- Moreau-Robert: Improving Commandant Beaurepaire (1882)
- Corbett: Vegetative propagation — blind wood vs. flowering (1907)
- Viviand-Morel: Amateur Rose Breeding (1914)
"In a very different way, M. Dhumez was able to get from Nature more than she had ever wanted to give. Disregarding the field of selection of seedling variations, and confining himself to varieties which he had bought in the open market—some of them little known, such as Prince de Bulgarie, and others long since used by everyone, some of them for a long time past, such as Bastide rose—M. Dhumez was able, by a very sure selection, a judicious choice of fertilizers and, especially, of method of operation, to get such remarkable results that they would have been declared impossible: the size of the flowers, the absolute perfection of form and color of Prince de Bulgarie, Marquise de Mores, Agathe Nabonnand, Agathos and others, won as soon as they appeared not only the rapt astonishment of the public, but the highly-valued admiration of experts."
- Knight: Improving roses by bud selection (1930)
Have you ever, when looking through your rose bushes, Teas and Hybrid Teas particularly, noticed that on one side of some of the bushes the growth is stronger than on the other, and that on some parts of the plant the blooms are always of better quality, perhaps in colour, perhaps in form, or maybe in both. This is the wood to work on and by selecting budding eyes from those strong, clean branches or from the shoots that carried those good blooms, a large percentage of the young roses will reproduce plants strong and healthy, and will carry blooms similar to those that were on that part of the plant from which the buds were taken, whilst buds taken from the weak side of the bush will have a tendency to grow weaker plants with poor quality blooms. If the very best plants are retained and grown on, and bud selection is systematically practiced from year to year a better strain of many roses can be worked up.
- Bosley: The Nurseryman's Rose Responsibility (1937)
I began to notice that Rev. F. Page-Roberts was just an ordinary yellow rose—a long way from the beautiful two-toned rose it is pictured. We set about to find the most highly colored blooms, and to cut bud-wood from only those very sticks. Continuing this over a number of years, Rev. F. Page-Roberts began to look like its color illustration. President Herbert Hoover has not been with us long, but already it has shown signs of degenerating. We budded 100 bushes from the best blooms of "Hoover," to find that only about six of this 100 were very superior, and from this six we began to rebuild our strain. Texas Centennial, just introduced, is beginning to show slight signs of variation, but with careful selection of bud-wood it can live with us as an outstanding rose variety. (Some sorts, like Radiance, seem so firmly fixed that all efforts to improve the strain seem useless. Many times we have found improvement on members of the Radiance group, only to find, next year, that it went back to the type again.)
- Nicolas: Reymond's improved Général Jacqueminot (1937)
- Blanks: On Selecting Budwood (1938)
One of these plants, a Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont is planted in the middle of some Mrs. du Ponts from one of our larger, much-advertised, mass-production nurseries. (The one whose test-gardens I travel about 300 miles each year to see.) The difference is so apparent that a visitor to my garden before the plants had bloomed, who knew nothing about this affair, asked why I planted a Radiance in a bed of Mrs. du Pont!"
- Brownell: What is an "Everblooming" Cllmber? (1944)
While the rose hybridizer cannot successfully combine the true reblooming quality with the ordinary cane-growth of climbers, very satisfactory types may be produced by encouraging the vigorous branching growth of the flowering stems. An illustration of this is the variety Orange Everglow in which these two types of blooming habit are present and segregated. Certain confirmation lies in the fact that if the once-blooming cane-growth is not removed it may by its vigor smother and prevent the establishment of reblooming wood.
- Nobbs: Thornless R. x Fortuniana by selection (1984)
- Arthur: Physiological basis for the comparison of potato production (1892)
The careful observer of woody plants has not failed to notice that not only is there a difference between the vigor of the buds upon the same shoot, but that of two shoots the larger one will have the stronger terminal bud and push into more vigorous growth. We have already found that large tubers in like manner show a better growth than small ones, which has been accounted for by a difference in the amount of available food material held for the plant. Is it not possible, however, that part of this difference is due to the comparative strength or vigor of the eyes, apart from the question of the amount of reserve food? The problem can evidently be put to the test by planting equal weight pieces from different size tubers. This is carried out in the accompanying table (XI), using the terminal eyes from five sizes of tubers ranging from one to nine ounces respectively. The results show an almost uniform increase from the smallest to the largest tubers, although the pieces planted were all of the same weight. Here again we also see that there is a relation between the size of the crop and the rate of early growth.
