Amaryllis and Other Geophytes


Luyten: Hot Water Treatment for Amaryllis (1945)

Warren: Easy Propagaation

O'Rourke et al.: Micropropagation of Hippeastrum (1991)

Schulz: Hardgrove Shock Treatment for Amaryllis (1954)

Robert Sweet: Raising Amaryllis (1839)

Lindsted: Wintering Amaryllis in Northern Gardens (1961)

Doane: An Amaryllis Story (1902) Avaryllis

Spencer: Treatment of Amaryllis for autumn bloom (1846)

Munnikhuysen: Charcoal for "red rust" on Amaryllis (1900)

Wright: Amaryllises all the year round (1892)

Amaryllis Species

Amaryllis Pictures, Species and Cultivars

Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) de la Región del Madidi

Traub: Key to the Amaryllis species and subgenera (1958)

Gardner: Vegetation of Diamond & Gold districts, Minas Geraes, Brazil (1848)

Worsley: Hippeastrum barbatum (1928)

Unknown - possibly solandriflorum

Baldwin & Speese: Hippeastrum solandriflorum chromosomes (1947)

Bolivian Amaryllis species (1992)

Ker: A Review of the Genus Amaryllis (1817)

Steudel: Amaryllis species and synonyms (1821)

Sessé & Mociño: Amaryllis species in Mexico (1887)

Lindley: Amaryllis solandraeflora & vittata (1821)

Curtis: Amaryllis reginae (1799)

Worsley: The Genus Hippeastrum (1896)

Baker: Hippeastrum andreanum (1880)

Lindley: Double Amaryllis (1825)

Nehrling: The Amaryllis (1886)

Nehrling: The Hippeastrums—Species and Varieties (1897)

Stout: The synflorescence of Amaryllis hybrids (1944)

Salisbury: Amaryllideae (1866)

Amaryllis History

The Red Lily Amaryllis Belladonna L.

Saunders: Guernsey Lily (Nerine sarniensis)

Hibberd: Lecture on the Amaryllis (1883)


Hippeastrum reticulatum hybrids (1888)

Clint: Sprekelia breeding (1962)

O'Brien: Hippeastrum 'Hindenley' (1903)

Bonavia: The Amaryllis (1884)

Bonavia: Hybrid Amaryllis (1884)

Douglas: The Amaryllis (1888)

Douglas: Raising New Varieties of Amaryllis (1888)

Douglas: Hippeastrums (1890)

Veitch: Hippeastrums (1890)

Bonavia: Something About Hippeastrums (1904)

Amaryllis x carnarvonia (= Vittata x Johnsoni)

Gowen: On the Production of a Hybrid Amaryllis (1821)

Gowen: Description of Amaryllis Psittacina-Johnsoni (1823)

Gowen: Hybrid Amaryllis, between vittata and Regina-vittata (1823)

Lindley (Trans Roy Hort Soc, 1923) Amaryllis regina-vittata

Anonymous: Amaryllis vittata rubra (1854)

George Washington Carver & Amaryllis

Hippeastrum reticulatum & stylosum (1896, 1936)

Douglas, Miles, Bonavia: Hippeastrum Hybrids (1906)

Beaton: On Amaryllids (1850)

Beaton: The Genus Hippeastrum (1862)

Anderson: Amaryllis Varieties (1856)

Glover: Australian Hipp Hybrids (1965)

Nelson: Amaryllis breeding stock (1955)

Nelson: Amaryllis Hybrids (1968)

Nelson: Amaryllis Breeding Records (1968)

Bradley: Hybridizing in Australia (1906)

Hannibal: Notes on Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) (1946)

Durrett's reblooming amaryllises (1881)

Bigeneric hybrids

(various): x Amarine tubergenii 'Fletcheri'

Chapman: Hippeastrum x Clivia, Hippeastrum x Agapanthus ?

