Amaryllis and Other Geophytes


Worsley: Bad year for bulbs (1900)

Luyten: Hot Water Treatment for Amaryllis (1945)

Warren: Easy Propagaation

Loudon: Propagating by leaves (1849)

O'Rourke et al.: Micropropagation of Hippeastrum (1991)

Schulz: Hardgrove Shock Treatment for Amaryllis (1954)

Traub: Reversal of apical dominance (1935)

Robert Sweet: Raising Amaryllis (1839)

Lindsted: Wintering Amaryllis in Northern Gardens (1961)

Doane: An Amaryllis Story (1902) Avaryllis

Spencer: Treatment of Amaryllis for autumn bloom (1846)

Munnikhuysen: Charcoal for "red rust" on Amaryllis (1900)

Wright: Amaryllises all the year round (1892)

de Munk: Thermomorphogenesis in Bulbous Plants (1989)

Went: Thermoperiod, tulips and hyacinths (1948)

Amaryllis Species

Amaryllis Pictures, Species and Cultivars

Sprekelia Pictures

Belladonna Coincidences

Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) de la Región del Madidi

Traub: Key to the Amaryllis species and subgenera (1958)

Gardner: Vegetation of Diamond & Gold districts, Minas Geraes, Brazil (1848)

Worsley: Hippeastrum barbatum (1928)

Unknown - possibly solandriflorum

Baldwin & Speese: Hippeastrum solandriflorum chromosomes (1947)

Bolivian Amaryllis species (1992)

Ker: A Review of the Genus Amaryllis (1817)

Steudel: Amaryllis species and synonyms (1821)

Sessé & Mociño: Amaryllis species in Mexico (1887)

Lindley: Amaryllis solandraeflora & vittata (1821)

Curtis: Amaryllis reginae (1799)

Worsley: The Genus Hippeastrum (1896)

Baker: Hippeastrum andreanum (1880)

Lindley: Double Amaryllis (1825)

Nehrling: The Amaryllis (1886)

Nehrling: The Hippeastrums—Species and Varieties (1897)

Stout: The synflorescence of Amaryllis hybrids (1944)

Salisbury: Amaryllideae (1866)

Amaryllis History

The Red Lily Amaryllis Belladonna L.

Saunders: Guernsey Lily (Nerine sarniensis)

Hibberd: Lecture on the Amaryllis (1883)


Hannibal: Mosaic Virus in Amaryllids (1942)

Stouffer: Amaryllis Mosaic Virus and its Kin (1963)

Nowicki: Freeing Amaryllis of Mosaic Virus (1973)

Why do the last florets to open outcross FAR more readily? (2001)

Traub: Biosystematic experiments, Amaryllidaceae (1952)

Traub, Henry: Amaryllis belladonna var Haywardii hybrids (1949, 1951, 1961)

Traub: Amaryllis x henryae (1958)

Feller: Progeny of Hippeastrum papilio (1998)

Hardman: Trends in Hippeastrum Breeding (1997)

Hippeastrum reticulatum hybrids (1888)

Clint: Sprekelia breeding (1962)

O'Brien: Hippeastrum 'Hindenley' (1903)

Bonavia: The Amaryllis (1884)

Bonavia: Hybrid Amaryllis (1884)

Douglas: The Amaryllis (1888)

Douglas: Raising New Varieties of Amaryllis (1888)

Douglas: Hippeastrums (1890)

Veitch: Hippeastrums (1890)

Bonavia: Something About Hippeastrums (1904)

Amaryllis x carnarvonia (= Vittata x Johnsoni)

Gowen: On the Production of a Hybrid Amaryllis (1821)

Gowen: Description of Amaryllis Psittacina-Johnsoni (1823)

Gowen: Hybrid Amaryllis, between vittata and Regina-vittata (1823)

Lindley (Trans Roy Hort Soc, 1923) Amaryllis regina-vittata

Anonymous: Amaryllis vittata rubra (1854)

George Washington Carver & Amaryllis

Hippeastrum reticulatum & stylosum (1896, 1936)

