Plantarum Historia Universalis Oxoniensis Part 2
Robert Morison (1680)

30. Lilionarcissus Indicus pumilus monanthos albus (Atamosco vulgo hortulanis dictum) nobis.

Hic caulem protrudit semipedalem, cui innitur unicus flos liliaceus albus, sex petalis constans & totidem staminibus cum stilo aliorum prædictorum more: flos magnitudine æqualis est flori Lilioasphodeli lutei; post florem evanidum folia profert Narcissinis foliis similia, aliquantulum latiuscula, magis mucronata: bulbum habet cepaceum, multis tunicis majoribus involventibus minores constantem, à quo plurimæ barbillæ seu fibræ demittuntur quibus tota planta nutritur. Hunc primo florentem observavimus in hortulo D. Caroli Hatton, cui ab hortulanis nomen Atamosco, ab Indis mutuatum, inditum suit.

31. Lilionarcissus Jacobæus latifolius Indicus rubro flore, nobis. Narcissus Jacobæus latifolius Indicus rubro flore, Clus. Hist.

Sena vel plura habet hic Narcissus folia, Narcissi vulgaris foliorum instar longa, ad quorum latis emergit caulis lævis & enodis, intus concavus, summo fastigio in nodum definens, membranaceum quoddam involucrum purpurascentis coloris sustinentem, equo unicus flos sese exerebat, sex longis & angustis petalis constans, qualia fere in majoris Gladioli singulari flore conspiciuntur rubri & saturi splendentis coloris, aut instar floris Arundinis Indicæ vulgo appellatæ, cui non valde absimilis est, è quorum medio prodibant sex stamina ejusdem pene coloris, oblonga (quibus insidebant apices fusci coloris, quia forsitan ex attritu corrupti) & medius stilus sub quo rudimentum triangularis capitis, quod haud dubie semen dedisset, forte etiam maturum, nisi ipse florem præcidisset, ubi mihi conspiciendum præbuit possestor: radicem habet bulbosam, Cepis vulgaribus prorsus similem, unicam habebat ejus plantam possessor ipsi missam ab eruditissimo viro D. Simone Touvar Hispalensi medico, quæ florem exhibuit Junio, alterum autem expectabat sequente mense, quoniam præcedente anno eadem planta bis illi florem protulit mensibus Junio & Quintili. Radix hujus bulbosa, Cepæ rotundæ simillima, superna vero tunica pulla: folia prima emittit crassa, oblonga, foliorum Narcissi maritimi, Hemerocallis Valentina dicti, æmula:secundum folia autem atque adeo ex latere, pedalis & longior emicat caulis, plerumque unus, aliquando vero & alter (quanquam hoc raro contingit) interdum successive, dilute rubens, rotundus, cavus, & interius subalbidus, qui in membranaceam definit vaginulam, saturate rubentem, & ad extremum acuminatam fissamque: è quæ flos unicus erumpit oblongus pediculo nixus viridiore, qui deorsum inflexus & veluti procumbens (ut in Leucoio bulboso vel Lilio rubro, tametsi non æque nutans, deorsumque inclinans) sex constans petalis eleganti minii colore rubentibus, tribus superioribus, totidem inferioribus; quorum quod è superioribus medium est, surrectius eminet, reliqua duo ad latera à medio reflectuntur, inferiora autem deorsum curvantur, cunctis ita concinnatis, ut ensis etiam rubri, qui ab ordine sancti Jacobi equitibus in veste gestatur, figuram valde referat, unde Jacobæi nomen ipsi à Clusio inditum. Sunt porro in hoc elegantissimo flore staminula septem similiter rubra, quorum medium aliquanto longius in triangularem apicem definit, cæterum sex apices transversi finiunt, interius fusci, superficie luteo pulvisculo obducti: cuncta aut ad mediam fere eorum longitudinem medium ex inferioribus folium ambit: idemetiam à reliquis duobus inferioribus complexum; atque ubi hæc deorsum flectuntur, stamina ipsa sursum elevantur.

32. Lilionarcissus Indicus saturato colore purpurascens, nobis. Narcissus Indicus liliaceus saturato colore purpurascens, Baptist. Ferr.