Worsley: Hippeastrum x Crinum? (1906)

Pradham: Amaryllis [Hippeastrum] x Sprekelia (1969)

Burbank: Amaryllis [Hippeastrum] x Sprekelia (1914)

Chapman: Vallota x Hippeastrum (1907)

Cage: Sprekelia x Habranthus (1969, 1972)

Clint: Habranthus x Zephyranthes (1971)

Schulz: Hippeastrum x Zephyranthes (1954)

Van Tress: Hippeastrum and Lycoris - Hippecoris Garfieldii (1936)

Vallota bigeneric hybrids (1939)

Nix: Vallota-Belladonna hybrids (1892)

Hudson: Vallota-Amaryllis hybrids (1910)

McNeil's Clivia 'Four Marys' (Clivia miniata x Crinum powellii ?)

Kerslake: Hybrids in New South Wales (1906)
Crinum yemense x Hymenocallis macrostephana crossed without any difficulty, as did also Brunsvigia Baptisii x Lycoris aurea. But the most interesting was that effected between an unnamed variety of Hippeastrum and Agapanthus umbellatus. The Hippeastrum flowers here in October and November, but in favourable seasons a stray scape is again thrown up in January and February. It was one of these that made this cross possible; otherwise the pollen of Agapanthus would have to be preserved for a period of ten or eleven months, which is far too long. There were four flowers on the scape when they were pollinated with Agapanthus umbellatus: of these four, one was injured by being too early emasculated, a week before they reached the receptive stage (probably through being produced in the off season). Two flowers perished, but the remaining one produced a full pod of seeds. At this stage, though the seeds were of normal appearance I doubted their fertility. However, they were sown, and nine plants resulted. Three died in the seed pan; but six still remain, which have not yet reached the flowering stage, but are strong and healthy and appear to be evergreen. This being a case of overlapping botanical divisions I never intended divulging it until the plants had flowered. But a recent report that a gentleman near Sydney had effected the same cross has led me to believe that there is nothing remarkable about it.

Misc. Bigenerics

Burbank: Tigridias & Ferrarias (1914)

Orpet: Bigeneric Orchid Hybrids (1900)

Orpet: Bigeneric Orchid Hybrids (1901)

Urceocharis clibrani (Eucharis grandiflora x Urceolina aurea) (1891)

Urceocharis clibrani (Eucharis grandiflora x Urceolina aurea) (1906)


Amaryllis Pictures

Loddiges Botanical Cabinet - Amaryllis pictures

Cape Belladonna and Hybrids

xAmarine tubergenii 'Kevin Walters'

xAmarine tubergenii 'Zwanenburg'

Hannibal: Origin of Amarygias

Lykos: Amarygia Breeding (2003)

Worsley: A. blanda, pseudo-blanda and rubra major (1928)

Worsley: Brunsdonnas (1932)

Lindley: Amaryllis blanda

Amaryllis paradisicola

Beaton: Crossing Amaryllids (1849)

Watson: Arbuckle's Amaryllis kewensis (1892)

Watson: Brunsdonna — Kew variety (1898)

Watson, Elwes: Kew Belladonna (1909)

Hannibal 'Rubra Bicolour' Matching Clifford Specimen

Van Tubergen: Brunsdonna (1909)

Worsley: Hybridization in Amarylleae (1901)

Worsley: Seed germination, bulb extension, Amaryllids (1903)

Worsley: Amaryllis Parkeri (1909)

Worsley: Amaryllis baptiste var alba (1932)

Worsley: The Brunsdonnas - Parkeri alba (1926)

Worsley: Amaryllis and bigeneric hybrids (1932)

Watson: Bigenerics (1893)

Watson: Vallota x Amaryllis (1900)

Beaton: Brunsvigia x Vallota hybrids (1850)

Vallota purpurea var. alba (1904)

Bradley (1906): "Amaryllis Belladonna x Lycoris aurea gives a plant generally like A. Belladonna: the flowers are smaller and have the wavy divisions of perianth of a Lycoris, but not to the same extent."

Worsley (1932): "Dr. Ragioneri of Florence has placed on record hybrids between Amaryllis and Lycoris, but I have seen no record of verification by the flowering of these seedlings."

