Species Plantarum facsimile edition, Ray Society
"In the last edition of this work [7th], the author adopted in a great measure the system of Linnæusthe author has now applied Linnæus's method entirely, except in such particulars, where the Doctor not having had an opportunity of seeing the plants growing, they are ranged by him in the wrong classes."
The Characters are;
It hath an oblong compressed spatha, (or sheath) which incloses the flower-buds, and open side ways, becomes dry, and is permanent; the flower hath six spear-shaped petals. In the center is situated the roundish furrowed germen, supporting a slender style, crowned with a three-cornered stigma; this is attended by six awl-shaped stamina, which are crowned with incumbent summits. After the flower is past, the germen becomes an oval capsule, opening in three parts, having three cells, which contain round seeds. This genus is ranged by Dr. Linnæus in the first section of his sixth class of plants, entitled Hexandria Monogynia, from the flower having six stamina and one style.
1. AMARYLLIS (Lutea) spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ æquali, staminibus declinatis. Lin. Sp. 420. Lily Daffodil with a single flower in each spatha, which is equal, and the stamina declined. Lilio Narcissus luteus autumnalis major. Tourn. Inst. 386. Commonly called autumnal Narcissus. [Sternbergia lutea]
The first sort is very hardy, and increases very fast by offsets. The season for transplanting these roots is any time from May to the end of July, when their leaves are decayed, after which it will be too late to remove them; for they will begin to push out new fibres by the middle of August, or sooner if the season be moist, and many times they flower the beginning of September; so that if they are transplanted, it will spoil their flowering. This plant will grow in any soil or situation; but it will thrive best in a fresh, light, dry soil, and in an open situation; I.e. not under the dripping of trees, nor too near walls. It is commonly called by the gardeners, the Yellow Autumnal Narcissus, &c. and is usually sold by them with Colchicums, for autumnal ornaments to gardens; for which purpose this is a pretty plant, as it will frequently keep flowering from the beginning of September to the middle of November, provided the frost is not so severe as to destroy the flowers; for although there is but one flower in each cover, yet there is a succession of flowers from the same root, especially when they are suffered to remain three or four years unremoved. The flowers seldom rise above three or four inches high; they are shaped somewhat like the flowers of the large yellow Crocus; the green leaves come up at the same time, like the Saffron, and after the flowers are past, the leaves increase all the winter. The roots are bulbous, and shaped like those of the Narcissus, so are proper ornaments for such borders as are planted with Cyclamens, Saffron, Autumnal Crocus, Colchicums, and such low autumnal flowers.
2. AMARYLLIS (Atamasco) spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ æquali, pistillo declinato. Hort. Cliff. 135. Lily Daffodil with a single flower in each sheath, which has equal petals, and the pointal declining. Lilio Narcissus Indicus pumilus monanthos albus. Mor. Hist. 266. Commonly called Atamusco Lily. [Zephyranthes atamasco]
The second sort is a native of Virginia and Carolina, in which countries it grows very plentifully in the fields and woods, where it makes a beautiful appearance when it is in flower. The flowers of this sort are produced single, and their first appearance have a fine Carnation colour on their outside; but fades away to a pale, or almost white, before the flowers decay. This plant is so hardy, as to thrive in the open air in England, provided the roots are planted in a warm situation, and on a dry soil; it may be propagated by offsets from the roots. The flowers of this sort are almost as large as those of the small Orange Lily, but do not grow above six or eight inches high; they appear the latter end of May, or beginning of June, and sometimes it flowers in August in this country.