Douglas, Miles, Bonavia: Hippeastrum Hybrids (1906)

Beaton: On Amaryllids (1850)

Beaton: The Genus Hippeastrum (1862)

Anderson: Amaryllis Varieties (1856)

Glover: Australian Hipp Hybrids (1965)

Nelson: Amaryllis breeding stock (1955)

Nelson: Amaryllis Hybrids (1968)

Nelson: Amaryllis Breeding Records (1968)

Bradley: Hybridizing in Australia (1906)

Hannibal: Notes on Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) (1946)

Durrett's reblooming amaryllises (1881)

Bigeneric hybrids

Traub: Rhodophiala species and hybrids (1956)

Sahin: Bigeneric Hybrids (1997)


Chapman: Hippeastrum x Clivia, Hippeastrum x Agapanthus ?

McNeil: Hybridizing Cyrtanthus, Anoiganthus, Clivia (1962)

Worsley: Hippeastrum x Crinum? (1906)

Pradham: Amaryllis [Hippeastrum] x Sprekelia (1969)

Burbank: Amaryllis [Hippeastrum] x Sprekelia (1914)

Chapman: Vallota x Hippeastrum (1907)

Cage: Sprekelia x Habranthus (1969, 1972)

Clint: Habranthus x Zephyranthes (1971)

Schulz: Hippeastrum x Zephyranthes (1954)

Lehmiller: Howardara 'Riley Kate' Zephyranthes traubii, Sprekelia formosissima, S. howardii, Hippeastrum 'Hercules'

Van Tress: Hippeastrum and Lycoris - Hippecoris Garfieldii (1936)

Vallota bigeneric hybrids (1939)

Nix: Vallota-Belladonna hybrids (1892)

Hudson: Vallota-Amaryllis hybrids (1910)

McNeil's Clivia 'Four Marys' (Clivia miniata x Crinum powellii ?)

Kerslake: Hybrids in New South Wales (1906)
Crinum yemense x Hymenocallis macrostephana crossed without any difficulty, as did also Brunsvigia Baptisii x Lycoris aurea. But the most interesting was that effected between an unnamed variety of Hippeastrum and Agapanthus umbellatus. The Hippeastrum flowers here in October and November, but in favourable seasons a stray scape is again thrown up in January and February. It was one of these that made this cross possible; otherwise the pollen of Agapanthus would have to be preserved for a period of ten or eleven months, which is far too long. There were four flowers on the scape when they were pollinated with Agapanthus umbellatus: of these four, one was injured by being too early emasculated, a week before they reached the receptive stage (probably through being produced in the off season). Two flowers perished, but the remaining one produced a full pod of seeds. At this stage, though the seeds were of normal appearance I doubted their fertility. However, they were sown, and nine plants resulted. Three died in the seed pan; but six still remain, which have not yet reached the flowering stage, but are strong and healthy and appear to be evergreen. This being a case of overlapping botanical divisions I never intended divulging it until the plants had flowered. But a recent report that a gentleman near Sydney had effected the same cross has led me to believe that there is nothing remarkable about it.

Email from Hugh Bollinger (2/14/1998)
I've been interested in your comments regarding bi-generic hybrids. The only one I've personally seen, and confirmed as real by an expert authority, was a cross between Agapanthus and Eucharis! I saw the plant and it truely looked like a mix of the two genera. It wasn't in flower when I visited my friend, but he confirmed that it flowered later and had a very strange appearance.

Urceocharis clibrani (Eucharis grandiflora x Urceolina aurea) (1891)

Urceocharis clibrani (Eucharis grandiflora x Urceolina aurea) (1906)

Urceocharis x edentata (Bot. Mag. tab. 8359) (1911).

Clivencharis Pulcra X (1891) Clivia x Eucharis amazonica
This plant reportedly contributed fragrance to later Clivias.

