Modified 24 Nov 2000
Sertum Anglicum (1788)
Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle

 7 AMARYLLIS chilensis.
A. spathâ uni-biflorâ subbifoliâ lanceolatâ, floribus pedunculatis, foliis linearibus.

Lilio-narcissus monanthos coccineus. Feuill. obs. 3. t. 21.(absque foliis.) mss. p. 50. (cum foliis.)

Habitat in Chile. Dombey

Flores A. Belladonnae aut reginae, purpurei. [Flowers purple like A. Belladonna or reginae.]

 9 AMARYLLIS formosissima. L.
A. spathâ indivisâ uniflorâ, corollâ bilabiatâ sexpartitâ, petalis inferioribus genitalibusque dependentibus.

A. spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ inaequali, genitalibus declinatis. Linn. cliff. 135. act. holm. 1742. 93. t.6.
A. spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ inaequali, petalis tribus genitalibusque declinatis. Linn. spec. 420.
Narcissus latifolius indicus rubro flore. Clus. hist. 1. 157. cur. 12. Bauh. hist. 2. 609.
Narcissus indicus flore sanguineo. Swertz. flor. t.28.
Narcissus indicus totus ruber. Bauh. pin. 49.
Lilio-narcissus indicus ruber monanthos jacobaeus. Barrel. icon. t.1035.
Lilio-narcissus jacobaeus, flore sanguineo nutante. Dill. elth. 195. t.162.
Lilio-narcissus indicus totus ruber vulgo jacobaeus. Weinm. phyt. 3. p.276. t.652. f.A.
Narcissus jacobaeus. Trew. seligm. t.24.

Habitat in Mexico

Corollam polypetalum mentitur, sed Petala reverâ basi unita, staminaque iis inserta ut in congeneribus: tria inferiora dependentia. Faux obsolete ramentacea. [It simulates a polypetalous corolla, but the petals are truly united at the base, the stamens are inserted in them as in the congeneric: the three lower ones hang down. The throat is somewhat scaly.]

10 AMARYLLIS reginae.
A. spathâ subbiflorâ, corollis basi tubulosis campanulatis quinquepartitis, fauce tubi hirsutâ.

Lilium americanum puniceo flore, Belladonna dictum. Herm. par. p.194. t.194.
Lilio-narcissus indicus, seu narcissus liliflorus aureus striis argenteis pictus, floribus amplis cernuis gemellis, caule magno caepae fistuloso. Plukn. almag. 220. t.246. f.2.
Lilio-narcissus polyanthos, flore incarnato, fundo ex luteo albescente. Sloan. cat. 115.Mer. sur. 22. t.22.Seb. thes. 25. t.17. f.1.
A. spathâ multiflorâ, corollis campanulatis marginibus reflexis, genitalibus declinatus. Mill. ic. 16. t.23.
Lilio-narcissus II. Trew. seligm. t.18.
A. dubia. Linn. amoen. 9. 254.

Habitat in Jamaica, Surinamo.

11 AMARYLLIS speciosa.
A. spathâ subbiflorâ, corollis erectis basi tubulosis campanulatis semiquinquefidis, fauce tubi glabrâ.

Crinum speciosum foliis uniformibus, corollis campanulatis, tribus laciniis alternis calloso-unquiculatis. Linn. suppl. 195.

Habitat in Africâ australi. Masson.

Quam plurimum affinis praecendenti. An satis distincta?

13 AMARYLLIS Belladonna.
A. floribus umbellatis pedunculatis subhexapetalis, foliis canaliculatis.

Lilio-narcissus rubens indicus. Ald. farn. 83. t.82.
Lilio-narcissus pumilus indicus polyanthos. Corn. can. 153. t.154.
Narcissus indicus liliaceus diluto colore purpurascens. Ferr. flor. 117. tab. 121, 123.
Narcissus indicus liliaceus sature colore purpurascens. Ferr. flor. t. 119.
Narcissus indicus polyanthos liliaceo flore. Rudb. elys. 2. p.48. f.7. (figura Ferrarii.)
Lilio-asphodelus capensis, flore roseo. Pet. gaz. n. 497. t.85. f.5.
Lilio-narcissus jacobaeus phoeniceus indicus polyanthos. Barrel. rar. 69. t.1036.
Lilio-narcissus indicus saturate purpurascens polyanthos Belladonaformos italicus. Barrel. rar. 70. t.1039.
Lilio-narcissus indicus diluto purpurascens, Belladona italorum vulgatior. Barrel. rar. 70. t.1040.
Lilio-narcissus indicus, flore elegantissime purpurascente. Weinm. phyt. 3. pag. 276. t.653. f.A.
A. spathâ multiflorâ, corollis campanulatis aequalibus, genitalibus declinatis. Mill. ic. 15. t.23.
A. Belladonna. [John] Mill. illust.

