Abnormal Flowers and Breaking "Type"

Worsley: The Brunsdonnas (1926)
Species, or fixed types, in which all characters seem to be linked, will begin and continue to produce variants from the type if it is found possible to rear seeds on (or from) some chance abnormal flower that may appear. From that time the fixity of characters begins to break up, and it becomes a question of time before subsequent crossed generations exhibit a growing diversity of characters. (See Journal R.H.S., May 1911.)

An account of A. x Parkeri appeared in Journal R.H.S., November 1909. By that time I had twice obtained fruit from it. It first flowered with me in August 1897. I raised fruit upon it in 1899, and again in 1904. Only two of the seedlings from these fruits have yet flowered, and both proved typical B. x Parkeri.

B. x Parkeri alba was raised by self-fertilizing a multi-petalled flower of B. Parkeri in 1904, and it flowered for the first time in September 1911, when it received an A.M. Two bulbs from this batch have proved to be B. x Parkeri alba, and two others were B. x Parkeri.

B. x Parkeri alba varies from B. x Parkeri in several respects besides colour. In a general sense it varies as Crinum Powellii alba varies from the original C. Powellii, the flowers being larger, shorter in the tube-shaped part of the limb, and more recurved.

The seeds producing B. x Parkeri alba were discernible from those of bulbs that have produced coloured flowers. On dehiscence of the fruits these seeds were colourless; the type, coloured pink.

Sabine: Double Scotch Roses (1820)
The first appearance of the Double Scotch Roses was in the nursery of Messrs. DICKSON and BROWN (now DICKSON and TURNBULL) of Perth, between twenty and thirty years since. I am indebted to Mr. ROBERT BROWN, one of the partners of the firm at the above period, for the following account of their origin. In the year 1793, he and his brother transplanted some of the wild Scotch Roses from the Hill of Kinnoul, in the neighbourhood of Perth, into their nursery garden: one of these bore flowers slightly tinged with red, from which a plant was raised, whose flowers exhibited a monstrosity, appearing as if one or two flowers came from one bud, which was a little tinged with red; these produced seed, from whence some semi-double flowering plants were obtained; and by continuing a selection of seed, and thus raising new plants, they in 1802 and 1803, had eight good double varieties to dispose of; of these they subsequently increased the number, and from the stock in the Perth garden the nurseries both of Scotland and England were first supplied.

Wilks: Shirley Poppies (1903)
In 1880 I noticed, in a waste corner of my garden abutting on the field, a patch of the common wild field Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas), one solitary flower of which had a very narrow edge of white. This one flower I marked and saved the seed of it alone. Next year, out of perhaps 200 plants, I had four or five on which all the flowers were edged. The best of these were marked and the seed saved, and so for several years, the flowers all the while getting a larger infusion of white to tone down the red until they arrived at quite pale pink, and one plant absolutely pure white. I then set myself to change the black central portions of the flowers from black to yellow or white, and have at last fixed a strain with petals varying in colour from the brightest scarlet to pure white, with all shades of pink between and all varieties of flakes and edged flowers also, but all having yellow or white stamens, anthers, and pollen, and a white base .... My ideal is to get a yellow P. Rhoeas, and I have already obtained many distinct shades of salmon. The Shirley Poppies have thus been obtained simply by selection and elimination. By 'selection' I mean the saving seed only from selected flowers, and by 'elimination' the instant and total eradication of any plant that bears inferior flowers .... Let it be noticed that the Shirley Poppies (1) are single; (2) always have a white base, with (3) yellow or white stamens, anthers, or pollen; (4) never have the smallest particle of black about them.