3 1 1     2 3    
Hollandica UNK 2 1   1     1     1 1 2 3 2 1     2 3    
Scabrosa HAR1960 1 1         1     1   1 2 1 1     2 3    
Beni-hamanashi flavonoid type  
x Beni-hamanashi KRN1978 1 1                     1 1 1     3 2   +
z Breeder abbreviations; HAS = Hastrup (Germany), SCH = Schaumand Van Tol (Holland), HAR = Harkness (U. K.), KRN = Keisei Rose Nursery (Japan), UNK = unknown.
y Pigment abbreviations; K = kaempferol, Q = quercetin, Cy = cyanidin, Pn = peonidin, 3gl = 3-glucoside, 3rh = 3-rhamnoside, 3gr = 3-glucuronide,
3-monoglycosides = flavonol 3-monoglycosides substituted with an unknown sugar.
3ru = 3-rutinoside, 3so = 3-sophoroside, 7gl = 7-glucoside, 4'gl = 4'-glucoside, and 3,5gl = 3,5-glucoside.
Spot intensity; 3 = heaviest spot, 2 = spot of average intensity, 1 = lightest spot, + = trace.
x Beni-hamananhi; Japanese name, red flower cultivar made by S. Suzuki.

Rose Pigments