Hic Lilionarcissus Indicus jam familiaris factus Italiæ, magnitudine & forma candido Lilio par, florum petalis magis continuatis minusque resupinis dispar, florum numero aliquando superior ex eodem centro, caulis scilicet fastigio exeuntium, albo rubroque blande temperatis circa calendas Septembris pingitur, ut ipsius pulchritudo ex sanguine & lacte coaluisse videatur: albidæ membranæ rupto involucro, floris petala primo modice rubent coloratioribus tantum lineis in longitudinem virgata, in calathi deinde figuram deducta adulto pudore suffunduntur; adeo vel in floribus pudibunda pulchritudo publicam lucem erubescit. Toto denique senili vultu rubicundiore dum deflorescunt, floridiora sunt, unus umbilicus intus forisque flavet: sex inæqualia stamina una parte candicantia, in summo subrubentia, lunatos in crocos ex viridi flaventes desinunt. Pistillus denique prolixior, coloratus, apice multo insignitus. Viceni pluresve flores è pediculis satis crassis, binos seu ternos digitos longis ex atro virentibus, & sive devexis, sive erectis, modo in orbem penduli, modo in silvam prominuli, necnon particulatim dehiscentes suum caulis enata in ipsum caulem incumbunt. Bulbus hic in Neapolitano tepore Scillam prope exæquat, Romano sub cœlo minus tumet; instar Eriophori summo sub cortice membranaceo lanosus extra pallet, nec florem fert, nisi ad justi mali punici molem adoleverit. Hic etiam Lilionarcissus cæterorum more se propagat, parco temen proventu. Alter Narcissus Indicus Baptistæ Ferrarii differt à priore solo dilutiore purpureo colore; ideo inepte Ferrarium judicamus duplicem adhibuisse Iconem in florum Cultura.


According to Morison, Ferrari's Narcissus Indicus liliaceus diluto colore purpurascens differed from his ...saturo... only in color. Therefore, Ferrari foolishly ("inepte") copied the same plate for both.


The real "Saturo"

Morison's "Saturato"
Top row:
28. Narcissus maritimus, C.B.P.
   Pancratium marinum fl. albo, Swert.
29. Narcissus 3. Matth. multiflorus albus, Swert.
31. Narcissus jacobaeus, Clus. Hist.
Bottom row:
32. Lilionarcissus Indicus flore dilute purp. Bapt. ferr.
35. Narcissus Indicus sphaericus, flore liliaceo, Bapt ferr.
   Narcissus Indici sphaericei Bapt. ferr. Radix & folia.

Since he thought they were the same, Morison gave one name for both: Lilionarcissus Indicus saturato colore purpurascens. Thus was born a fictitious species, Morison's 8-flowered, deep-purple Lilionarcissus Indicus.

Oddly, Morison then printed a version of Ferrari's Diluto, labeled "Lilionarcissus Indicus flore dilutè purp. Bapt. ferr." This plate shows only 7 flowers, but is obviously copied from Ferrari's plate, and informs us that it was the plate of Diluto that apparently was duplicated in Morison's copy of Flora. And the fact that Ferrari's descriptive phrase-names for the two plants did not mention that Saturo had twice as many flowers as Diluto contributed to the confusion. Plukenet quoted Morison, but distinguished "Diluto" as a separate type. He thought "Saturo" was the Jacobeus. This is especially confusing because he adopted Morison's phrase-name with different synonyms. That Plukenet knew Aldinus's phrase-name "Lilionarcissus rubeus Indicus", which was not mentioned by Ferrari, suggests that he saw Hort. Farn. Even so, he mispelled rubeus (coppery red) as rubens (pink).

I checked the 1664 Amsterdam edition, but the plates are as Ferrari left them; the 20-flowered Saturo is on page 119, Diluto on 121. Perhaps Morison had a defective copy. Ferrari described the three species in the order: Jacobeus, Saturo, Diluto. His "paragraphs" are indicated by names or phrases in the margins. As these marginal names do not always agree with the name he gives in the text, there is room for confusion. His "Jacobeus" was that of Aldinus (a Hippeastrum) not of Clusius (Sprekelia).

Another possibility is that Morison misunderstood Commelin's comment. According to Wijnands (1983), "Commelin pointed out a confusion of the pictured (t.36), with Ferrarius' plant cited in the atlas. Ferrarius' illustration represents Amaryllis belladonna L. This is one of the few instances where it is evident that the text in the atlas vol.1 was written before the publication of Hort. Amst. 1."

This also might explain how L'Héritier (1788) managed to include this species under Amaryllis Belladonna (non L).

Ferrari wrote, "Non absimili forma minùs formosum..." meaning that Diluto was not unlike ("non absimili") Saturo in form, but was less beautiful ("minus formosum"). This could account for Morison's combining the two plants into a single species.