Misc. Bigenerics

Burbank: Tigridias & Ferrarias (1914)

Orpet: Bigeneric Orchid Hybrids (1900)

Orpet: Bigeneric Orchid Hybrids (1901)

Misc. Writings

William Herbert Bibliography


Williams: Lycoris from seed to flower in less than 2 years (1980)

Madison: Sprouting Lycoris Seeds

Caldwell: Seeds on Lycoris squamigera (1979)

Caldwell: Lycoris breeding; L. "sperryi" (1962)

Shu: Identification of Lycoris aurea populations (2012)

Tarumoto et al.: Lycoris hybrids (2006)

Shii et al.: Lycoris aurea x radiata (1997)

Beaton: Lycoris and other bulbs (1853)

Lycoris squamigera (1890)

Ogawa, et al.: Genome Differentiation in Lycoris Species (2005)

He et al.: Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba (2011)

Lycoris pictures and links


Oosten: Culture and breeding of Tulips (1711)

There Never Was a Real Tulip Fever

Darwin: Broken Tulips (1868)

Botschantzeva: Juvenile Period in Tulips (1982)

Shoji et al: Blue color in tulip (2006)

Misc. Belladonnas

Ferrari: False Donna Bella

Ferrari: True Donna Bella

Another Belladonna - Sprekelia formosissima

Bradley: Bella Donna from Portugal (1728)

Buc'hoz: Belledame, du jardin de Trianon (1770)

Ehret's Crinum scabrum

Bauer Bros., Walter: Two Belladonnas (c. 1778, c. 1797)

Lamarck: La Belladonne jaune d'Afrique (1783)


Amaryllis Pictures

Loddiges Botanical Cabinet - Amaryllis pictures

Cape Belladonna and Hybrids

Lykos: Amarygia Breeding (2003)

Lykos: Amaryllis, Brunsvigia Hybrids (2005)

Hannibal: Crinum moorei pollen (1999)

Hannibal: Callicore, Brunsvigia and hybrids (1942)

Hannibal 'Rubra Bicolour' Matching Clifford Specimen

x Amarine

Traub: Brunsdonnas (1962)

Hannibal: Origin of Amarygias

Lykos: Amarygia Breeding (2003)

Worsley: A. blanda, pseudo-blanda and rubra major (1928)

Worsley: Brunsdonnas (1932)

Lindley: Amaryllis blanda

Amaryllis paradisicola

Beaton: Crossing Amaryllids (1849)

Watson: Arbuckle's Amaryllis kewensis (1892)

Watson: Brunsdonna — Kew variety (1898)

Watson, Elwes: Kew Belladonna (1909)

Van Tubergen: Brunsdonna (1909)

Worsley: Hybridization in Amarylleae (1901)

Worsley: Seed germination, bulb extension, Amaryllids (1903)

Worsley: Amaryllis Parkeri (1909)

Worsley: Amaryllis baptiste var alba (1932)

Worsley: The Brunsdonnas - Parkeri alba (1926)

Worsley: Amaryllis and bigeneric hybrids (1932)

Watson: Bigenerics (1893)

Watson: Vallota x Amaryllis (1900)

Beaton: Brunsvigia x Vallota hybrids (1850)

Vallota purpurea var. alba (1904)

Bradley (1906): "Amaryllis Belladonna x Lycoris aurea gives a plant generally like A. Belladonna: the flowers are smaller and have the wavy divisions of perianth of a Lycoris, but not to the same extent."

Worsley (1932): "Dr. Ragioneri of Florence has placed on record hybrids between Amaryllis and Lycoris, but I have seen no record of verification by the flowering of these seedlings."

Dickerson: Lycorillis (Lycoris x Belladonna)

Bidwill: Amaryllid Hybrids Down Under (1850)


Brunsvigia species pictures

Dijk: Brunsvigia information


Crinum Pictures, Species and Cultivars

Baker: Synopsis of known Crinum species (1881)

Herbert: Delayed fertility in Crinum

Rudbeck: Lilionarcissus zeilanicus latifolius (1701)

Rumpf: Tulipa Javana & Radix Toxicaria (1741)

Rottböll: Crinum biflorum, zeilanicum (1773)

Burbank: Crinums (1914)

Hannibal: Crinum flacidum, bulbispermum, pedunculatum (1961)


HWC: Propagating Hyacinths (1923)


Pink Agapanthus Pics

Beaton: Outdoor Agapanthus (1851)

Arnot (1906, 1907) Hardy Agapanthus Mooreanus

Snoeijer: Agapanthus inapertus (2004)
... all peduncles (except for those of Agapanthus inapertus, which will be upright regardless) grow towards the light.


