LILIO-NARCISSUS (is so call'd, because it resembles both these Plants) Lily-Daffodil.
The Characters are;
It hath a coated, bulbous Root; the Flower is shap'd like a Lily, consisting of six Leaves, and is cover'd with a membranaceous Sheath like the Narcissus; the Fruit succeeds the Flower in the same Form of the Narcissus, is oblong or roundish, and divided into three Cells, which are fill'd with roundish Seeds.
The Species are;
1) Lilio-Narcissus; Indicus, saturato colore purpurascens. Mor. Hist. The Lily-Daffodil, of a deep purple-colour. [Belladonnaformos Italicus, Barrelier]
2) Lilio-Narcissus; Indicus, flore albo, exterius rubente. Tourn. Indian Lily-Daffodil, with a white flower, which is reddish on the out-side. [Atamasco]
3) Lilio-Narcissus; polyanthos, flore incarnato, fundo ex luteo albescente. Sloane, Cat. Many-flowered Lily-Daffodil with a carnation flower, having a whitish yellow bottom, commonly called in the West Indies, Red Lily. [Amaryllis belladonna Linn.]
4) Lilio-Narcissus; Japonicus, rutilo flore. Mor. Hist. The Japan Lily-Daffodil, commonly called the Guernsey Lily. [Nerine sarniensis]
When these Roots come over they should be planted in Pots filled with fresh, light, sandy Earth, mix'd with a little very rotten Dung, and placed in a warm Situation, observing now and then to refresh the Earth with Water; but by no means let them have too much Wet, which would rot their Roots, especially before they come up: About the Middle of August, such of the Roots as are strong enough to flower, will begin to shew the Bud of their Flower-stem (which is commonly of a red Colour) therefore you should remove these Pots into a Situation where they may have the full Benefit of the Sun, and may be shelter'd from strong Winds; but by no means plant them too near a Wall, nor under Glass, which would draw them up weak, and render them less beautiful: At this Season they should be gently refresh'd with Water, if the Weather be warm and dry; but if it should prove very wet, they should be screen'd from it.
When the Flowers begin to open, the Pots should be removed under shelter, to prevent the Flowers from being injured by too much Wet; but they must not be kept too close, nor placed in a Situation too warm, which would occasion their Colour to be less lively, and hasten their Decay. The Flowers of this Plant will continue in Beauty (if rightly manag'd) a full Month, and though they have no Scent, yet for the Richness of their Color, they are justly esteemed in the first Rank of the Flowery Race.
After the flowers are decay'd, the Green Leaves will begin to shoot forth in Length, and if shelter'd from severe Cold, will continue growing all the Winter; but they must have as much free Air as possible in mild Weather, and be cover'd only in great Rains or Frosts, for which Purpose a common Hot-bed Frame is the properest Shelter for them, under which if they are placed, the Glasses may be taken off constantly every Day in dry open Weather, which will encourage the Leaves to grow strong and broad, whereas when they are placed in a Green-house, or not exposed to the open Air, they will grow long and slender, and have a pale, weak Aspect, whereby the Roots will become weak, so that it seldom happens that they produce Flowers under such Management.
These Roots should be transplanted every other Year toward the latter End of June, or the Beginning of July, and planted into fresh Earth (but they should not be oftener removed for that would retard their Flowering). The Off-sets should also be taken off and planted into separate Pots, which in three Years time will produce Flowers, so that after a Person is once stock'd with these Roots, they may increase them, so as to have a Supply of blowing Roots, without being at the Trouble or Expence of sending to Guernsey every Year for fresh Roots; and the Roots preserved here, will flower stronger than those which are usually brought from thence, for the Inhabitants of those Islands are not very curious in cultivating these Roots: Their usual Method is to plant them at a great Distance in a Bed of common Earth, where they let them remain for many Years, in which time they produce such a Number of Off-sets, that many times one single Cluster has contain'd above a Hundred Roots; by which means those which grow on the Inside, are so much compressed by the outer Roots, that they are perfectly flatted, and from the Number of Roots they are all rendered weak, and so unfit to produce such large Stems of Flowers, as those which have grown single and are of a spherical Figure.
But when a Person has got a large Number of these Roots, it will be troublesome to preserve them in Pots, therefore you should prepare a Bed of the following Earth, in some well-shelter'd Part of the Garden, viz. take a third Part of fresh Virgin Earth from a Pasture Ground, which is light, then put near an equal Part of Sea Sand, to which you should add rotten Dung and sifted Lime-rubbish of each an equal Quantity: With this Earth (when well mix'd and incorporated) you should make your Bed about a Foot thick, raising it four or five Inches above the Surface of the Ground, if the Situation be dry; but if the Ground be wet, you should raise it eight or nine inches higher: In the Bed about the beginning of July (as was before directed) you should plant the Roots about six Inches asunder each Way, and in the Winter, when the Frost begins, you should either cover the Bed with a Frame, or arch it over and cover it with Matt and Straw, to prevent their Leaves from being pinch'd with Cold; but in the Summer the Covering may be entirely removed, and the Bed kept constantly clear from Weeds, observing to stir the Surface of the Earth now and then, and every Year when the Leaves are decay'd, you should sift a little fresh Earth over the Beds, to encourage the Roots. In this Bed the Roots may remain until they are strong enough to produce Flowers, when they may be taken up and planted into Pots as was before directed, or suffered to remain in the same Bed to flower.
The Roots of these Plants do not flower again the succeeding Year (as in many other Sorts of Bulbs) but if their Bulbs contain two Buds in their Center, as is often the Case, they very often flower twice within the Compass of three Years, after which the same individual Root does not flower again, but only the Off-sets from it.
5) Lilio-Narcissus; folio latissimo, floribus niveis inodoris. Tourn. Lily-Daffodil with a very broad leaf, and snowy flowers without scent.
6) Lilio-Narcissus; Indicus, Narcissus Liliflorus, aureas striis, argenteis pictus, floribus amplis, cernuis gemellis, caule magno cepæ fistuloso. Pluk. Phy. Indian Lily-Daffodil with ample Gold-coloured flowers spotted with silver, and a large hollow stalk. [Amaryllis striata Lamarck]
7) Lilio-Narcissus; Indicus, flore incarnato, lineis albis striato, odorato. Indian Lily-Daffodil, with a carnation flower strip'd with white lines, and of a sweet scent, commonly called the Bella-donna Lily. [Belladonna Italorum, Barrelier]
These Plants do not increase very fast in our Climate, for which Reason a curious Person should be furnished with several Roots of each Kind from Abroad, in order to have some Flowers every Year, for they seldom blow two Years together (as was before observed) nor does the same Root flower more than twice, which is commonly within three Years; so that where there are not six or eight Roots of each Sort, it can't be expected to have Flowers very often, notwithstanding no Art or Care be wanting in their Culture: for in their native Countries they are not constant Flowerers.
8) Lilio-Narcissus; luteus, autumnalis, minor, Tourn. The lesser yellow Autumnal Lily-Narcissus, commonly call'd the Autumnal Narcissus. [Sternbergia lutea]
Mor Hist: A Universal History of Plants, Robert Morison, Oxford, 1679, 1680, 1699
Pluk. Phy: Plukenet Phytographia
Sloane: A Catalogue of the Plants growing in the Island of Jamaica, Dr. Hans Sloane. 1696
Tourn.: Institutions of Botany, Paris, 1716