Plant Cell Physiol. 48(11): 1589-1600 (2007)
Engineering the Rose Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway Successfully
Generated Blue-Hued Flowers Accumulating Delphinidin

Katsumoto, et al.

Table 1
Flavonoid composition of commercial bluish rose varieties

Cultivar Anthocyanidin
(mg g‑1)a
Flavonol
(mg g‑1)a
pH
cya pel peo Q K
'Blue' varieties
Blue Bajou 0.048     3.956 0.379 5.11
Blue Heaven 0.008     1.504 0.569 4.90
Blue Moon 0.049     1.341 0.119 5.25
Delilah 0.066     0.611 0.277 5.35
Grey Pearl 0.036     3.708 0.417 5.12
Lavande 0.109     1.020 0.195 4.70
Madam Violet 0.060     1.780 0.150 4.70
Ondina 0.019     2.056 1.043 4.99
Rhapsody in Blue 1.851 0.011 0.005 3.456 1.622 5.67
Seiryu 0.015     3.030 1.300 5.13
Shocking Blue 0.196     1.198 0.194 5.40
Sterling Silver 0.035     1.495 0.363 5.71
Vol de Nuit 0.317 0.003   2.661 0.316 4.90
Watarase 0.056     3.048 0.124 5.07
Pink-red varieties,etc.
Black Baccara 4.043 0.007   0.705 0.119 4.58
First Red 1.959 0.291   0.086 0.340 4.70
Jacaranda 0.315 0.000   1.238 0.468 4.80
Kardinal 1.898 0.125   0.156 0.296 4.40
Kiss 0.006 0.038   0.028 1.381 4.02
Lambada 0.036 0.164   0.014 0.466 4.40
Medeo 0.004 0.004   0.028 2.323 4.40
Rote Rose 3.480 0.034   0.238 0.285 4.37
Sonia 0.060 0.300   0.006 0.650 4.85

cya, cyanidin; pel, pelargonidin; peo, peonidin; Q, quercetin; K, kaempferol. amg g-1 fresh petals.


Arisumi (1963) extracted the caretinoids and anthocyanins from 'Grey Pearl', leaving a color that could not be distinguished from that of 'Sterling Silver'.

According to Osawa (1982), Toki, et al., examined 'Blue Moon', and "were able to separate two dull-looking pigments, one reddish-purple and the other bluish-purple".

Fukui, et al. (2006) isolated two novel pigment, rosacyanins A1 and A2, in the petal of 'Mme. Violet', presumably the same as those in 'Blue Moon'.

Both 'Mme. Violet' and 'Blue Moon' are direct offspring from 'Steriling Silver'.

It would be useful to know whether the relative abundance of the two rosacyanins can be altered. In particular, an increase of the bluish-purple, with a decrease of the reddish-purple, could give a somewhat more definite blue.