Mathers: Colchicine Mutation of Gladiolus (1943)

Lopez: Gladiolus tristis day length and temp in storage (2006)

Goldblatt & Manning: The long-proboscid fly pollination system in Gladiolus (Iridaceae) (1999)

Herbert: Gladiolus hybrids (1847)

Beaton: Gladiolus hybrids (1861)

Gladiolus cruentus (1869)

Dombrain: Charcoal and Gladiolus (1872)

Kerlage: Origin of Garden Gladioli (1896)

Van Fleet: Gladiolus Breeding (1902)

Gladiolus atro-violaceus (1907)

Kunderd: Ruffled Gladioli (1908)

Morton: New Gladioli (1914)

Hottes: Garden Gladioli (1915)

Beal & Hottes: Gladiolus Studies (1916)

C.M.S. (1917): A great Hybridizing "Secret." "Stale pistil fertilized with fresh pollen will produce plants and flowers larger than normal." "Fresh pistil crossed with stale pollen will produce plants and flowers smaller than normal."

McLean: Inheritance and Chromosomes in Glads (1931)

McLean: The inheritance of fragrance in Gladiolus species crosses (1933)

McLean: Herbert's Gladiolus x Fragrans (1938)

Bamford: Gladiolus Hybrids (1941)

Buell: Exotic Gladioli (1972)

Takatsu et al. Temperature and gladiolus pollination (2001)

Watsonia descriptions (Australia)


Beaton: Propagating stem-rooting lilies (1861)
Mr. Knight made an experiment for getting early Potatoes to seed by planting them on a ridge, and when the plants were ready to bloom he washed away the soil of the ridge to prevent them making young tubers, and so force the whole strength of the plants or roots into the stems and foliage to see if that would force them to seed. Another form of that experiment is applicable to all bulbs and tubers which form roots on the flowering-stems, as the Japan Lilies and others do. Pot such bulbs or tubers with the neck of the bulbs just at the surface, and when the stem is an inch or two put an empty pot over it, introducing the stem through the hole at the bottom of the pot, then earth up the stem, and when it roots and fills the upper pot separate from the bulbs, then cross it.

Duchartre: Lilium species (1876)

Sargant: Adaptation of Seedlings to their Surroundings (1901)
Lily, Fritillaria, Aloe, Arum

OddityCentral Nov 26th, 2020
Fritillaria delavayi has apparently evolved to match its background

Kerslake: Cross-fertilisation in New South Wales (1906)
     Lilium tigrinum x L. elegans Wallacei resulted in every flower operated upon producing huge pods of seed. But when Lilium speciosum album x L. tigrinum, and L. speciosum rubrum x L. tigrinum, and L. tigrinum x L. speciosum album were tried, the results were very different, as the female organ in a very short space of time showed unmistakable signs of decay, and in a couple of days had quite withered. This was so not in one instance only, but the whole forty blooms used in the experiment showed the same symptoms. As evidence that this was no fault of the prospective seed parent, some later flowers were tried, L. speciosum album x L. speciosum rubrum, when they at once returned to fertility. The same thing occurred, only under less favourable conditions, with L. speciosum album x L. auratum, and the same x L. sulphureum. However, under the circumstances I am reluctant to conclude, without farther extended trial, that a union of speciosum and auratum cannot be effected, as so much depends upon what may be termed the seed-bearing mood of the plant, which is often absent when the reproductive organs show the most perfect development.

van Tubergen: Hybrids and Hybridisation among Bulbous Plants (1906)

Jeffrey: Seeds on horseradish and Lilium candidum (1915)

Michurin: Maternal Dominance in a Lilium szovitsianum x L. Thunbergianum (elegans) Hybrid (1915)

