The Monthly Bulletin, California State Commission of Horticulture. 3(11): 449-455 (November, 1914)

Stocks for Fruit Trees
U. P. Hedrick,*
Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y.
*Address before the State Fruit Growers' Convention, Davis, California, June 1 to 6, 1914

(excerpt)

There is no doubt, I must say in passing, a reciprocal influence of the scion on the stock. We know certainly, for example, that the form of the roots is much changed by the scion. Thus, in starting apples in a nursery we graft or bud on seedlings which ungrafted would have root systems much the same but at digging time the roots are as diverse as the varieties; Red Astrachan, for instance, has an exceedingly fibrous root system with few tap roots, while on either side of the Red Astrachan row Oldenburg and Fameuse are almost destitute of root fibers, having instead a deep tap-root and two or three prongs. So it is with practically all fruits, though not as noticeable with any as in apples and pears. Nurserymen tell me, the weaker the top-growth and the sparser the foliage of a variety, the more deficient is the root-growth.