Heat and Growth

Day: Temperature and Barley Germination (1891)

Plumb: Germination temperature of maize (1895)

Greeley: Temperature and Rose Bloom (1919)

Greeley: Night-Growth of Roses (1920)

Risley: Male Controls Sprouting in Rose Seeds (1958)

Jinks & Connolly: Selection for temperature response (1973)

Collinson: Temperature and tolerance range of plants (1988)

Hodges: Thermal Time Accumulation in plants (1991)

Plants in Action: Adaptation in Nature, Performance in Cultivation (1999) p. 446

Temperature effects on growth can be viewed in relation to either rate of organ production or the final size attained. Size results from both rate and duration of growth, and there are many examples where organ size is reduced at high temperature because rate of growth cannot compensate for a reduced duration of growth. This is illustrated for wheat (a temperate cereal) and rice (a subtropical cereal). At low temperature wheat has a much larger grain than rice, but rice has a much more stable grain size than wheat in relation to temperature and at 30°C grain size in the two species is similar.

Takatsu, et al.: Temperature Effects on Interspecific Hybridization between Gladiolus x grandiflora and, G. tristis. HortScience 36(2):341-343. 2001.

IHC2006: International Symposium on Ornamentals, Now!
K. Ngamau
Abstract: Zantedeschia, an important cut flower that shows high variability in plant height, flowering period and other characteristics when grown from seeds. Availability of variability, however, provides opportunity for the selection for such characteristics as early flowering, temperature or salt tolerance. In-vitro germination may be utilized in the selection for early germination under unfavourable conditions and selected seedlings rapidly multiplied by multiple shoot formation. This study described the selection procedures using early germinating seeds of Zantedeschia 'Green Goddess' on their flowering time, temperature and salt tolerance. The seeds were sown on in-vitro Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at 20°C and 16h light; early germinating seeds transferred singly to new medium. For temperature tolerance, seeds were sown on media maintained at 10, 15 and 20°C. For salt tolerance, seeds were sown on medium containing 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 mmol/L NaCl. The selected seedlings were then multiplied in-vitro to develop clones, which were tested for flowering, temperature tolerance and salt tolerance against clones which germinated later. The results showed that clones, which were selected from early-germinated seedlings, grew faster, flowered earlier and produced more flowers than clones that germinated later. Early germinated seedlings at low temperatures achieved greater growth at lower night temperatures than those germinated at high temperatures. Clones selected after germination at higher levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) attained greater growth on media containing salt than those that germinated on salt free medium.

Heat and Development

Knight: Excessive Heat in Forcing-houses (1814)

Knight: Effects of high temperature on plants (1819)

Cook: Cuzco Corn (1916)

Griffiths & Wright: Temperature and Narcissus (1932)

Peto: Aging, heat and mutations in corn and barley (1933)

Jones: Maize and Heat (1947)

Highkin: Temperature-Induced Variability in Peas (1958)

Delp: Heat in Hybridizing Rhododendrons (1980)