Griffiths: Lilium concolor x tenuifolium (1927)

The Garden, 1887 p. 394:
Lilium testaceum seeding.—In answer to W. Shoolbred in THE GARDEN (p. 194), I once got a good seed-pod of this. It was exactly between Lilium candidum and L chalcedonicum. L candidum and L. testaceum both seeded under the same circumstance: the stems were cut off in flower and put into a pot of water in the open air. It is said if candidum is cut and the stems hung topsy-turvey they will seed.—F. MILES

Various authors: Lilium testaceum

Arber: Leaf-base phyllodes among Liliaceae (1920)

Green: Anomalous Lily Bulbils (1914)

Herbert: Proiphys amboinensis Bulbils (1822)

Avakian: Segregation in Garlic Bulbils (1948)

Russell: Bulbs and seeds from Lilium candidum stems (1835)

Stout: Sterility in Lilies (1922)

Tubergen: Hybrid Lily, Hymenocallis, Glad, Iris (1906)

Withers: Overcoming Incompatibility (Lilies) 1975

J. Expt. Bot. 45(276):1019-1025 (1994)
Day/night temperature environment affects cell elongation but not division in Lilium longiflorum Thunb.
John Erwin, Peter Velguth and Royal Heins
     Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. 'Nellie White' plants were grown in different day/night temperature (DT/NT) environments to determine the anatomical basis for differential responses of stem elongation to DT and NT. Lilium plants were forced in 1986 and 1987 under 25 and 12 different DT/NT environments, respectively, with temperatures ranging from 14 to 30°C. Parenchyma and epidermal cell length and width were measured in stem tissue (1987) and epidermal cell length and width were measured in leaf tissue (1986). Total cell number per internode and vertical cell number per internode were calculated. Stem parenchyma and stem and leaf epidermal cell length increased linearly as the difference (DIF) between DT and NT increased (DIF = DT - NT), i.e. as DT increased relative to NT. DIF had no effect on stem parenchyma width, stem and leaf epidermal cell width, or cell number per internode. Data suggested that stem elongation responses to DIF are elicited primarily through effects on cell elongation and not division.


Polianthes Pictures

Chang: Gibberellins in relation to flowering in Polianthes tuberosa (2001)

Huang: Tuberoses and Polyamines (2004)


Sprenger: Hemerocallis Hybrids (1903)

Stout: Sterility and fertility in Hemerocallis. Torreya, 21(4): 57-62 (July-Aug 1921)

Stout: The Fulvous Daylily part 1 (1929)

Stout: The Fulvous Daylily part 1I (1929)

Stout: Daylilies; the wild species and garden clones (1934)

Traub: Colchicine poisoning, Hemerocallis (1949)

Traub: Colchicine induced mutation in Hemerocallis

Lester: Hemerocallis x Hosta ? (1963)

Buck: Injection Method, Colchicine and Hemerocallis (1969)

Misc. Geophytes

Cobo (1653): The Amancaes (Peruvian Amaryllids)

Hamid et al: Pancratium, salt tolerance (2003)

Arnott: Chionoscillas (1899)

Herbert: Crocus (1846, 1847)

Koch: Crocus species (1868)

Beaton: Hardy and Half-hardy Bulbs (1852-1853)

Beaton: Amaryllids (1859)

Millington: Second bloom from Calla (1878)

Kersten: Propagating Hyacinths (1889)

Morse: Canna 'Mrs. Kate Gray' (1901, 1902)

Ugent et al.: Ancient cultivation of Canna in Peru (1984)

Burbank: Camassias (1914)

Gloxinia and relatives

Weathers: Gesnera x Gloxinia (1895)

Misc. pictures and descriptions

Hill: Sprekelia & Brunsvigia (1759)

Hill: Quicksilver from Cinnabar (1746)

Cornut (1635)

Hill: Amaryllis: Crimson Oriental, Yellow Autumnal, etc. (1757)

Hernandez: White Sea Narcissus & Yellow relative (1649)

Exotic Sea Daffodil

Schaffner: Plants with Contractile Roots (1903)