Patrogenesis

Bailey: Wild Goose plum x Peach (1898)
Twenty-five flowers of Wild Goose were emasculated in the bud and covered with paper sacks. When in full bloom, peach pollen was applied, but the flowers were not again covered. Twenty-one of the flowers set fruit, and twenty-one trees were obtained from the seeds. Twenty of the trees were indistinguishable from peach, but the remaining one, as indicated above, gives every evidence of being an intermediate.

Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice: Theory and Practice (1996)
S.S. Bhojwani, M.K. Razdan
Spontaneous production of haploids usually occurs through the process of parthenogenesis (embryo development from an unfertilized egg.) Rarely, however, they reproduce the characters of the male parent alone, suggesting their origin through ‘ovule androgenesis’ (embryo development inside the ovule by the activity of the male nucleus alone). In vivo occurrence of androgenic haploids has been reported in Antirrhinum majus, Crepis tectorum, Hordeum bulbosum x H. vulgare, Nicotiana and Oenothera scabra.

Apomixis in Plants (1992)
Sven E. Asker, Lenn Jerling
After crosses between Begonia socotrana and B. x semperflorens-cultorum, Preil and Lorenz obtained "patromorphic" offspring which must have originated either from androgenesis or by elimination of the maternal chromosomes.

Rhododendron (Amateis, 1961)
Strange things have happened in my short experience, one of the most unusual, in a cross of kalmia latifolia x kalmia angustifolia. The result was angustifolia, pure and simple. This was not a case of apomixy, for latifolia was the seed parent. In other words, latifolia accepted foreign pollen, produced viable seeds yet had no influence on the progeny. As this cross is sterile, further development has been impossible.

Barley (Davis, 1958)

  1. Male parthenogenetic progeny, produced on pollinating autotetraploid Hordeum bulbosum with autotetraploid Hordeum vulgare, were studied morphologically and cytologically.
  2. Anomalous features within these plants could not be attributed to nuclear or environmental effects, but were probably due to a disharmony of nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents.
  3. An explanation of the differences between and within the plants was sought in terms of quantitative variations of cytoplasmic factors.

Tripsacum x Euchleana (Collins & Kempton, 1916)
A cross between Tripsacum dactyloides, female, and Euchlaena mexicana, male, has been carried through three generations without exhibiting any indication of the characters of the female parent. In attempting to explain this complete absence of the characters of the female parent two alternatives may be considered. (1) The characters of the female parent have been completely masked by those of the male, or (2) the male nucleus developed in the ovary to the complete exclusion of the female, representing in a way the counterpart of parthenogenesis. In the three generations of the progeny of this hybrid at least 350 plants have been examined. This and the fact that a great variety of conditions has called forth great variation and induced many abnormalities without evoking any indication of Tripsacum characters has caused the first alternative to be dismissed. If the second alternative be adopted we are compelled to look upon the results of this cross as a special type of inheritance not previously recognized. Hybrids showing a predominance of the characters of the male parent have been described as patroclinous, but in this cross and its successive progenies no trace of the characters of the female parent has been detected. No true hybridization or conjugation between the two nuclei appears to have taken place. For this form of false hybridization the name patrogenesis is proposed. The term patrogenesis would also serve to place the phenomenon in proper contrast with parthenogenesis. This is rendered appropriate by the occurrence of what appears to be true parthenogenesis in Tripsacum, when pollinated with maize.

Legumes (Darlington & Mather, 1949)
Sometimes the nucleus of one species can be associated with the cytoplasm of another. Thus an occasional seed borne on the lentil plant, Lens esculenta, in cultivation grows into a common vetch, Vicia sativa. Vetch pollen has entered the lentil embryo-sac. The male generative nucleus has supplanted the egg nucleus, doubled its chromosomes, and developed as a diploid vetch in a lentil seed coat. These intruders are entirely normal and show no effect of the cytoplasm in heredity. There are also instances of such exceptional behavior in Fragaria and Nicotiana.

Patrogenesis in Squash? (Bailey: 1902)
In 1902 Bailey was the first to produce a viable F1 generation from the Japanese 'Crookneck' (Cucurbita mixta) x 'Connecticut Field Pumpkin' (C. pepo) combination. The 88 F1 plants were phenotypically more similar to the C. pepo species, the only difference being in the state of development of the lower flowers of the plants.