Herbertia 1937
Liliacea (1781-1782)
Carl von Linné the younger [1741-1783]

Haemanthus multiflorus. (Seb. Thes. 1, p. 20, t. 12, f. 1, 2, 3.) Habitat in Africa prope Serram Leonem. [Salisbury, Prodr., p. 217 cites this MS. name as a synonym of H. colchicifolius.]

H. puniceus. (Dill. Elth. 1, p. 167, t. 140.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Cap: b: spei. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 404.]

H. coccineus. (Comm. hort. 2, p. 127, t. 64.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Promont: Bon: spei. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 403.]

H. pubescens. (Suppl. Plant.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Promont: Bon: spei campis arenosis. [The name H. hirsutus was first given to the diagnosis, but has been deleted for the already published H. pubescens. Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 404.]

H. pulchellus. [Name deleted; no synonym cited.] Habitat in Africa Australi: Promont: Bon: spei. Masson. Specimen in Herbar: Dni Banks pro descriptione inservuit.

H. ciliaris. (Amaryllis ciliaris Suppl.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Promont: Bon: spei. Mas(s)on. Descripsi specimen in Herb: Dni Banks. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 404; Salisbury, Prodr., p. 217, has this species and cites Amaryllis ciliaris Suppl. as a synonym.]

H. distichus. (Amaryllis disticha Suppl.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Promont: Bon: spei. Masson. Descript: ex specimine sicci in Herb: Dni Banksi. E. MSca Banks: Nomen Holland Vergift Boll. Hottentotti extracto radicis aroma intoxicant, et inde venenum praeparare quibus Antilopes occidantas. Masson. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 405.]

H. spiralis. (Crinum tenellum Suppl.) Habitat in Africa Australi: prope Promontor: Bon: spei. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 405, but for H. toxicarius.]

Amaryllis ornata. (Rumph. Amb. V. p. 306, t. 105. Tulipa Javana.) Habitat in Africa: Guinea. Vulgo Cap-Coast-Lilly. Ex horto in Wimblington [Wimbledon], Lord Rockingham. Obs: figuram coloratam hujus vidi in Musaeo Dni Banks in patriae cura Smeathmanni facta. Plantam vivam ex horto Dni Rockingham habui. [A. floribus sessilibus, corollis basi tubulosis: tubo spathis limboque longiori curvo, limbi laciniis oblongis aristatis: lacinia infima divaricata concava.]

A. latifolia. (Crinum latifolium, Syst. Nat.)

A. Equestris. (Merian. Surin. p. 22, t. 22.) Angl: Martinique Lilly s. Barbados Lilly. [A. spatha subbiflora, pedicellis erectis spatha brevioribus, tubo filiformi horizontali, limbo oblique patulo sursum curvo, fauce pilosa.]

A. cernua. (Plukn. Alm. t. 195, f. 3.) Habitat in Africa Australi locis paludosis prope Breed-Rivier. Fr. Masson. Descr. Soland.

A. radiata. (Trew, Seligmann, t. 35.) Figura Seligmanni facta Londini ab Ehret, sed ex minuto specimine. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 421.]

A. obliqua. Habitat in Africa Australi, circa Promont, Bon. spei, prope Chamtours Rivier in campis graminosis. Fr. Masson.

A. fucata. Ex horto Marquis of Rockingham in Wimblington [Wimbledon]. Obs: longissimo tubo, et coarctito limbo differt a A. longifolia facile.

A. longifolia. (Comm. hort. 1, p. 71, t. 36.) Habitat in Africa Australia. Amaryllis descr: ex fig: picta Mill: Haec forte planta varietas A. latifoliae, cujus figuram dedit Rheed, a qua differt maxime numero florum, flores minores, rubri, lacinias non acutas sed obtusiores in reliquis conveniunt. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 419.]

A. revoluta. (? Crinum lineare Suppl.) Habitat in Africa Australi. Vivam vidi ex Horto Kewensi, cura Dni Aiton. Obs: Flos odore Gardeniae floridae. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 419.]

A. zeylanica. (Comm. hort. 1, p. 73, t. 37.) Patriam suae Africam dicit Erhet [i.e. Ehret.]

A. purpurea. (Crinum speciosum Suppl.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Cap. b. spei, locis, uliginosis. Masson. Specimen siccum in Herbario Banks. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 417.]

A. miniata. Habitat in India occidentali: insulis Caribaeis. Horto Dni Lee ad Hammarschmidt [Hammersmith] prope London. [A. spatha subbiflora, corollis basi tubulosis nutantibus, fauce tubi glabra, scapo compresso, foliis oblongis basi attenuatis. Hort. Kew. used this description for A. reticulata; Salisbury, Prodr., p. 233, cites this MS. name as a synonym of A. reticulata.]

