Dayton, D. F., New apple strains developed by forcing shoots on disbudded trees. Ill. Res. 12(2): 10. (1970)

Abstract: The technique of forcing adventitious shoots was used to test for genetic mutations in the internal wood of Golden Delicious, Mclntosh and several strains of Red Delicious. Disbudding had no effect on Golden Delicious, but one or more adventitious shoots formed on all the treated Mclntosh and Red Delicious trees. Of 25 trees developed from adventitious shoots, 15 exhibited fruit or tree characters more or less different from the source variety. Results from investigations of changes in fruit pigmentation indicated that cells may carry mutations affecting two or more characters and that the internal wood-may be heterogeneous, containing two or more kinds of genetically different tissues.

Dayton, D. F. 1969. Genetic heterogeneity in the histogenic layers of apple. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94: 592-595.