Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Vol. VI. Part III. London, April, 1826)
on grafting, budding, and
cultivating Garden Roses.
By Jean Baptiste Van Mons, M.D. Foreign Member of the Horticultural Society of London. Read May 4, 1824.
Roses may be propagated by grafting as successfully as by budding. In Flanders cleftgrafting is adopted, and care taken that the scion is of the same diameter as the stock (fig. 56, a), or the cleft in the stock made sufficiently near one side of the cross section, that the bark of the scion may fit the stock on both sides (b). This mode is adopted for grafting one sort of garden rose upon another. In grafting upon the dog-rose, the same practice is followed, with this addition, that a shoulder is very often made to the scion (c), so as that it may rest with greater firmness upon the stock; such stocks being often employed as standards, and therefore more exposed to wind.
We may add here, as information communicated to us by Mr. Calvert of Rouen, that it is the general practice to form the wedge in a part of the scion where there are no buds (d), but that he adopts a contrary practice, and finds that a bud on the wedge part of the scion (e) greatly contributes to the success of the graft. By taking care to have a bud on the lower part of the scion, Mr. Calvert has even been successful in grafting roses by the whip or splice method (fig. 57), which, without a bud on the lower part of the scion (a) very often fails, but with a bud (b) fails very seldom.
Dr. Van Mons goes on to say, that the grafts are tied with fine bass, made waterproof, by pressing it first through a solution of white soap, and next through one of alum; a neutral compound being thereby formed, insoluble in water. The ligature is covered with a coat of marly clay, mixed with old slaked lime, and moistened with white of egg beat up with four or five parts of water. This material is applied with a brush. On stocks of dog-rose, a white mastic made of Burgundy pitch, white wax, and boiled turpentine, with or without a little size, is used. Black mastic, by imbibing the heat more powerfully than white, soon melts and runs off. — In Britain, where the summers are not quite so hot as in Flanders, common grafting clay may be used.
"The rose may be budded in spring, if the buds are extracted with a small portion of wood adhering to them. For this purpose, scions are cut before winter and stuck into the ground, till the moment when in spring the bark of the stock will run. To prepare the bud, we make, firstly, a transverse cut into the wood a little below an eye (fig. 58, a), which incision is met by a longer cut downwards, commencing at a short distance above the eye (b), care being taken that a portion of wood is removed with the bark. (c) This bud is inserted into the bark of the stock, which is cut like an inverted T (d), the horizontal edges of this cut in the stock and of the bud must be brought into the most perfect contact with each other (e), and then bound with waterproof bass, without, however, applying grafting-clay. (f) Eight days after the insertion of the bud, the stock is pruned down to the branch, which is immediately shove the opposite side, and this branch is stopped by being cut down to two or three eyes; all the side-wood is destroyed, and when the bud has pushed its fifth leaf, we compel it to branch by pinching its extremity; it will then flower in September of the same year."
"You may also bud the rose in the spring, without waiting till the bark separates, by placing the bud, with some wood on it, in a niche made in the stock, similar to what would be formed by taking an eye for budding from it in the manner above described, and into which it is fitted exactly with a slight pressure. It is recommended to make the cut for the niche where there is already a bud on the stock; when placed, the bud is then bound with bass and covered with mastic."
In budding in June, Dr. Van Mons first deprives the young shoots, from which he proposes to take buds, of their leaves, and fifteen days afterwards he finds the buds sufficiently swelled to allow of their being taken off and inserted. The shoots from such buds frequently flower the same year, but this may be rendered certain by pruning off all the branches of the stock. In budding in August and September, the buds succeed best when inserted in the old wood, well pruning all the branches of the stock if it is intended that the buds shall push the same season.
"The scion of a rose-tree is seldom too dry to take, when the bud is inserted with a thin bit of wood behind its eye." Dr. V. M. has budded successfully from scions that had remained in a drawer for ten days. They may be sent any where, packed in long grass, and surrounded with straw disposed longitudinally."
Dr. V. M. prefers grafting or budding not more than six inches above ground, in order that the bush may be better exposed to the eye, because the union is more certain, and because the plant keeps the earth about it moist by its own shadow. In pruning roses of every kind, the shoots are annually shortened to nine inches in length, which is found highly productive of wood and flowers. The operation is performed about the end of January; and all the wood of four years' growth is entirely cut out This deserves the particular attention of the British gardener, and equally so the statement that "at the end of eight years the plants are taken up and renewed."
To cause roses to flower in the autumn, "we prune them back in the spring, as soon as we can discover their flower-buds;" that is, the flower-buds are cut off, and the effort of the plant to produce others is not attended with success till late in the season. Stocks of the dog-rose are obtained from the woods and hedges; sometimes these stocks produce suckers the year after budding, and if these are laid down their whole length in spring, and covered with an inch of earth, leaving only the extreme end of the sucker above ground, as is done in laying plum and other stocks for fruit-trees, each eye will form a cluster of roots, and a very fine shoot, which may be taken off the ensuing winter, and budded the following spring, though not so successfully as after two or three years' growth. But as it is well known, both on the Continent and in Britain, that grafting or budding roses never succeeds any thing like so well on young wood as on wood of two or three years' growth, and as stocks of that growth are easily obtained from the woods and hedges of both countries, it can seldom be worth while to propagate stocks in gardens. In Paris, however, this is done to a small extent, and the sort propagated is the single cinnamon rose, which produces vigorous purple shoots without thorns.