3. AMARYLLIS (Formosissima) spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ inæquali, petalis tribus genitalibusque declinatis. Hort. Cliff. 135. Lily Daffodil with one flower in each cover, which has unequal petals, and the stamina and style are declined. Lilio Narcissus Jacobæus flore sanguineo nutante. Hort. Elth. 195. Commonly called Jacobæa Lily. [Sprekelia formosissima]
The third sort, which is commonly called Jacobæa Lily, is now become pretty common in the curious gardens of England, the roots sending forth plenty of offsets, especially when they are kept in a moderate warmth in winter: for the roots of this kind will live in a good green-house, or may be preserved through the winter under a common hot-bed frame; but then they will not flower so often, nor send out so many offsets, as when they are placed in a moderate stove in winter. This will produce its flowers two or three times in a year, and is not regular to any season; but from March to the beginning of September, the flowers will be produced when the roots are in vigour. The stems of these flowers are produced from the sides of the bulbs, so that after the flowers produced on one side are decayed, there is another stalk arises from the other side of the bulb; but there is no more than one flower produced on the same stalk. The flowers are large, and of a very deep red; the under petals, or flower-leaves, are very large, and the whole flower stands nodding on one side of the stalk, making a beautiful appearance.
It is propagated by offsets, which may be taken off every year; the best time to shift and part these roots is in August, that they may take good root before winter; in doing this, there should be care taken not to break off the fibres from their roots. They should be planted in pots of a middling size, filled with light kitchen-garden earth; and if they are kept in a moderate degree of warmth, they will produce their flowers in plenty, and the roots will make great increase.
4 AMARYLLIS (Sarniensis) spathâ multiflorâ, corollis revolutis genitalibus. Hort. Upsal. 75. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover; the petals equal, spread open, and turned backward, with broken stamina, commonly called Guernsey Lily. [Nerine sarniensis]
The fourth sort is supposed to come originally from Japan, but has been many years cultivated in the gardens of Guernsey and Jersey; in both which places they seem to thrive as well as if it was their native country; and from those islands their roots are sent annually to the curious in most parts of Europe, and are commonly called Guernsey Lilies. The roots of this plant are generally brought over in June and July; but the sooner they are taken out of the ground after their leaves decay, they are the better: for although the roots which are taken up when their flower-stems begin to appear, will flower, yet their flowers will not be so large, nor will their roots be near so good after, as those which were removed before they had sent out fresh fibres.
When these roots come over, they should be planted in pots filled with fresh, light, sandy earth, mixed with a little very rotten dung, and placed in a warm situation, observing now and then to refresh the earth with water: but by no means let them have too much wet, which would rot their roots, especially before they come up. About the middle of September, such of the roots as are strong enough to flower, will begin to shew the bud of their flower-stem (which is commonly of a red colour); therefore you should remove these pots into a situation where they may have the full benefit of the sun, and may be sheltered from strong winds: but by no means place them too near a wall, nor under glasses, which would draw them up weak, and render them less beautiful. At this season they should be gently refreshed with water, if the weather be warm and dry; but if it should prove very wet, they should be screened from it. When the flowers begin to open, the pots should be removed under shelter, to prevent the flowers from being injured by too much wet: but they must not be kept too close, nor placed in a situation too warm, which would occasion their colour to be less lively, and hasten their decay. The flowers of this plant will continue in beauty (if rightly managed) a full month; and although they have no scent, yet, for the richness of their colour, they are justly esteemed in the first rank of the flowery tribe. After the flowers are decayed, the green leaves will begin to shoot forth in length, and if sheltered from severe cold, will continue growing all the winter; but they must have as much free air as possible in mild weather, and covered only in great rains or frost; for which purpose, a common hot-bed frame is the properest shelter for them; under which if they are placed, the glasses may be taken off constantly every day in dry open weather, which will encourage the leaves to grow strong and broad; whereas when they are placed in a green-house, or not exposed to the open air, they will grow long and slender, and have a pale weak aspect, whereby the roots will become weak, so that it seldom happens that they produce flowers under such management.
