The California Fruits and How to Grow Them (1889)
Edward James Wickson
Bigarreaux and Hearts
Black Eagle.—A very excellent English variety, ripening in June; large size, deep purple, or nearly black; flesh deep purple, tender, with a rich, high-flavored juice.
Dukes and Morellos
Black Republican (Lewelling, Black Oregon).—"Seedling by Seth Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon, from seed planted in 1860; first fruited in orchard in 1864. Widely distributed in California. Large, black, sweet, with purple flesh; ripens ten days after Black Tartarian."—James Shinn. "Large, late black cherry, good flavor, long keeper; dries and ships well. Seems to succeed better on foot-hills than in the valley."—Robert Williamson. "Supposed to be a cross between Napoleon Bigarreau and Black Tartarian, having the solid flesh of the former and the color of the latter; very late."—John Rock. "I am of the opinion that the Black Republican and Lincoln came from the seed of the Black Eagle, but I have little idea of what variety they were crossed with."—Seth Lewelling.
Lincoln.—Same origin as Black Republican; first fruited in orchard in 1865. Original trees of Black Republican and Lincoln are still sound and vigorous; the latter yielding, in 1886, fifty-two ten-pound boxes.
Lewelling.—Originated by Seth Lewelling, from seed of Black Tartarian. Fruit deep, rich, cherry color; large, firm and fine flavored; late. Fruit picked July 11, 1876, was sent to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, and won for Mr. Lewelling the first premium.
Bing.—Originated by Seth Lewelling, from seed of Black Republican. "Fruit large, dark brown or black, very fine; late; a good shipping variety."—Seth Lewelling. Tree vigorous, and foliage heavy.
Report of Pomologist, USDA, 1892, p. 262
Bing (Plate IV, a —Seth Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon).—Fruit very large, broad heart-shaped, compressed, slightly angular; surface bright, glossy; color very dark crimson to black; dots numerous, often elongated; cavity broad, stem long, suture very broad, apex slightly depressed; skin thick, very firm, but not tough; flesh deep crimson, very firm, juicy; flavor vinous, sweet; quality very good. Season, first half of July in Oregon. This is the largest cherry over received at this office. It is an excellent shipper. A seedling of Black Republican. For comparison with Bing, on Plate IV b, will be found an illustration of Napoleon, a popular old variety of European origin, which is widely grown in California and Oregon, sometimes under the synonym "Royal Ann." It is too well known to fruit-growers everywhere to need a detailed description.