Dickerson: Lycorillis (Lycoris x Belladonna)

Bidwill: Amaryllid Hybrids Down Under (1850)


Brunsvigia species pictures

Dijk: Brunsvigia information


Crinum Pictures, Species and Cultivars

Herbert: Delayed fertility in Crinum

Rudbeck: Lilionarcissus zeilanicus latifolius (1701)

Rumpf: Tulipa Javana & Radix Toxicaria (1741)

Rottböll: Crinum biflorum, zeilanicum (1773)

Burbank: Crinums (1912)

Hannibal: Crinum flacidum, bulbispermum, pedunculatum (1961)


HWC: Propagating Hyacinths (1923)


Pink Agapanthua Pics

Arnot (1906, 1907) Hardy Agapanthus Mooreanus

Snoeijer: Agapanthus inapertus (2004)


Gladiolus cruentus (1869)

Dombrain: Charcoal and Gladiolus (1872)

Van Fleet: Gladiolus Breeding (1902)

Gladiolus atro-violaceus (1907)

Kunderd: Ruffled Gladioli (1908)

Hottes: Garden Gladioli (1915)

Beal & Hottes: Gladiolus Studies (1916)

C.M.S. (1917): A great Hybridizing "Secret." "Stale pistil fertilized with fresh pollen will produce plants and flowers larger than normal." "Fresh pistil crossed with stale pollen will produce plants and flowers smaller than normal."

McLean: Inheritance and Chromosomes in Glads (1931)

McLean: The inheritance of fragrance in Gladiolus species crosses (1933)

McLean: Herbert's Gladiolus x Fragrans (1938)

Bamford: Gladiolus Hybrids (1941)

Buell: Exotic Gladioli (1972)

Watsonia descriptions (Australia)


Griffiths: Lilium concolor x tenuifolium (1927)

Various authors: Lilium testaceum

Arber: Leaf-base phyllodes among Liliaceae (1920)

Green: Anomalous Lily Bulbils (1914)

Russell: Bulbs and seeds from Lilium candidum stems (1835)

Stout: Sterility in Lilies (1922)

Tubergen: Hybrid Lily, Hymenocallis, Glad, Iris (1906)

Withers: Overcoming Incompatibility (Lilies) 1975

Jeffrey: Seeds on horseradish and Lilium candidum (1915)


Shu: Identification of Lycoris aurea populations (2012)

Caldwell: Lycoris breeding; L. "sperryi" (1962)

Caldwell: Seeds on Lycoris squamigera (1979)

Beaton: Lycoris and other bulbs (1853)

Lycoris squamigera (1890)

Shii et al.: Lycoris aurea x radiata (1997)

Ogawa, et al.: Genome Differentiation in Lycoris Species (2005)

Tarumoto et al.: Lycoris hybrids (2006)

He et al.: Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba (2011)

Madison: Sprouting Lycoris Seeds

Lycoris pictures and links

Misc. plants

Beaton: Hardy and Half-hardy Bulbs (1852-1853)

Millington: Second bloom from Calla (1878)

Kersten: Propagating Hyacinths (1889)

Morse: Canna 'Mrs. Kate Gray' (1901, 1902)

Gloxinia and relatives

Weathers: Gesnera x Gloxinia (1895)

Sprenger: Hemerocallis Hybrids (1903)

Lester: Hemerocallis x Hosta ? (1963)

Misc. Belladonnas

Ferrari: False Donna Bella

Ferrari: True Donna Bella

Another Belladonna - Sprekelia formosissima

Bradley: Bella Donna from Portugal (1728)

Buc'hoz: Belledame, du jardin de Trianon (1770)

Ehret's Crinum scabrum

Bauer Bros., Walter: Two Belladonnas (c. 1778, c. 1797)

Lamarck: La Belladonne jaune d'Afrique (1783)

Misc. pictures and descriptions

Hill: Sprekelia & Brunsvigia (1759)

Cornut: Sisyrinchium Indicum Amaryllis capensis L. (1635)

Hill: Amaryllis: Crimson Oriental, Yellow Autumnal, etc. (1757)

Hernandez: White Sea Narcissus & Yellow relative (1649)

Exotic Sea Daffodil

Schaffner: Plants with Contractile Roots (1903)