These roots should be transplanted every fourth or fifth year toward the latter end of June, or beginning of July, and planted into fresh earth (but they should not be oftener removed, for that would retard their flowering.) The offsets should also be taken off, and planted into several pots, which, in three years time, will produce flowers; so that after a person is once stocked with these roots, they may increase them, so as to have a supply of blowing roots, without being of the trouble or expence of sending to Guernsey every year for fresh roots; and the roots preserved here will flower stronger than those which are usually brought from thence, for the inhabitants of those islands are not very curious in cultivating them. Their usual method is to plant them at a great distance in a bed of common earth, where they let them remain for many years; in which time they produce such a number of offsets, that many times one single cluster has contained above a hundred roots; by which means those which grow on the inside are so much compressed by the outer roots, that they are perfectly flatted; and from the number of roots growing in each cluster, they are all rendered weak, and unfit to produce such large stems of flowers, as those which have grown single, and are of a spherical figure.
5. AMARYLLIS (Regina) spathâ multiflorâ, corollis campanulatis æqualibus, genitalibus declinatis. Hort. Cliff. 135. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover, the petals equal and bell-shaped, and the stamina declined. Lilio Narcissus polyanthos flore incarnato, fundo ex luteo albescente. Sloane. Cat. Jam. 115. commonly called Belladonna Lily. [Brunsvigia rosea (Lam.) Hannibal]
The fifth sort, which is called the Belladonna Lily, was brought to England from Portugal, where the gardens some years ago abounded with these flowers; for the roots increase very fast, especially in such countries where they live in the open air. The gardens in Italy have also great quantities of these flowers, especially about Florence; where, at the season of their flowering, they are commonly sold in the markets to adorn their rooms; the Italians call it Narcissus Belladonna. This plant thrives so well in Italy, and although it does not flower until August, yet it commonly produces good seeds in that country, from which they propagate them in great plenty; but with us they require more care, otherwise they cannot be preserved. The roots of this sort were generally planted in pots, and placed under a hot-bed frame, to screen them from the frost in winter; for as their green leaves come out in autumn, and continue growing all the winter, so when they are exposed to the frost, whereby their leaves are killed, the roots will be in danger of perishing; but if they should survive, they will be greatly weakened by it. With this culture the roots were preserved, but they did not constantly flower, nor put out many offsets; and of late years the roots have been scarce in Portugal, for the Jacobæa Lily having been introduced into that country, has supplanted the other, in most gardens, so that the roots which have been brought from thence of late years for the Belladonna Lily, have proved the Jacobæa Lily.
6. AMARYLLIS (Belladonna) spathâ multiflorâ corollis campanulatis marginibus reflexis genitalibus declinatis. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover, the petals equal and bell-shaped, their borders turning backward, and declining stamina. Lilium Americanum puniceo flore, Belladonna dictum. Par. Bat. 194. commonly called Mexican Lily. [Note: "æqualibus" is omitted from the Latin description, but "Petals equal" is retained in the English translation.] [Amaryllis Belladonna L. non auct.]
The sixth sort, which is commonly called the Mexican Lily, is not so hardy as the former sort [Jacobæa], so must be placed in a warm stove; and if the pots are plunged into a hot-bed of tanners bark, the roots will thrive better, and the flowers will be strong. This is increased by offsets, as the others of this tribe; and flowers usually the beginning of spring, when it makes a fine appearance in the stove: the flower-stems of this sort, seldom rise more than one foot high, each stem supports two, three, or four flowers, rarely more than that number. The flowers are large, and of a bright copper colour, inclining to red; the spatha, or sheath, which covers the buds before they open, divides into two parts to the bottom, standing on each side the umbel of flowers, joined to the small foot-stalks.
7. AMARYLLIS (Longifolia) spathâ multiflorâ, corollis campanulatis æqualibus, scapo compresso longitudini umbellæ. Flor. Leyd. 36. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover, the petals equal, and the cover compressed the length of the umbel. Lilium Africanum humile longissimus foliis polyanthos saturato colore purpurascens. Par. Bat. 195. [Cybistetes longifolia]
The seventh and ninth sorts are more hardy, and may be treated in the same manner as the Jacobæa Lily; these will increase pretty fast by offsets, when they are properly managed, especially the ninth, which sends out many offsets, so as to fill the pots with roots, but it seldom flowers in England. The leaves of this are long and narrow, not much unlike those of the Snowdrop. The petals of the flower turn back like those of the Guernsey Lily, but are of a lighter colour, rather inclining to scarlet; the roots of this are small. The seventh sort usually flowers in winter, if the pots are placed in a moderate stove; and as at that season there are few flowers in the open air, these are more valuable on that account.