- Massey: Growing potatoes (1908)
Where the second crop of Irish Potatoes is grown from the early crop it is better to let the early ones completely ripen. Then take up the Potatoes and cut them in halves, and either place them in a sort of winrow in a furrow and cover them or spread them on the ground rather thickly and cover well with pine leaves, and water the pine straw well. Then see that the pine straw never dries out completely, and later examine them and as they show signs of starting, plant them in deep furrows and cover very lightly till they start green leaves and then work the soil to them as they grow till level and then work level and do not hill them.
- Whipple: Line-selection work with potatoes (1920)
- Martin: Relation of maturity to vigor in seed potatoes (1922)
Macoun (2) planted potatoes at 14-day intervals starting May 22, the last planting being made July 3. The tubers from the various lots were planted on the same date the following year. In most every instance there was an increase in yield from the earliest to the latest plantings, indicating that the most immature seed could be expected to give the largest yield. In another test he harvested seed immature from an early planted crop. The following year this immature seed gave pronounced increases in yield when compared with mature seed of the same variety.
- Zuckerman: Selection of parent seed potatoes (1942)
The geneticist clings strongly to the belief that under vegetative reproduction several of these factors cannot be controlled and that the pattern of the variety remains unchanged through unlimited generations of vegetative reproduction. There is little need to combat this theory except to say that it does not explain all the events that occur and if it is closely followed, the door is closed to possible improvement in the vegetative selection of parent seed potatoes.
- Goff: Vegetative selection of potatoes (1899)
- Eustace: Vegetative Selection of Potatoes (1905)
- Whipple: Line-Selection of Potatoes (1920)
- Cooper: Improving Sweet Potatoes (1799)
A complaint is very general, that potatoes of every kind degenerate, at which I am not surprised, when the most proper means to produce that effect is constantly practiced; to wit, using or selling the best, and planting the refuse; by which means, almost the whole of those planted are the produce of plants the most degenerated. This consideration induced me to try an opposite method. Having often observed that some plants or vines produced potatoes larger, better shaped, and in greater abundance than others, without any apparent reason, except the operation of nature, it induced me to save a quantity from such only, for planting the ensuing season, and I was highly gratified in finding their production exceed that of the others, of the same kind, planted at the same time, and with every equal advantage, beyond my expectation, in size, shape, and quantity; by continuing the practice, I am satisfied that I have been fully compensated for all the additional trouble.
- Webber: Improvement of plants by selection [USDA Yearbook for 1898]
several years Messrs. B. T. Galloway and P. H. Dorsett, of the Division of
Vegetable Physiology and Pathology, have been carefully selecting violet cuttings
to determine to what extent the plants can by this means be improved in
productiveness, vigor, and ability to resist disease, etc. The results already
obtained show that productiveness is remarkably increased, and they also
clearly demonstrate that violets can be gradually improved by a continuous
selection of the cuttings used in propagation and of the plants from which these
are obtained. The method consists in selecting a number of the finest-looking
plants before they begin to bloom, placing beside each a stake to which a blank
tag is attached, and carefully recording on each tag the daily pick of salable
flowers from the plant, so that at the end of the season the number of flowers
produced by each plant is known. The cuttings for the ensuing year are taken
only from the plants producing the greatest yields and which are known from
continual observation through the season to be desirable in other ways. The
pedigree cuttings thus obtained are again subjected to selection, and only
those which root well and form good, vigorous young plants are finally used
(figs. 93 and 94).
- Powell: Bud Variations — apples, currants (1899)
I have in mind a Currant plantation which contains some 10,000 bushes of Fay's Prolific, which came directly or indirectly through cuttings from twenty-five Fays, purchased at 1 dol. each some ten or twelve years ago. The original bushes were uniform in size, and heavy bearers. As the Fay currant was one of the best varieties extant twelve years ago, and the plants were scarce, the cheapest way to secure a plantation was to take cuttings from a few bushes. In the haste for a large number of plants, the new wood was cut from these bushes every fall. When more bushes were established, they were divided into cuttings as fast as new wood was made. Little attention was paid to the bearing capacity of the bushes in the second generation, from which the cuttings were taken, because the original twenty-five were exceptionally, heavy bearers. The result at the present time is 12,000 Fays, some of which are tremendous bearers, others light bears, while still others produce no fruit at all.