Habitat ad Promontorium bonae spei.
Laciniae alternae extrorsum manifestissime uncinatae. Stigma trifidum.

Joseph Dombey, French traveller and botanist, accompanied Ruiz and Pavon on their expedition to Chile and Peru. The collection of living and dried specimens was to be divided between the Spanish and French, but when the ship sailing to Spain was lost, the Spanish demanded half of what remained. The living plants died in the customs-houses.

Dombey agreed not to publish anything about his trip to South America until Ruiz and Pavon returned, but was unable to do anything with the specimens he took to France. He entrusted them to Buffon—who found a government pension and a grant in aid for him to pay his debts. Buffon in turn gave the specimens to L'Héritier. When the Spanish government learned of the plans to describe the specimens and to publish, contrary to the agreement, it demanded the return of the collection. L'Héritier hastily packed up the specimens and sailed to England. He planned to stay only three months, but remained 15—until December 1787. Joseph Banks was furious with L'Héritier for using his name at customs while importing Dombey's herbarium. Also, Banks suspected L'Héritier of plagurizing Cavanilles' work on the genus Gerania, so he instructed Dryander to keep an eye on him. L'Héritier behaved himself, and studied the plants at Kew and other English gardens. The result was the Sertum Anglicum,An English Wreath. His treatment of Belladonna and reginae is perplexing and contradictory. For instance, he included figure 23 of Miller's Figures for both species. Under reginae he listed the Hort. Nitid. plate of the the West Indische rothe Lilie. This plate was based on an original by George Ehret, who explicitly identified it as the plant described by Linnaeus in Hort. Cliff.. Ehret also implicitly identified this plant with that of Aldinus' Hort. Farn., which L'Héritier listed under Belladonna. L'Héritier did manage to place Hermann's and Sloane's phrase-names together, but under reginae. He also included Plukenet's Lilio-narcissus indicus, seu narcissus liliflorus aureus striis argenteis pictus, etc. which Lamarck (his sometimes enemy) had already (1783) named Amaryllis striata. The species was grown at Chelsea as early as 1731, but if it is the same as the modern Hippeastrum striatum L'Héritier must not have examined a specimen since he described Amaryllis reginae as "tubi hirsuta". The real confusion is found under Amaryllis Belladonna, where we find Barrelier's Belladonnaformos and the Lilionarcissus rubeus indicus of Hort. Farn. He must have taken the name from Plukenet, since he copied the misspelled "rubens". He did not refer to Linnaeus for the names reginae or Belladonna. L'Héritier clearly had a broader conception of species than even Linnaeus, since under Amaryllis (Vallota) speciosa [=A. purpurea Hort. Kew.] he asks whether it is sufficiently distinct from Amaryllis reginae. He also observed that Amaryllis formosissima has its petals united at the base, a fact later noted by Herbert but denied by Sealy.

The item that seems to explain just what he had in mind is found under Amaryllis (Rhodophiala) chilensis: "flowers purple as in A. Belladonna or reginae. Purple, through the 18th and into the 19th century, was often understood to mean a color on the orange side of spectrum red. This minor mystery first struck me when I saw that "punicea" and "phoenicea" meant orange or scarlet. We commonly think of Phoenician (or Tyrian) Purple as indicating something between red and violet, but this is apparently a modern interpretation.

Rosa foetida bicolor is commonly called the Austrian Copper. Cornut (Canadensium, 1633) called it Rosa punicea, and Philip Miller (Gardeners Dictionary, 1764) described the color as "purplish copper". Clearly, the plants L'Héritier knew as chilensis, reginae and Belladonna were of a similar color, which he chose to call "purpurei". [Cassell's Latin English Dictionary defines "purpureus" as "purple-coloured; dark-red, dark-brown."] L'Héritier's Amaryllis Belladonna contains plants referable to at least four modern genera, and is not easily untangled. The three facts, that Aldinus's plant is listed first, that chilensis was of the same color, and that Belladonna had trifid stigmas, strongly suggest that he had an American plant in mind—in agreement with Linnaeus. But where Linnaeus included the Cape Belladonna under reginae (following P Miller), L'Héritier moved it to Belladonna. Hill (1774) seems to have ignored the Cape Belladonna entirely, but distinguished a third American species, biflora— the Jamaica Amaryllis.

The reference under Amaryllis Belladonna to Cornut's plant is apparently taken from Linn. fil.'s unpublished MS. "Cornutii figura videtur aliam exprimere plantam, sed quam ignoro; facies potius Amaryllid: falcatae.