The Gardener's Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser, Volume 13: 239-240 (August, 1871)

Influence of the Scion on the Stock.

In the early volumes of the Gardener's Monthly, Mr. D W. Adams and others noticed that an apple had its roots singularly modified by the graft which grew on it. The fact is important enough to be kept prominent, as the "philosophy" of the matter has not been explained. We noticed in the Vermont Farmer, recently, Mr. Goodale is quoted in 1863 as noticing the same facts. The Farmer says:

"Still further, scions have sometimes a peculiar action upon stocks in modifying their habit of growth as regards the roots. Says Goodale, (Maine Agricultural report, 1863, p. 163.) "Let a row of seedling apples be grafted, a part with the Siberian Crab apple, and a part with several free growing kinds like the Baldwin or Greening and it will be found upon lifting them a few years after grafting, that the former may have a much greater amount of roots than either of the free-growing sorts. Let part of a row of young Canada plums (our common wild plum) be budded with the better and more free-growing sorts, like Imperial Gage, Smith's Orleans, or McLaughlin, and after two or three years, upon lifting them, it will be found that the roots of those trees grafted have not, apparently, grown at all since being budded, while those not worked have extended very much. These and similar cases I have repeatedly observed in nursery practice, and there are doubtless other influences also exerted by the stock which are not well understood—for instance, it is said that sometimes an apple, usually free from this defect, has become what is called watercored, in consequence of having been grafted upon a tree, the natural fruit of which was thus affected."