- Munson: Breeding from asexual parts — currants, apples (1906)
This fact of the universality of bud varieties, together with the fact that variations may be perpetuated by asexual means is of the utmost importance in practical horticulture and in the systematic improvement of fruits and vegetables. The practical fruit grower knows that some trees never bear any fruit and that others of the same kind bear abundantly; that some Baldwins and Spys are habitually large, and others habitually small and unsatisfactory, and these observations are borne out by the records of the Station orchard. Upon close examination of the branches of an individual tree, through a series of years, the same phenomena would be found to exist in individual branches.
- Gardner: Bud Selection — Apple and Strawberry (1920)
- Cudaback: Importance of Bud Selection — Apples (1922)
You have never seen any two Baldwin trees that are exactly alike in every respect. Yes, they are nearly alike enough to identify them as Baldwins, but just the same there is enough difference to be distinguished. It is upon these differences then, between individuals, or parts of the same individual, that bud selection is made possible. These differences are known as variations. Now it frequently happens that there is something distinctly different about some one branch of some particular kind of a tree.
- Hedrick & Wellington: Improving Apples by Bud Selection (1913)
- Shamel: Bud Selection — Citrus (1916)
- Shamel: Improvement of Washington Naval Orange (1916)
- Buttenshaw: Vegetative Selection — violets, citrus, pineapple, sugarcane (1906)
election in vegetative propagation is also of assistance in producing a healthy strain of plants. Webber gives an account of experiments with the Ripley Queen pine-apple, which is liable to a disease which causes it to 'go blind,' that is, advance to the end of its growing period and sucker from below without fruiting. The experiment consisted in planting in one bed suckers from diseased plants and in an adjoining bed suckers from apparently healthy plants. In the former bed, eighteen months later, he found that 63 per cent. had contracted the disease, while in the other bed slightly less than 4 per cent. showed the disease. This being the result of but one selection, it would seem probable that the disease might be completely controlled by a continuous selection of suckers from healthy plants.
- Shamel: Improvement of Pineapples through Bud Selection (1922)
- Bibliographia Genetica (1953) p. 244.
A strain of Dahlia variabilis Desf. gave two kinds of flowers on the same plant. The ray florets of some of the capitula are all vermilion-coloured, those of others are all white, while sometimes in the same flower both kinds of florets occur. The white is not pure; in most cases the ray florets have a red edge not sharply separated from the white. Although the strain resembles the var. "Union Jack" it is distinct from it by several characters of the leaves and flowers. By marking the flowers it was found possible to separate afterwards the vermilion flowering parts of the tuber from the mixed flowering parts. It was observed that the "vermilion" plants were more robust than the "whites" so much so that on the same tuber the "vermilion" stems are thicker than the "white" ones. Growing conditions even when very greatly modified did not decrease or increase the occurrence of "whites". As there was a fairly sharp division between these parts of the tuber, by means of selection it was possible to obtain both vermilion flowering plants and plants the flowers of which were "white" with vermilion. In all plants of the first group a few white or vermilion-edged ray florets occurred, either in the first year or later, and in the plants with "white" and vermilion flowers one or more entirely vermilion coloured flowers invariably occurred. Apparently the genotype contains a labile gene. The phenotype can be shifted towards vermilion or "white" by vegetative selection, but a permanent change is out of the question (TAMMES a. GROENVELDE, 1939, p. 301-310).
- Breese, Hayward and Thomas (1965) Somatic selection in perennial ryegrass. Heredity 20: 367-379.
An experiment has shown that the rate of tillering (= asexual reproduction) in perennial ryegrass can be significantly altered by selection within clones. The response to this somatic selection depended on the age of the clone such that response was obtained in young clones raised from seedlings but not in clones with a long history of uninterrupted asexual propagation. The response was also dependent on the genotype of the clone and there was some evidence to suggest that the somatic lability of genotypes was predisposed by a history of adaptation to asexual propagation previous to the sexual cycle.
- Reproductive Biology and Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, ed. By J. G. Hawkes (1966)
Discussion of 'Reproduction in Ryegrasses' by E. L. Breese
Dr. Haskell mentioned the fact that many years ago in the Clyde Valley, strawberries suffered badly from a sudden fungal attack on the roots so that tomatoes are now the main growers' crop. One so-called 'mad' grower continued to grow strawberries and selected strains for resistance to the disease-red core. He now has completely resistant lines, but nobody believes him. He obtained this resistance by vegetative selection.
- Jinks, J.L. and V. Connolly (1973) Selection for specific and general response to environmental differences. Heredity (1973) 30(1), 33-40.