I received roots of both these sorts from the Cape of Good Hope, which have succeeded in the Chelsea garden. The seventh sort produces a great number of flowers in each umbel, which are of a deep purple colour, but the stalk which supports them, rarely rises more than three or four inches high; these flowers appear in December. The roots of this sort are very large, and the leaves are long, but narrow.
8. AMARYLLIS (Zeylanica) spathâ multiflorâ corollis campanulatis æqualibus, genitalibus declinatis scapo tereti ancipiti. Flor. Leyd. 36. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover, the petals equal, and the cover opening two ways. Lilio Narcissus Zeylanicus latifolius flore niveo externê lineâ purpureâ striato. Hort. Amst. 1. 73. commonly called the Ceylon Lily. [Crinum zeylanicum]
The eighth sort is also tender, and must be treated in the same manner as the sixth; this is more common in the gardens in Holland than in this country, and as it is a plant which increases but slowly, will not be very common here. This flowers usually in June and July, and sometimes the same root will flower again in autumn; for if the pots are plunged into a bed of tanners bark, the roots generally flower twice every year, but the flowers are not of long duration. This grows naturally in the West-Indies, from whence I have received roots and seeds.
9. AMARYLLIS (Ciliaris) spathâ multiflorâ, foliis ciliatis.Flor. Leyd. 37. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in one cover, and the edges of the leaves hairy. Lilium Narcissus sphæricus Æthiopicus foliis guttatis & cilii instar pilosis. Pluk. Alm. 220. commonly called the African Scarlet Lily.[Boophane ciliaris]
10. AMARYLLIS (Vernalis) spathâ uniflorâ, corollâ æquali, staminibus erectis. Lily Daffodil with one flower in a cover, with equal petals, and erect stamina. Lilio Narcissus luteus vernus. Tourn. Inst. 386. commonly called Spring yellow Lily Narcissus. [Sternbergia vernalis]
The tenth sort is more rare in England than any of the other, at present. It was formerly in several curious gardens, but as it flowers at a season when there are so many finer sorts in beauty, it was neglected and cast out of the gardens, whereby it is almost lost in England: it grows naturally in Spain and Portugal, where it flowers early in January. This is as hardy as the first sort, and may be planted in the open borders, and treated in the same manner, excepting that this will not lose its leaves so soon, so should not be taken out of the ground to transplant, till the end of July, or beginning of August. It flowers in April or the beginning of May, but is not of long duration.
11. AMARYLLIS (Orientalis) spathâ multiflorâ corollis inæqualibus, foliis linguiformibus. Buttn. 36. Lily Daffodil with many flowers in a cover, whose petals are unequal, and leaves shaped like a tongue. Lilio Narcissus Indicus maximus sphæricus floribus plurimis rubris liliaceis. Mor. Hist. 2. 268. Brunswigia of Dr. Heister. [Brunsvigia orientalis]
The eleventh sort is figured by Ferrarius in his Garden of Flowers, as also by Morrison in his History of Plants; but Dr. Heister has separated this from the genus, and has constituted a new genus by the title of Brunswigia, in honour of the duke of Brunswic. But although the shape of the flowers in this plant are different from most of the others of this genus, yet as there is uniformity in the characteristic notes of the genus, it should not be separated; for the Jacobæa Lily differs in the form of its flowers, from the other species, full as much as this, therefore might for the same reason be separated from this genus.