A. falcata. (Crinum falcatum, Jacqu. hort. 2, p. 34, t. 60.) Habitat in Africa australi: Cap. b. spei. Thunb[erg.] [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 418]

A. falcata Ex Sched: Solandri. Descriptio Massonii non Solandri. Habitat in locis sabulosis ad Promontor. b. spei.

A. Atamasco. (Trew, Seligmann, t. 37.) Habitat in America Septentrionali: Carolina. [Specific diagnosis, with the final word 'aequalibus' added, printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 416.]

A. Atamasco. Descriptio Am: Atamasco ex specimine vivo. [See Plate 52, lower portion.]

A. aurea Ex China allata...vivam vidi ex horto Regio Kew. Angliae cura Dni Aiton [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 419.]

A. lutea. (Amaryllis lutea, Syst. Nat.) [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 415.]

A. Belladonna. (Trew, Seligmann, t. 12.) Habitat in Africa Australi: Cap: Bona Spei. Obs: Cornutii figura videtur aliam exprimere plantam, sed quam ignoro; facies potius Amaryllid: falcatae. [A. corollis erectiusculis hexapetalis: laciniis planis, scapo compresso, foliis acute canaliculatis obtuse carinatis glaberrimis.]

A. Reginae. (Trew, Seligmann, t. 18.) Habitat in America meridionali. Vulgo Mexican-Lilly. Floret in Januarii vulgatissime in hortis Anglorum. [A. spatha subbiflora, pedicellis divaricatis, corollis campanulatis breve tubulosis nutantibus, fauce tubi hirsuta, foliis lanceolatis patulis.]

A. vittata. (Ferr. Flor. 166, t. 119?) In fine mense Aprilis florentem vidi in selecto [?] Horto Dni Dris Pitcairn in Islington; in Caldario ubi per 14 dies fere floruit speciosissima planta. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p416.]

A. undulata. (Amaryllis undulata, Hill. Hort. Kew. p. 352, t. 14.) Habitat in Africa Australi. Vulgaris in Hortis Anglorum. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p420.]

A. formosissima. (Sprekelia Heisterii, Trew, Seligmann, t. 24.) Habitat in America Meridionali. Rarissimi biflora. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p416.]

A. sarniensis. (Trew, Seligmann. t. 30) Habitat in Japonia ... in Africa Australi: Cap: B: spei. (Masson.) [Note on its introduction into Guernsey. Specific Diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 420.]

A. orientalis. (Amaryllis orientalis, Sp. Pl. 422.) Habitat in India. [Specific diagnosis printed in Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1, p. 420, but the last four words omitted.]


Linnaeus bequeathed his herbarium to his wife with the stipulation that their son should not get it or have access to its contents "as he never helped me in botany, and has no love for it." His mother had no love for him, and he eventually borrowed enough money from friends to buy his father's library and herbarium from his mother and sisters.

He apparently destroyed damaged specimens in the herbarium, which could explain some of the absences.

In Hortus Cliffortianus, Linnaeus stated that all the species of Amaryllis are very beautiful, but that the second (in his opinion) was without equal. He cited Maria Merian's "Lilium Rubrum" as an illustration for "Amaryllis spatha multiflora, corollis campanulatis aequalibus, genitalibus declinatis," which became Amaryllis Belladonna in Species Plantarum (1753).

George Ehret, who had worked with Linnaeus on Hortus Cliffortianus, painted a watercolor sketch of "Amaryllis spatha multiflora...etc." in the early 1740s. He sent a finished version of this painting to his patron, Jakob Trew, which was included in Seligmann's Hortus Nitidissimis around 20 years later. In his MS, Linnaeus fils cited Merian's plate as the type for Amaryllis Equestris, while referring Seligmann's plate to Amaryllis Reginae. Though Hortus Nitidissimus was printed after Species Plantarum 2nd edition (1762), it is pre-Linnaean in its use of Lilio-Narcissus instead of Amaryllis, and phrase-names instead of Linnaean binomials. Furthermore, the "Belladonna" of Seligmann is based on Ehret's "Lilio-Narcissus Americanus Belladona dictus", which incorrectly identified the Cape Belladonna with Hermann's "Lilium Americanum puniceo flore Bella Donna dictum," the American Belladonna. Linnaeus distinguished Amaryllis Belladonna from A. reginae primarily on the basis of their petals: reflexed at the base in the former, not reflexed at the base for the latter. Linn. fil. ignored his father's opinions and name. His A. equestris has the horizontal filiform tube shown in Merian's painting. Amaryllis reginae L.f. has the shorter tube. This is the earliest use (so far as I've found) of the name Amaryllis Belladonna for the Cape Belladonna, aside from the note about Cornut's plant. L'Héritier compiled a list of references for A. Belladonna which contains a series of misidentifications traceable to English sources. It is not clear whether Linn. fil. decided to rearrange the names on his own, or was perhaps influenced by other botanists working at Kew.

It is interesting to note that Linn. fil. distinguished Amaryllis ornata from A. zeylanica (Crinum zeylanicum L.). Later English botanists regarded them as equivalent, and favored ornata over Linnaeus's zeylanica.