This grows naturally at the Cape of Good Hope, from whence I have received the roots, which have succeeded in the Chelsea garden. The bulbs of this sort are large and almost round, the leaves are long, broad, and rounded at their extremities; these spread two ways on the surface of the ground; and do not come up till after the flower-stem appears, which is generally in November; and after the flowers are past, the leaves increase till spring, and in May they begin to decay, so that from the middle of June to October, the roots are entirely naked of leaves.
12. AMARYLLIS (Capensis) spathâ triflorâ corollis campanulatis æqualibus genitalibus declinatis. Lily Daffodil with three flowers in each cover, whose petals are equal and bell-shaped, with declining stamina. [Crinum longifolium]
The twelfth sort is also a native of Africa, I received roots of this from the Cape of Good Hope with the former. This produces its flowers in February and March. The stems of this rise near two feet high, and have commonly but three flowers inclosed in each sheath, or cover. The flowers are as large as those of the Belladonna Lily, and are of the same form, growing erect, but of a deeper red colour; the leaves are long and narrow, and have a hollow furrow on their upper side, where there is a pale stripe running the length of the leaves, and are very like those of the American Pancratium. These leaves decay in summer, about the same time as those of the former, and appear again at the same season.
Both these sorts may be treated in the same manner, as hath been directed for the Jacobæa Lily, with this difference only, of placing these in winter in a stove, where there is a moderate share of warmth, for the roots of these will not endure so much cold as those, nor should they have so much water given them. The best time to transplant these roots is about the beginning of August, when their leaves are quite decayed, before they put out new fibres, for it will be very improper to remove them afterwards.
All these bulbous-rooted flowers delight in a loose sandy earth, mixed with good kitchen-mould; and in the culture of them there should be but little water given them at those times when their leaves decay, and the roots are not in a growing state, for much moisture at that time will often cause them to rot; but when they are growing, and putting out their flower-stems, they should be frequently refreshed with water, but not given in too great quantities at a time. The pots, with the tender sorts, should constantly be kept in the stove; and in summer they should have as much free air as possible; for although some of these sorts may be kept abroad in summer, yet those do not thrive so well, nor flower so constantly, as those which are treated in the manner here described
Sloane described a plant native to Barbados and Jamaica with wide-open flowers and a hollow stalk: Hippeastrum puniceum. In 1731 and 1741 Miller had Sloane's phrase-name attached to the genuine West Indies Red Lily. By 1755, however, the name had been shifted to the pink Belladonna lily. Miller doubted that this pink Belladonna originated in the West Indies, but continued to apply Sloane's and the Hort. Cliff. phrase-names names to the Cape Belladonna.
Curiously, in 1754 Miller identified the West Indies plant as "AMARYLLIS spatha multiflora, foliis ovato-oblongis obtusis. Flor. Leyd.", which Linnaeus had already named Amaryllis orientalis.
The confusion surrounding Amaryllis belladonna was apparently revived by George Ehret (1744) who labeled a painting of the Cape Belladonna as "Lilio-narcissus Americanus Belladona dictus par. bat." This is both the wrong name and the wrong source. Hermann named the American plant "Lilium Americanum, puniceo flore, Bella donna dictum." It was Plukenet who changed the name to "Lilio-narcissus". The Cape Belladonna is neither. Miller's misprinted 1760 edition of Figures... placed Hermann's phrase name with a picture of a Cape Belladonna, inadvertently indicating that this was Douglass's "Lilium Reginae". This provided Linnaeus with a name for this speciesAmaryllis reginae. Linnaeus could not read English.
Lamarck (1783) correctly returned the Hermann reference (Par. Bat. 194.) to the Scarlet Belladonna, which he renamed Amaryllis punicea, along with the Sloane and Hortus Cliffortianus phrase-names. He also noted that his Amaryllis rosea was apparently the same as Linnaeus's Amaryllis reginae.
Amaryllis capensis Miller, is a Crinum, and not the plant named by Linnaeus, which is now Pauridia capensis (L) Snijman & Kocyan.